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Protective effect of vitamin C against the ethanol mediated toxic effects on human brain glial cells. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 14, 2021 at 9:10 AM Comments comments (0)


It is now known that chronic consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol is a major source of social and medical problems. Ethanol-mediated glial cell activation may lead to neuron damage in many ways, including the formation of free radicals and production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Vitamin C (vit-C) is an essential dietary nutrient required as a co-factor for many enzymes and a very efficient antioxidant, protecting cells against free radical-mediated damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of vit-C on glial cell activation and viability against ethanol-mediated toxicity. Human brain astrocyte cells (HA) were exposed to ethanol (0, 50, and 350 mmol/L) for 24 h. We found that glial cells incubated with different concentrations of vit-C increase their vit-C in a dose-dependent manner. HA incubated with 0, 50 or 350 mmol/L of ethanol for up to 24 h showed toxic effects that were proportional to the levels of ethanol in the medium, HA showed increased levels of heat shock protein (Hsp70). However, cells enriched with vit-C before being exposed to ethanol, were better protected against the alcohol-mediated toxicity than non-supplemented cells, and showed significantly lower concentrations of Hsp70. Ethanol also caused increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which were reduced by vit-C. In summary, HA supplemented with vit-C were significantly more resistant to the ethanol-mediated toxic effects.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


Protective effects of silymarin, a milk thistle (Silybium marianum) derivative on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 14, 2021 at 9:05 AM Comments comments (0)


The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to be a major factor in oxidative cell injury. The antioxidant activity or the inhibition of the generation of free radicals is important in providing protection against such hepatic damage. Silymarin, derived from the milk thistle plant, Silybium marianum, has been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. In the present study, the effect of hepatoprotective drug silymarin on body weight and biochemical parameters, particularly, antioxidant status of ethanol-exposed rats was studied and its efficacy was compared with the potent antioxidant, ascorbic acid as well as capacity of hepatic regeneration during abstention. Ethanol, at a dose of 1.6 g/kg body wt/day for 4 wks affected body weight in 16-18 week-old male albino rats (Wistar strain weighing 200-220 g). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased, whereas GSH content, and catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly reduced, on ethanol exposure. These changes were reversed by silybin and ascorbic acid treatment. It was also observed that abstinence from ethanol might help in hepatic regeneration. Silybin showed a significant hepatoprotective activity, but activity was less than that of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, preventive measures were more effective than curative treatment.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Butterbur root extract and music therapy in the prevention of childhood migraine. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)


Background: Migraine is very common in school-aged children, but despite a number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological options for prophylaxis, randomized controlled evidence in children is small. Evidence-based prophylactic drugs may have considerable side effects.


Objective: This study was to assess efficacy of a butterbur root extract (Petadolex) and music therapy in primary school children with migraine.


Design: Prospective, randomized, partly double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.


Methods: Following a 8-week baseline patients were randomized and received either butterbur root extract (n=19), music therapy (n=20) or placebo (n=19) over 12 weeks. All participants received additionally headache education ("treatment as usual") from the baseline onwards. Reduction of headache frequency after treatment (8-week post-treatment) as well as 6 months later (8-week follow-up) was the efficacy variable.


Results: Data analysis of subjects completing the respective study phase showed that during post-treatment, only music therapy was superior to placebo (p=0.005), whereas in the follow-up period both music therapy and butterbur root extract were superior to placebo (p=0.018 and p=0.044, respectively). All groups showed a substantial reduction of attack frequency already during baseline.


Conclusion: Butterbur root extract and music therapy might be superior to placebo and may represent promising treatment approaches in the prophylaxis of paediatric migraine.....

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


Migraine as an inflammatory disorder | Neurology. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 9:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Migraine as an inflammatory disorder

Christian Waeber, Michael A. Moskowitz

First published May 23, 2005, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.64.10_suppl_2.S9



Inflammation is a localized response designed to protect tissues against infection, injury, or disease. The inflammatory response acts to destroy, dilute, or wall off (sequester) both the injurious agent and the injured area. The production and release of chemical agents by cells in the affected tissue result in the four well-known signs of Celsus: pain (dolor), heat (calor), redness (rubor), and swelling (tumor), to which Galen later added loss of function (functio laesa). Histologically, inflammation is characterized by a complex series of events. These include the following: dilatation of arterioles, capillaries, and venules, with increased permeability and blood flow; exudation of fluids, including plasma proteins; and leukocyte migration into the inflammatory focus.


Although pain and inflammation usually go hand in hand, migraine has not classically been considered an inflammatory disease, possibly because it is not obviously associated with heat, redness, and swelling. Instead, a vascular etiology was proposed on the basis of a report that ergotamine tartrate alleviates pain and reduces the amplitude of temporal artery pulsation in migraineurs,1 a small but significantly increased risk for strokes,2 association with vascular malformations,3 and genetic disorders such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL).4 For most of the twentieth century, the prevailing theory of migraine held that pain results from an abnormal dilatation of intracranial blood vessels, leading to mechanical excitation of sensory fibers that innervate these vessels. This “vascular” theory, however, has never been validated. No differences in blood flow velocity exist in vertebral and middle cerebral arteries during and outside migraine attacks,5 and a consistent relationship between vessel caliber, cerebral blood flow, and headache has not been established.6


In recent years, accumulating evidence has shifted the emphasis away from vascular smooth muscle and toward mechanisms related to inflammation within cephalic.......


Anti-Inflammatory Diet in Clinical Practice: A Review. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 9:05 AM Comments comments (0)


Recently, there has been an increase in the research regarding the impact of acute and chronic inflammation on health and disease. Specific foods are now known to exert strong effects on inflammatory pathways within the body. Carefully selecting foods that are anti-inflammatory in nature while avoiding foods that are proinflammatory is central to an anti-inflammatory diet plan. Ultimately, the plan models a pattern of eating that (1) focuses on eating whole, plant-based foods that are rich in healthy fats and phytonutrients and (2) maintains a stable glycemic response.


Keywords: Mediterranean diet; anti-inflammatory diet; fatty acids; glycemic index; nutrition therapy 

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


An aberrant inflammatory response in severe COVID-19. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Severe COVID-19 arises from the convergence of inadequate pre-existing immunity and a host response that damages, rather than repairs, tissues. We outline clinical presentations of COVID-19 that are likely driven by dysregulated host immunity, discuss potential mechanisms underlying pathological responses, and highlight important areas for basic research on this topic.


Main text

The substantial mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been driven largely by an absence of pre-existing immunity that could have provided some protection in vulnerable populations against severe and fatal outcomes. As population immunity increases in some regions, severe COVID-19 has become much less frequent; yet communities lacking protection continue to be ravaged by this disease. In addition to vaccines, having medications that prevent the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that is often central in fatal COVID-19 could dramatically reduce the threat of SARS-CoV-2 as a human pathogen. For this reason, understanding mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 is imperative.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections result in a vast spectrum of clinical outcomes, yet most infections are subclinical or mild, even in the absence of pre-existing immunity. The drivers of severe COVID-19 are not entirely clear, but excessive inflammation is nearly always associated with worsening clinical status in this disease. Interestingly, minimal virus is detected in most organs obtained from autopsies of COVID-19 patients, which may suggest that while the virus triggers an initial disease, it is not the ultimate cause of organ failure. Tissue damage often appears driven by excessive accumulation and activation of effector immune cells. Together, the evidence supports a model in which severe and fatal COVID-19 are driven by an aberrant immune response to the infection that causes pathology rather than restoring health. We propose that this aberrant response is the driver of susceptibility to severe COVID-19 in vulnerable populations.


In addition to severe disease, SARS-CoV-2 infections can result in long-term symptoms (here called “long COVID syndromes”) in a large proportion of cases, regardless of severity of the acute infection. Many of the long-term sequelae are likely to be driven by inflammatory pathways. In this article, we outline clinical presentations of COVID-19 that are likely driven by dysregulated host immune responses and discuss potential mechanisms of disease as well as outstanding clinical and research questions on this important topic.


COVID-19 clinical presentations and syndromes related to inflammation

Severe acute COVID-19 Those who develop severe COVID-19 usually worsen after 7 days of mild-to-moderate symptoms. Many of the sequalae in severe cases, such as ARDS, thromboembolism, arrhythmias, and renal failure, are mediated by inflammation and are central in the mortality associated with COVID-19. Some effective treatments have immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive effects. These include compounds with data showing clinical benefit such as corticosteroids, tocilizumab that inhibits the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), the JAK inhibitor baricitinib, and SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). While we know that severe COVID-19 is associated with an elevation in routine inflammatory markers and an absence of early neutralizing antibodies, we currently lack adequate tools to identify cases that would benefit from early therapeutic interventions. Further, methods are not yet established for guiding treatments based on monitoring of inflammation within affected organs, short of invasive biopsies. As an example, the assessment of lung bronchoscopy fluid for cellular and soluble factors could be very helpful for therapeutic monitoring and potentially for guiding treatment, yet practical methods for dynamic sampling of this fluid and studies correlating results with clinical outcomes are not available. Such methods could also improve our understanding of the mechanisms resulting in long-term sequelae of severe COVID-19.

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children/adolescence.......

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Plant-based and/or pescatarian diet are significantly less likely to develop a moderate to severe COVID-19 infection

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Looking for another reason to carve out meat from your dinners? A new study has suggested those who eat a plant-based and/or pescatarian diet are significantly less likely to develop a moderate to severe COVID-19 infection.

Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)


Background: Obesity and chronic pain are prevalent concerns. Pain is frequently experienced in weight-bearing joints, but is common in other areas of the body as well, suggesting other factors. Poor diet often contributes to obesity and can directly influence the immune system. We have shown that poor diet prolongs recovery from inflammatory injury. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether poor-quality diet-induced consequences could be prevented or reversed by an anti-inflammatory diet (AID).


Methods: A Standard American Diet (SAD) was developed to investigate the effects of poor diet on pain. The SAD includes amounts of refined sugar, carbohydrates and fats that better model the typical American diet, as compared to high-fat diets. We developed an AID to explore whether the effects of the SAD could reverse or whether the AID would enhance recovery prophylactically. The AID was developed using ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, sulforaphane, resveratrol, curcumin and ginseng) with known anti-inflammatory properties. Following 15 weeks of diet [SAD, AID or regular (REG)] exposure, male and female mice underwent inflammatory injury, at which point some animals had their diets switched for the remainder of the study.


Results: Animals who consumed the SAD showed longer recovery compared to the AID- and REG-fed animals. Animals switched off the SAD had faster recovery times, with AID-fed animals recovering as fast as REG-fed animals.


Conclusions: Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. Substitution of SAD with AID or REG promoted faster recovery. These findings suggest diet can be used as a non-pharmacological intervention following injury.


Significance: Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. This study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e. prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e. following an injury).

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Choose your favorite track for your playlists & music library. - Underground Intelligence Music & Multimedia

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 7:45 AM Comments comments (0)

A wide variety of Music for Playlist Curators & Personal Playlists 

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15%Off & 15% Commission: Athletes, Yogis, Fitness & Streetwear Models Wanted at Arnico Apparel

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)

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Join Team Marco at Lyft Lyfe Apparel and get 10% Off plus free promotion when your order is verified. - Underground Intelligence Muscle & Fitness

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)

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Fitness Models Wanted. - Underground Intelligence Muscle & Fitness/Dragonfly Kingdom Models & Athletes

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 6:30 AM Comments comments (0)

Fitness Models Wanted:

You make or send me a premade workout video between 1 & 5 minutes long, I'll add Music & promote it. 

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