DRAGONFLY KINGDOM NTERNATIONAL SERVICE AGENCY

Music Muscle Mindfulness Heartfulness Happiness Health Fitness Fashion Phytonutrients

LIBRARY



Your favorite music streaming platforms in one place or find a new favorite at http://Songwhip.com/natureyogimarcoandre



 






You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.


You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.







You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.



 ,

You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.


You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.



You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.



You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.




The Great North Apparel featuring Nature Yogi Marco Andre. Discount code MARCOANDRE at thegreatnorth.net 

CRUELTY FREE
SPEEDY SHIPPING
10% OF PROFITS GO TO THE ENVIRONMENT

 

You need Adobe Flash Player to view this content.





Dragonfly Kingdom

Library




by



Nature Yogi  DJ Producer Designer & Model
Marco Andre







Certified Holistic Health & Wellness Specialist

 Yoga, Music, Counseling, Advising

& Energy Medicine

Practitioner








at




Dragonfly Kingdom

International Service

Agency






Online Home

of 




Marco's Clubhouse







Marco's Fitness Travel Agency



Spartan Carton

The Son of the Beast Pro


Bright Star Apothecary

Complimentary &

Integrative Medicine





Furnished Housing Rentals

DESIRE RIVIERA MAYA RESORT


Bright Star Apothecary

Harm Reduction &

Continuity of Care

Initiative






Arnico Apparel






Underground

Intelligence Music &

Multimedia




RKC Certification



view:  full / summary

Spices in the Apiaceae Family Represent the Healthiest Fatty Acid Profile

Posted on May 22, 2022 at 7:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Spices in the Apiaceae Family Represent the Healthiest Fatty Acid Profile: A Systematic Comparison of 34 Widely Used Spices and Herbs

Ramesh Kumar Saini, Awraris Derbie Assefa, and Young-Soo Keum

 



Abstract

Spices and herbs are well-known for being rich in healthy bioactive metabolites. In recent years, interest in the fatty acid composition of different foods has greatly increased. Thus, the present study was designed to characterize the fatty acid composition of 34 widely used spices and herbs. Utilizing gas chromatography (GC) flame ionization detection (FID) and GC mass spectrometry (MS), we identified and quantified 18 fatty acids. This showed a significant variation among the studied spices and herbs. In general, oleic and linoleic acid dominate in seed spices, whereas palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids are the major constituents of herbs. Among the studied spices and herbs, the ratio of n−6/n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was recorded to be in the range of 0.36 (oregano) to 85.99 (cumin), whereas the ratio of PUFAs/saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ranged from 0.17 (nutmeg) to 4.90 (cumin). Cumin, coriander, fennel, and dill seeds represent the healthiest fatty acid profile, based upon fat quality indices such as the ratio of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (h/H) fatty acids, the atherogenic index (AI), and the thrombogenic index (TI). All these seed spices belong to the Apiaceae family of plants, which are an exceptionally rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the form of petroselinic acid (C18:1n12), with a very small amount of SFAs.


Keywords: polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), erucic acid, petroselinic acid, fat quality indices, hypocholesterolemic fatty acids, atherogenic index (AI)


health supplements, fitness, pre workout, workout supplements. sports nutrition, health and wellness


1. Introduction

Spices and herbs are a vital part of human nutrition around the world, especially in India, China, and southeastern Asian countries [1]. Spices and herbs are food adjuncts, traditionally used as flavoring, seasoning, coloring, and as a food preservative agent [1,2]. Moreover, spices and herbs are an exceptionally rich source of nutritionally important phenolic compounds [3]. These phenolic compounds are primarily responsible for the potent antioxidative, digestive stimulative, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties of spices and herbs [4,5,6].

In general, the terms herbs and spices have more than one meaning. However, the most widely used are those that consider herbs to be derived from the green parts of a plant, such as a stem and leaves used in small amounts to impart flavor, whereas spices are obtained from seeds, buds, fruits, roots, or even the bark of the plants [2].

Fatty acids are the primary nutritional components found in edible seed oils [7]. Seed oils provide essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (ω−6 or n−6), and α-linolenic acid (n−3) to humans and other higher animals. In the human body, linoleic acid give rise to n−6 very long-chain (VLC)-PUFA arachidonic acid, and α-linolenic acid converts to n−3 VLC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n−3). These n−6 and n−3 VLC-PUFAs plays key distinct roles in regulating body homeostasis. In general, n−6 VLC-PUFAs gives rise to proinflammatory mediators (eicosanoids) whereas n−3 VLC-PUFAs give rise to anti-inflammatory mediators. Thus, a higher amount of n−3 VLC-PUFAs in the body may protect from chronic diseases, including cancer, inflammatory, or cardiovascular diseases (CVD) [8]. Moreover, a diet with a high proportion of n−6 PUFAs (high ratio of n−6/n−3 PUFAs) cannot be considered beneficial to health, as n−3 PUFAs to n−3 VLC-PUFAs conversion occurs at a very low rate (e.g., 8% for EPA and less than 1% for DHA), and conversion is largely dependent upon the ratio of ingested n−6 (linoleic acid) and n−3 (α-linolenic) PUFAs [9]. In human hepatoma cells, this conversion is highest when these n−6 and n−3 acids are provided at a 1:1 ratio. Thus, the consumption of an appropriate amount of fats with a 1:1 n−6/n−3 PUFAs ratio, which was probably followed by our ancestors [10], may be considered beneficial.

Similar to the consumption of fats with a balanced ratio of n−6/n−3 PUFAs, growing evidence suggests that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) from plant sources may decrease the risk of CVD [11]. And with the health benefits associated with consumption of n−3 PUFAs and MUFAs, consumer interest is shifting towards foods with a low proportion of SFAs, a high proportion of MUFAs, and balanced n−6/n−3 PUFAs. Given this, it is necessary to characterize all the major and minor components of the diet to acquire a better estimate of the fatty acid composition of our food.

Spices and herbs are not a significant source of fatty acids, as they form a small part of the diet. However, a detailed and comparative study of the fatty acid composition of various spices and herbs may be useful to identify those with health-beneficial fatty acids. Considering these facts, this study aims to investigate the fatty acid composition of commercially available major spices and herbs utilizing gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and GC-mass spectrometry analysis. We used fatty acid composition data to study spices and herbs to determine their fat quality indices. We anticipate the results contained herein will contribute significantly to the identification of spices with a healthy fatty acid profile.


health supplements, fitness, pre workout, workout supplements. sports nutrition, health and wellness


 

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Plant Material, Reagents, and Standards

A total of 34 commercially packed spices and herbs (Table 1; 200–500 g each spice and herb from at least three different brands) were obtained from retail outlets in Seoul, Korea. The spice and herb samples of different brands were mixed in equal proportions (200–300 g total) to make a representative sample, ground into a fine powder using a 7010HG laboratory blender (Waring Commercial, Torrington, CT, USA), placed into an air-tight container, and stored at room temperature. The fatty acid standard mix (37 Component FAME Mix, CRM47885) was obtained from Merck Ltd., Seoul, Korea. The organic solvents used for the extraction of lipids were of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade, obtained from Samchun Chemical Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea.

List of spices and herbs used in the present investigation (arranged according to botanical name).

2.2. Extraction of Crude Lipid Compounds

The crude lipids were extracted by using the previous method [12,13] with minor modification. Briefly, 0.6 g dehydrated and powdered spices and herb samples were precisely weighed and transferred to a 50 mL glass tube. In each tube, 150 mg sodium ascorbate and 22 mL (isopropyl alcohol/cyclohexane, 10:12, v/v) containing 0.075% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT: w/v; antioxidant) were added, and the contents were subjected to bath sonication (JAC-2010; 300 w, 60 Hz, for 12 min) for efficient disintegration and complete extraction, followed by 15 h shaking (200 RPM at 22 °C) in a rotary shaker. Contents were centrifuged at 7000× g (12 min at 4 °C). The supernatant was collected, and pellets were extracted again with 30 mL cyclohexane. Supernatants from both extractions were pooled (total volume of ~50 mL) and partitioned with an equal volume of 1 M of sodium chloride (NaCl). The upper cyclohexane phase containing crude lipids were collected, filtered over anhydrous sodium sulfate, transferred to a 250-mL round-bottom flask, and vacuum-dried in a rotary evaporator at 30 °C. The crude lipids were recovered into 3 mL methanol/dichloromethane (DCM) (1:3, v/v) containing 0.1% BHT, transferred to a 5 mL glass vial fitted with a Teflon-lined screw cap, and stored at −20 °C. One milliliter of sample was used to prepare fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs).

2.3. Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs)

The crude lipids extracted from the spices and herb samples were used to prepare the FAMEs, following the previously optimized method [14] with minor modification. Briefly, 1 mL of a crude lipids sample was transferred into a 5 mL glass vial fitted with a Teflon-lined screw cap. Contents were evaporated to dryness using a rotary evaporator at 30 °C. After evaporation, 3 mL of anhydrous methanolic-HCl (methanol/acetyl chloride, 95:5, v/v) was added and incubated for 2 h at 55 °C in a heat block. Samples were cooled in ice, and FAMEs were sequentially washed with 1M NaCl and 2% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and recovered in 4 mL hexane. A pinch of anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) was added to the recovered sample (hexane) to absorb the traces of water. One milliliter of sample was filtered through a 0.45 μm PTFE syringe filter and transferred to a 1.5 mL autosampler vial for GC-FID and GC-MS analysis.

2.4. GC-FID and GC-MS Analysis of FAMEs

FAMEs were quantitatively analyzed with GC (Agilent 7890B, Agilent Technologies Canada, Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada) equipped with an autoinjector, an FID, and an SP-2560 capillary column (100 m, 0.20 μm film thickness, 0.25 mm ID; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany). The injector and the detectors were maintained at 250 °C and 260 °C, respectively. The inlet flow was 2 mL/min with a constant pressure of 54 psi. The FID parameters of hydrogen (H2) fuel flow, airflow, and make flow (nitrogen, N2) were set to 30, 400, and 25 mL/min, respectively. The column oven temperature was kept at 140 °C for 5 min, then progressively increased to 240 °C for 25 min (linear temperature program 4 °C/min and held at 240 °C for 15 min [15]. The FAMEs were precisely identified by comparing them with the retention time with authentic standards. For a more accurate qualitative analysis, the mass spectra were also recorded using a GC-MS system (QP2010 SE; Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), following the optimized GC-FID analysis thermal program. The identity of FAMEs was confirmed by comparing their fragmentation pattern with authentic standards, and also by using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST; U.S. Department of Commerce, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) mass spectrum database (NIST08 and NIST08s).

2.5. Calculation of Fat Quality Indices

We used the spice and herbs fatty acid profile to determine several nutritional parameters of lipids, including the ratios of PUFAs/monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), PUFAs/saturated fatty acids (SFAs), the ratio of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (h/H) fatty acids, atherogenic index (AI), and thrombogenic index (TI) [16]. The ratio of h/H fatty acids, AI, and TI was calculated with the following equations [16]:

2.6. Statistical Analysis and Quality Control

We performed a total of six replicate extractions and analyses from each representative sample. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and homogenous subsets (mean separation) were determined using Turkey HSD with a significance level of p < 0.05, utilizing the IBM statistical 25.0 software.

The method used for GC-FID quantification of FAMEs was validated recently [15].



3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Fatty Acids Composition

In the present study, 18 fatty acids were identified and quantified, utilizing GC-FID and GC-MS analyses (Table 2). The results, given in Table 2, show that oleic (C18:1n9) and linoleic acid (C18:2n6) are dominated in seed spices, and palmitic (C16:0), stearic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) are the major constituents of herbs. An exception was myristic (C14:0) acid, which was 60.8% of total fatty acids in Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) seeds (Figure 1A,B). Surprisingly, myristic acid was just 1.59% of the total fatty acids in the M. fragrans (mace; Figure 1C) seed arils. The highest proportions of oleic acid (41.64–41.85%) were recorded in cardamon pods/capsules (Figure S1) and white pepper seeds (Table 2). The data of the fatty acid composition of cardamom pods and white pepper seeds are scarce. However, 40.6–49.2% of oleic acid has been reportedly extracted from cold-pressed cardamom seeds [17,18], which agrees with data obtained in the present study from whole cardamon pods.

(A) The gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of nutmeg. (B) The GC-mass spectrum of dominating fatty acid (myristic acid) from nutmeg. (C) The GC-FID profiles of FAMEs of mace. The numbers, ...

Fatty acid composition of spices and herbs.

In the present study, a substantial amount of erucic (C22:1n9; 17.3%) and eicosenoic (20:1n9; gondoic acid; 8%) acids were exclusively recorded in white mustard (Sinapis alba; syn Brassica alba) seeds. Similarly, a significant amount of petroselinic acid (C18:1n12c; an isomer of oleic acid) was recorded only in Apiaceae family seeds.

Among the studied 34 spices and herbs, total fatty acids were recorded to be in the range of 2.3 (galangal root) to 130.32 mg/g (mace). The odd chain fatty acid, pentadecanoic (C15:0) acid, was recorded as being a minor constituent (1.18%) in the galangal root. Similarly, heptadecanoic (C17:0) was recorded at only 0.13–0.14% in cayenne pepper, allspice, and mace. In nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seed hexane extract, Anaduaka et al. [19] reported a significant amount of (27%) heptadecanoic (C17:0; margaric) acid. However, in the present study, heptadecanoic acid is not detected in nutmeg seeds.

3.2. Black Pepper and White Pepper

Black pepper and white pepper are prepared from the fruits of Piper nigrum L., according to the harvesting time and inclusion of the outer skin. Black pepper is the dried immature but fully developed fruit, whereas white pepper consists of the mature fruit lacking the outer skin [20]. The fatty acid composition data of black and white pepper is scarce. In the present study, 28.57%, 14.95%, 26.61%, and 9.32% of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acid were recorded being in black pepper. In contrast, 22.55%, 41.64%, 17.19%, and 1.49% of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic was reported as being in white pepper (Table 2). These observations show that oleic acid increases significantly, whereas the palmitic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids decrease significantly during the maturation of pepper fruits.

3.3. Nutmeg and Mace

Nutmeg and mace spices are obtained from different parts of the same fruit of the nutmeg (Myristica fragrans; Myristicaceae) tree. Nutmeg is the dried kernel of the seed, whereas mace is the dried aril surrounding the seed [21]. Myristic acid’s name is derived from Myristica fragrans, from which it was first isolated [22]. In the present study, myristic acid was 60.8% of total fatty acids in nutmeg, followed by oleic (C18:1n9c; 13.4%), linoleic (C18:2n6c; 11.9%), and palmitic (C16:0; 8.94%) (Figure 1A). Surprisingly, in mace, linoleic acid was 33.7% of total fatty acids, followed by palmitic (30.6%) and oleic (28.0%). Myristic acid was only 1.59% of the total fatty acids (Figure 1C, Table 2). In the investigations of Al-Khatib et al. [23], myristic acid was recorded as being 79.7% of the total fatty acids in nutmeg. Kozłowska et al. [24] analyzed the fatty acids composition of plant seeds, including anise, coriander, caraway, white mustard, and nutmeg. They reported dominance of oleic (56.5%), palmitic (18.29%), and linoleic (13.6%) acids in nutmeg. These contrasting observations probably arose as these authors reported only above C16 fatty acids. Myristic acid is widely used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient. It is approved as a pharmaceutical excipient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and declared generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by various regulators [25].

3.4. Erucic Acid in White Mustard

Mustard (Sinapis alba; syn Brassica alba) seeds are well known for the occurrence of a substantial amount of erucic and eicosenoic acid [24]. In the present study, white mustard seeds were found containing 17.3% and 8.0% of erucic and eicosenoic acid, respectively (Figure 2A, Table 2). High intake of erucic acid is considered harmful for cardiac health [26]. The panel on contaminants in the food chain established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 7 mg/kg body weight (BW) for erucic acid based on a no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for myocardial lipidosis in rats and pigs [26]. Considering the 43 mg of total fatty acids/g of white mustard seeds, consumption of 100 g of seeds may provide 7.31 mg of erucic acid. The intake of erucic acid from white mustard used as food condiments in daily food preparations is far below the TDI and is safe for consumption.

(A) The gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of white mustard seeds. (B,C) The GC-mass spectrum of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid from white mustard seeds. (D) The GC-FID profiles of FAMEs ...

Petroselinic acid (C18:1n12c; an isomer of oleic acid) is the major component of the lipid constituent of Apiaceae family seeds [27,28]. In a previous study [27] of dill (Anethum graveolens) seeds, 87.2% of total fatty acids were composed of petroselinic acid. Similarly, in celery (Apium graveolens), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum), and fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), petroselinic acid was recorded as being 56.1%, 72.8%, and 31.32% of total fatty acids. In agreement with the present study, we have also recorded the 50.4%, 49.4%, 62.1%, and 63.3% of petroselinic acid in dill, coriander celery, and fennel seeds, respectively (Table 2). And a similar high amount of petroselinic acid was reported to be in the seeds of other Apiaceae family plants, such as caraway (Carum carvi, 34.1%) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum; 49.9%). In seeds of different varieties of caraway, Reiter et al. [28] recorded 33.5–42.5% of petroselinic acid, which is in agreement with the present study. Petroselinic acid possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antiaging properties by reducing the metabolites of arachidonic acid [29]. And owing to its anti-aging properties, petroselinic acid is widely used in cosmetics or dermatological compositions [29]. Surprisingly, petroselinic acid was not detected in herbs (leaves) of the Apiaceae family member parsley (Petroselinum crispum). In the parsley herb, hexadecatrienoic (C16:3n3) was reported to be 17.7% of the total fatty acids (Figure 2D), whereas no other spices were found to contain this fatty acid. Parsley has been previously classified as a “16:3” plant owing to the presence of a significant amount of hexadecatrienoic acid in photosynthetic tissues, which is part of primitive lipid metabolism [30].

3.5. Fat Quality Indices

The present study is based on the fatty acid composition of 34 spices and herbs. We evaluated them for fat quality indices, including the n–6/n–3 ratio, AI, TI, and h/H fatty acid ratios (Table 3). Among the studied spices and food condiments, the ratio of n–6/n–3 PUFAs was found to be in the range of 0.36 (oregano) to 85.99 (cumin). In view of health benefits associated with the consumption of n−6/n−3 PUFAs ratio of 0.5–2.0 (nearest to 1:1), lipids obtained from leaf spices, including tarragon (0.76), bay leaf (1.33), basil (0.55), marjoram (0.75), parsley (0.48), white mustard (0.95), sage (0.86), and thyme (0.52) can be considered to be beneficial. In general, the high occurrence of α-linolenic acids compared to linoleic acid is responsible for the low n−6/n−3 ratio in leaves (photosynthetic tissue).

The fat quality indices of lipids of spices and herbs.

In view of the high risk of CVD and other chronic diseases that are associated with the dietary intake of SFAs [11], fats with a PUFAs/SFAs ratio lower than 0.45 are not advised for diet [31]. In the present study, PUFAs/SFAs ratios ranged from 0.17 (nutmeg) to 4.90 (cumin). Low PUFAs/SFAs ratios of 0.17 in nutmeg lipids are the result of the dominance of myristic acid (an SFA; Figure 1A), whereas in the case of cumin, linoleic acid is dominant over SFAs. In addition to the nutmeg, low PUFAs/SFAs ratios (<0.44) were recorded from galangal root (0.29), lemongrass (0.24), rosemary (0.28), and sage (0.38) because of the occurrence of a substantial amount of palmitic acid (Figure S2).

Fats with lower AI and TI and higher ratios of h/H fatty acids are recommended for minimizing the risk of CVD [32]. In the present study, a significant difference was recorded for AI, TI values as well as h/H fatty acids among the studied spices and herbs. The lowest significant values of the AI (0.06) and the highest ratios of h/H fatty acids (17.0) were obtained from cumin seeds (Table 3, Figure 3), because of the presence of a low amount of atherogenic lauric, myristic, and palmitic fatty acids, and high amounts of hypocholesterolemic C18:1 MUFAs and PUFAs. Whereas the lowest significant values of TI (white mustard, due to the low contents SFAs and high content of PUFAs.

(A) Illustrations showing the high content of healthy monounsaturated (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cumin, compared to low contents of MUFAs and PUFAs, and high contents of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in nutmeg. (B) Arrangements ...

Overall, based on a higher ratio of h/H fatty acids and their lower AI and TI values, cumin, coriander, fennel, and dill spices have the healthiest fatty acid profiles (Figure 3). These spices belong to the Apiaceae family. White mustard also represents a higher ratio of h/H fatty acids and lower values of AI and TI. However, it contains a substantial amount of erucic acid.

In Figure 3, cumin, coriander, fennel, and dill spices top the fat quality indices, the ratio of h/H fatty acids, AI, and TI. However, the occurrence of a very low proportion of α-linolenic acid (a n−3 PUFA; 0.35–0.85%) and a fairly good amount of linoleic acid (a n–6 PUFA; 19.60–33.34%) in these spices, give rise to the high ratio of n–6/n–3 PUFAs (24.02–85.99), which is substantially higher than the recommended ratio of 1:1. Considering this, the culinary use of these spices can be recommended with n–3 PUFA rich components to obtain the overall n–6/n–3 PUFAs ratio of 1:1.

Previously, we had analyzed the total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidant activities of 39 spices and herbs (including the 34 spices and herbs investigated in the present study) and found that cloves possess the highest antioxidant activities, followed by allspice, cinnamon, oregano, and marjoram [33]. The high antioxidant activities of these spices and herbs were probably the results of the richness of phenolic compounds, as the antioxidant activities showed a good correlation (0.835–0.966) with TPC. In contrast, in the present study, cumin, coriander, fennel, and dill spices showed the healthiest fatty acid profile among the 34 spices and herbs. These observations show that the selection of healthy spices and herbs may vary with nutrient requirements. Thus, in the present study, cumin, coriander, fennel, and dill spices are the recommendations based on the fatty acid profile. However, other spices and herbs might be richer in other health-beneficial dietary components.



4. Conclusions

Spices belonging to Apiaceae family plants (cumin, coriander, fennel, and dill) are an exceptionally rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in the form of petroselinic acid, a good amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; linoleic acid), and a small amount of saturated fatty acids. And, with high proportions of MUFAs and PUFAs, the Apiaceae family spices top the fat quality indices, particularly in terms of a higher ratio of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and lower values of the atherogenic index and the thrombogenic index (Figure 3).

Acknowledgments

This paper was supported by the KU Research Professor Program of Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

Supplementary Materials

The following are available online at https://www.mdpi.com/article/10.3390/foods10040854/s1, Figure S1: (A) The gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of cardamom. (B) The GC-mass spectrum of dominating fatty acid (Palmitic acid); Figure S2. (A–C) The gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of lemongrass, rosemary, and Sage. The GC-mass spectrum of dominating fatty acid (Palmitic acid). The numbers, 4, 7, 9, 11, and 14 correspond to peak numbers illustrated in Table 1. BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene (A synthetic antioxidant used during lipid extraction).

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, R.K.S. and A.D.A.; methodology, R.K.S. and A.D.A.; software, R.K.S. and A.D.A.; validation, R.K.S. and A.D.A. and Y.-S.K.; formal analysis, R.K.S.; investigation, R.K.S.; resources, Y.-S.K.; data curation, R.K.S. and A.D.A.; writing—original draft preparation, R.K.S.; writing—review and editing, A.D.A. and Y.-S.K.; visualization, Y.-S.K.; supervision, Y.-S.K.; project administration, R.K.S.; funding acquisition, R.K.S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

 

Funding

This paper was supported by the KU Research Professor Program of Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea and “The APC was supported by Konkuk University research fund (2021A0190061)”.

 

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Footnotes

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Article information

Foods. 2021 Apr; 10(4): 854.

Published online 2021 Apr 14. doi: 10.3390/foods10040854

PMCID: PMC8071036

PMID: 33920058

Ramesh Kumar Saini,1 Awraris Derbie Assefa,2 and Young-Soo Keum1,*

Andreas Eisenreich, Academic Editor and Bernd Schaefer, Academic Editor

1Department of Crop Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea; rk.ca.kuknok@7991inias

2National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju 54874, Korea; rk.aerok@sirarwa

*Correspondence: rk.ca.kuknok@lanoitar

Received 2021 Mar 8; Accepted 2021 Apr 12.

Copyright © 2021 by the authors.

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Articles from Foods are provided here courtesy of Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)

References

1. Rubió L., Motilva M.-J., Romero M.-P. Recent Advances in Biologically Active Compounds in Herbs and Spices: A Review of the Most Effective Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Active Principles. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2013;53:943–953. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.574802. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

2. Martínez-Graciá C., González-Bermúdez C.A., Cabellero-Valcárcel A.M., Santaella-Pascual M., Frontela-Saseta C. Use of herbs and spices for food preservation: Advantages and limitations. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 2015;6:38–43. doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2015.11.011. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

3. Shahidi F., Ambigaipalan P. Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects—A review. J. Funct. Foods. 2015;18:820–897. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2015.06.018. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

4. Viuda-Martos M., Ruiz-Navajas Y., Fernández-López J., Pérez-Álvarez J. Spices as functional foods. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2010;51:13–28. doi: 10.1080/10408390903044271. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

5. Jiang T.A. Health Benefits of Culinary Herbs and Spices. J. AOAC Int. 2019;102:395–411. doi: 10.5740/jaoacint.18-0418. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

6. Alasvand S., Bridges W., Haley-Zitlin V. Efficacy of Common Spices on Improving Serum Lipids in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Curr. Dev. Nutr. 2020;4:1. doi: 10.1093/cdn/nzaa040_001. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

7. Yu L., Choe U., Li Y., Zhang Y. Oils from fruit, spice, and herb seeds. Bailey Ind. Oil Fat Prod. 2005:1–35. doi: 10.1002/047167849X.bio060.pub2. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

8. Saini R.K., Keum Y.S. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Dietary sources, metabolism, and significance—A review. Life Sci. 2018;203:255–267. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.04.049. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

9. Harnack K., Andersen G., Somoza V. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids. Nutr. Metab. 2009;6:8. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-6-8. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

10. Simopoulos A.P. Evolutionary Thinking in Medicine. Springer; Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: 2016. Evolutionary aspects of the dietary omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid Ratio: Medical implications; pp. 119–134. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

11. Briggs M., Petersen K., Kris-Etherton P. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk. Healthcare. 2017;5:29. doi: 10.3390/healthcare5020029. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

12. Cruz R., Casal S., Mendes E., Costa A., Santos C., Morais S. Validation of a Single-Extraction Procedure for Sequential Analysis of Vitamin E, Cholesterol, Fatty Acids, and Total Fat in Seafood. Food Anal. Methods. 2013;6:1196–1204. doi: 10.1007/s12161-012-9526-z. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

13. Saini R.K., Mahomoodally M.F., Sadeer N.B., Keum Y.S., Rr Rengasamy K. Characterization of nutritionally important lipophilic constituents from brown kelp Ecklonia radiata (C. Ag.) J. Agardh. Food Chem. 2021;340 doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127897. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

14. Saini R.K., Rengasamy K.R.R., Ko E.Y., Kim J.T., Keum Y.S. Korean Maize Hybrids Present Significant Diversity in Fatty Acid Com7 doi: 10.3389/fnut.2020.578761. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

15. Saini R.K., Keum Y.-S., Rengasamy K.R. Profiling of nutritionally important metabolites in green/red and green perilla (Perilla frutescens Britt.) cultivars: A comparative study. Ind. Crop Prod. 2020;151:112441. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112441. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

16. Chen J., Liu H. Nutritional Indices for Assessing Fatty Acids: A Mini-Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020;21:5695. doi: 10.3390/ijms21165695. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

17. Parry J.W., Cheng Z., Moore J., Yu L.L. Fatty Acid Composition, Antioxidant Properties, and Antiproliferative Capacity of Selected Cold-Pressed Seed Flours. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2008;85:457–464. doi: 10.1007/s11746-008-1207-0. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

18. Parry J., Hao Z., Luther M., Su L., Zhou K., Yu L. Characterization of cold-pressed onion, parsley, cardamom, mullein, roasted pumpkin, and milk thistle seed oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2006;83:847–854. doi: 10.1007/s11746-006-5036-8. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

19. Anaduaka E.G., Uchendu N.O., Ezeanyika L.U.S. Mineral, amino acid and fatty acid evaluations of Myristica fragrans seeds extracts. Sci. Afr. 2020;10:e00567. doi: 10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00567. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

20. Lee J.-G., Chae Y., Shin Y., Kim Y.-J. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of black pepper pericarp. Appl. Biol. Chem. 2020;63 doi: 10.1186/s13765-020-00521-1. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

21. Rema J., Krishnamoorthy B. 22—Nutmeg and mace. In: Peter K.V., editor. Handbook of Herbs and Spices. 2nd ed. Woodhead Publishing; Abington, UK: 2012. pp. 399–416. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

22. Playfair L. XX. On a new fat acid in the butter of nutmegs. Lond. Edinb. Dublin Philos. Mag. J. Sci. 1841;18:102–113. doi: 10.1080/14786444108650255. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

23. Al-Khatib I.M.H., Hanifa Moursi S.A., Mehdi A.W.R., Al-Shabibi M.M. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of fatty acids and sterols of selected Iraqi foods. J. Food Compos. Anal. 1987;1:59–64. doi: 10.1016/0889-1575(87)90011-1. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

24. Kozłowska M., Gruczyńska E., Ścibisz I., Rudzińska M. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds. Food Chem. 2016;213:450–456. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.06.102. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

25. Burdock G.A., Carabin I.G. Safety assessment of myristic acid as a food ingredient. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007;45:517–529. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.10.009. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

26. Knutsen H.K., Alexander J., Barregård L., Bignami M., Brüschweiler B., Ceccatelli S., Dinovi M., Edler L., Grasl-Kraupp B., Hogstrand C., et al. Erucic acid in feed and food. EFSA J. 2016;14 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4593. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

27. Ksouda G., Hajji M., Sellimi S., Merlier F., Falcimaigne-Cordin A., Nasri M., Thomasset B. A systematic comparison of 25 Tunisian plant species based on oil and phenolic contents, fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity. Ind. Crop Prod. 2018;123:768–778. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.07.008. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

28. Reiter B., Lechner M., Lorbeer E. The fatty acid profiles—Including petroselinic and cis-vaccenic acid-of different Umbelliferae seed oils. Lipid/Fett. 1998;100:498–502. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(199811)100:11<498::AID-LIPI498>3.0.CO;2-7. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

29. Alaluf S., Green M., Powell J., Rogers J., Watkinson A., Cain F., Hu H., Rawlings A. Petroselinic Acid and Its Use in Food. No. 6,365,175 B1. U.S. Patent. 2002 Apr 2;

30. Mongrand S., Bessoule J.-J., Cabantous F., Cassagne C. The C16:3\C18:3 fatty acid balance in photosynthetic tissues from 468 plant species. Phytochemistry. 1998;49:1049–1064. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00243-X. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

31. Wołoszyn J., Haraf G., Okruszek A., Wereńska M., Goluch Z., Teleszko M. Fatty acid profiles and health lipid indices in the breast muscles of local Polish goose varieties. Poult. Sci. 2020;99:1216–1224. doi: 10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.026. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

32. Ulbricht T.L.V., Southgate D.A.T. Coronary heart disease: Seven dietary factors. Lancet. 1991;338:985–992. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(91)91846-M. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

33. Assefa A.D., Keum Y.S., Saini R.K. A comprehensive study of polyphenols contents and antioxidant potential of 39 widely used spices and food condiments. J. Food Meas. Charact. 2018;12:1548–1555. doi: 10.1007/s11694-018-9770-z. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]


As demonstrated in countries with good health services, the availability of PCI leads to low abortion rates

Posted on May 21, 2022 at 7:50 AM Comments comments (0)



 

Abstract



At present there is a high demand for PCI. The psychological distress experienced by women after unprotected intercourse while awaiting the onset of her next menses could be avoided with effective postcoital treatment. As demonstrated in countries with good health services, the availability of PCI leads to low abortion rates. PCI is designed for use as an emergency method after unprotected intercourse as an isolated incident. Women who have frequent intercourse however, do better to use a regular, very effective, method of contraception such as a combined oral contraceptive. Postcoital progestagens can well be used in infrequent intercourse since they are to be taken after each coitus, if applicable several times a month. Such use however leads to menstrual cycle disturbances and irregular bleedings. The estrogen-only and the estrogen-progestin combination are recommended, but need to be given within 2 or 3 days after the event of unprotected intercourse, preferably periovulatory. The latest development of the anti-progestins as a morning-after pill is promising. Taken from day 27 through 30 of the menstrual cycle it induces menstruation at the expected day. Side effects are minimal and the efficacy is good. Because of the imperfectness of PCI to prevent all pregnancies, sofar this regimen cannot be recommended for monthly use and does not replace regular oral contraceptives. PCI has a definite place in family-planning and fertility regulation. Since different methods are available today careful assessment of individual needs can help to decide for the best suitable method for the individual person.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3318160/




 

Similar articles

[Postcoital contraception with steroid hormones].

Köhler G, et al. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1984. PMID: 6437101 German.

Post coital contraception.

Haspels AA, et al. J Gynaecol Endocrinol. 1986. PMID: 12269214

[Post-coital contraception].

Serfaty D. Contracept Fertil Sex (Paris). 1985. PMID: 12280207 French.

Postcoital contraception: present and future options.

Derman SG, et al. J Adolesc Health. 1995. PMID: 7742340 Review.

Expanding access to emergency contraception in developing countries.

Ellertson C, et al. Stud Fam Plann. 1995. PMID: 8571440 Review

Now There's Two Sponsored Projects You Can Give A Tax Deductible Donation To At Dragonfly Kingdom Library/Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency

Posted on May 17, 2022 at 4:45 AM Comments comments (0)

 

Now There's Two Sponsored Projects You Can Give A Tax Deductible Donation To At Dragonfly Kingdom Library/Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency

 

 



Project 1



 

 

Bright Star Apothecary launches spin-off project Bright Star Apothecary Pop-up Clinic & Street Medic Service

 


Sponsored by Herbalists Without Borders

 



This project serves low income, housing insecure, marginalized, urbanized and rural individuals who are in need of additional nutritional support for health, harm reduction, detoxification. Counseling & Case Management available.


 

This project will soon be paired with Marco's Mini Spa for added therapeutic effectiveness including but not limited to, Music Therapy.


 

Your donation must be made through my Instagram page

 


https://www.Instagram.com/Nature_Yogi_Marco_Andre

 


or by mail to Herbalists Without Borders. If mailing your donation, be sure to note your funds are to be used exclusively for Bright Star Apothecary Pop-up Clinic/Street Medic Service and please send me a receipt/copy of that transaction.

 

 




Project 2



 

Urbanized to Herbanized


 

 

This project serves low income, housing insecure, marginalized, urbanized, food insecure individuals providing educational workshops on permaculture/edible landscaping and access to outdoor recreation, nature therapy, mindfulness and biodiversity training.

 

 


Sponsored by Permaculture Association of North East (P.A.N.)/Northeast Permaculture

 

 


Donations are only accepted by mail at this time, be sure to note your funds are to be used exclusively for Urbanized to Herbanized and please send me a receipt/copy of that transaction.

 



Send your donation to:

 

 

PAN

(formerly PINE)

P.O. Box 3461

Amherst, MA 01004-3461



 

 

If you do not care about receiving tax deduction for your donation and just want make a general donation to educational, interesting, fun projects, use the donate button here on the homepage at

 


https://DragonflyKingdomLibrary.org

 

 


You can also send Music specific donations to my Starving Artist Fund hosted by Spotify via Cash App, YFM WORLD, Twitter Tips (app only), Anchor FM, Amazing Radio (Donate or buy a song), Amazon (buy a song).

 

 


Spotify

 

https://artists.spotify.com/c/artist/1H2gGuftxdK2CxXuXpxRPf

 

 


YFM World

 

https://yfm.world/profile/nature-yogi-marco-andre

 

 


Twitter

 

https://www.twitter.com/DJMarcoAndre

 

 


Anchor FM

https://anchor.fm/nature-yogi-dj-marco

 

 


Amazing Radio

 

https://amazingradio.us/profile/natureyogimarcoandre/videos

 

 


Amazon Music

 

https://amzn.to/3ID1RF6

 

 

 

 



Thank you so much for your time and consideration.



Sahaj (Nature Yogi) Marco Andre




Immune Support & Muscle Building Stack

Posted on May 13, 2022 at 4:50 AM Comments comments (0)


health supplements, fitness, pre workout, workout supplements. sports nutrition, health and wellness


DAS Labs Phosphatidic Acid - mTOR Or The Human Tested, Clinically Proven Trademark, “MEDIATOR” Has Been Shown To Be A Key Regulator For Muscle Mass In The Human Body!


 

 

Increases Muscle Mass!


 

Introducing the up and coming heavyweight champion of the supplement world! Rapidly rising in popularity, Phosphatidic Acid is a serious contender for the title of #1 most popular muscle-building supplement in existence. This is due to Phosphatidic Acid’s uncanny effectiveness in pretty much all things GAINZ related. Double blind studies have shown that test subjects taking Phosphatidic Acid gained far more muscle -- while also losing fat -- compared to those who were just given a placebo.

 

Incorporate Phosphatidic Acid into your stack today. Along with a regime of clean eating and regular training, you can finally achieve that physique you've been working for.

 

By now, most everyone knows about Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS) and Muscle Protein Breakdown (MPB). The interplay between the two is the determining factor in muscle gain (or loss); in order to build muscle the rate of MPB must be greater than the rate of MPB.

 


Phosphatidic Acid powerfully activates what we nerds call the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. mTOR regulates protein synthesis, leading to ingested protein being translated into new muscle (due to accelerated MPS). On top of that, recent studies show that Phosphatidic Acid may reduce MPB.

 


Now in English -- for those of you who aren’t native to the language of nerd -- think of your dream physique as the mansion you are trying to build. The labor force you hired is Muscle Protein Synthesis, and everyday they work tirelessly stacking one brick after another to get the job done. But you have opposition, a gang of misfits known as Muscle Protein Breakdown. This gang takes a brick every time your labor force lays one down.

 


Phosphatidic Acid is the equivalent of giving your entire labor force a super soldier serum, dialing all their (muscle) building skills to the max. As a result, the gang of muscle protein breakers have no hope of stopping progress and your dream physique becomes reality.







Nature Yogi Marco Andre Indulges In A Wide Pallet Of Sound Design

Posted on May 8, 2022 at 5:45 AM Comments comments (0)



Nature Yogi Marco Andre Indulges In A Wide Pallet Of Sound Design



From Yoga Meditation Soundscapes and Chillout Beats to Dance, EDM & Fitness Music, there's something for everyone by Nature Yogi Marco Andre and Marco's Clubhouse Podcast found on all major music streaming platforms......

 Read full article at

Plant Based Birth Control For Men: New compounds found to prevent conception.

Posted on May 6, 2022 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)

 

 

 



Plant Based Birth Control Mechanism Uncovered by Pew Biomedical Scholar

New compounds found to prevent conception



ARTICLE

June 22, 2017


Pew Biomedical Scholars


Plant based birth control

Compounds that structurally resemble the naturally occurring compound progesterone (illustrated above), such as lupeol or pristimerin, can prevent fertilization.

 



 

People have been searching for effective methods of contraception for centuries. Ancient cultures have thoroughly documented the use of plants with contraceptive properties to prevent pregnancies. However, science has yet to discover how herbal-based medicine can work as a form of birth control.

 


Pew biomedical scholar Polina Lishko, who holds a doctorate in physiology and biophysics, found that two plant-based compounds—pristimerin (extracted from the thunder god vine, a plant frequently used in Chinese medicine) and lupeol (found in mangoes and aloe)—block a key process that allows the sperm to penetrate the egg. She and her colleagues in the department of molecular and cell biology at the University of California, Berkeley published their findings in the May issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

 

During the fertilization process, sperm cells beat their tails in a side-to-side pattern to travel long distances to the egg. Once they are close, sperm must alter their rhythmic swimming for a final “power kick” in order to break through the egg’s dense protective layer. When the sperm cell is in close proximity to the egg, the hormone progesterone binds to a channel in the membrane of the sperm, allowing a large amount of calcium into its tail, providing the force for the power kick.

 

Lishko and her colleagues report that because pristimerin and lupeol are compounds that resemble naturally occurring progesterone, they can compete with it to bind the channel—choking off the flux of calcium into the sperm tail. Thus, the switch that boosts the sperm into hyper-drive is blocked, preventing fertilization. Notably, these compounds worked even at low concentrations. They did not pose any harm to the sperm and left them still able to swim.

 

Unlike emergency contraceptives on the market today, the plant-based compounds could be used to prevent fertilization rather than halting the process after it occurs. Currently, there is little research on targeting this distinct step in the fertilization process. A new form of birth control may be on the horizon—one that can be used by both men and women to prevent pregnancies, with minimal side effects on the body.

 



Kara Coleman directs The Pew Charitable Trusts’ biomedical programs, including the biomedical scholars, Pew-Stewart Scholars for Cancer Research, and Latin American fellows programs


Indexed for PEW Trusts by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Calcium Channel Blockers As Birth Control For Men

Posted on May 6, 2022 at 5:55 AM Comments comments (0)

The effect of calcium ion channel blockers on sperm fertilization potential


Abstract


Objective: To evaluate the effects of calcium ion (Ca2+) channel blockers on male fertility potential.

Design: A case comparison of the surface expression of mannose-ligand receptors on motile spermatozoa from 10 known fertile males and from 10 normospermic men taking Ca2+ channel blockers who were seeking infertility treatment. Examination of the effects of in vitro exposure of sperm from fertile donors (n = 14) to antihypertensive medications.

Setting: Patients from a successful university hospital-based IVF-assisted reproductive technology program and from a male urology private practice.

Interventions: Prescription of alternate hypotensive medications for four male patients; cholesterol loading and unloading in vitro of fertile donor sperm.

Main outcome measures: Motile sperm were tested for their ability to bind fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled, mannosylated bovine serum albumin as an index of the surface expression of mannose-ligand receptors associated with fertility potential. Acrosome status was simultaneously evaluated by fluorescence microscopy with rhodamine-labeled Pisum sativum lectin. Sperm were assayed before and after an 18-hour or 3-day incubation under capacitating conditions in vitro.

Results: Motile spermatozoa of normospermic men taking calcium antagonists for hypertension control do not express head-directed mannose-ligand receptors at high frequency, nor do they undergo spontaneous acrosome loss. Unexpectedly, mannose-ligand receptor translocation from the subplasmalemmal space over the acrosome to the sperm surface and aggregation over the equatorial-postacrosomal regions occurred in acrosome-intact sperm. This differs from fertile controls in whom receptor translocation to the equatorial-postacrosomal segment is coupled with the acrosome reaction (AR). Discontinuation of calcium antagonists results in complete recovery of parameters associated with sperm fertilizing potential: time-dependent increases in the percentages of spermatozoa exhibiting surface mannose-ligand binding and spontaneous ARs in vitro. The effects of in vivo administration of calcium antagonists is mimicked in control fertile donor sperm by inclusion of a Ca2+ channel blocker in the media employed during capacitating incubations.

Conclusions: Therapeutic administrations of calcium antagonists for hypertension control cause reversible male infertility associated with an IVF failure. A mechanism of inhibition of sperm fertilizing potential through insertion of lipophilic calcium ion antagonists into the lipid bilayer of the sperm plasma membrane is consistent with our in vitro studies.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Other Medications Also Tied to Religious Vaccine Exemption. 30 common medications that used fetal cell lines.

Posted on May 6, 2022 at 4:20 AM Comments comments (0)



Sep. 18, 2021 -- A hospital system in Arkansas is requiring employees to confirm that they won’t use common medications — such as Tylenol, Tums, and Preparation H — to receive a religious exemption for the COVID-19 vaccine, according to Becker’s Hospital Review.

 

The Conway Regional Health System has required the flu shot annually as part of employment, but managers saw a spike in vaccine exemption requests for the COVID-19 vaccine.

 

“This was significantly disproportionate to what we’ve seen with the influenza vaccine,” Matt Troup, president and CEO of the health system, told Becker’s.

 

The majority of requests cited the use of fetal cell lines in the development of vaccines as part of the religious exemption. The practice uses cells grown in labs to test many new vaccines and drugs, including common antacids and cold medications.

 

“Thus, we provided a religious attestation form for those individuals requesting a religious exemption,” Troup said.

 

The hospital’s form includes a list of 30 common medications that used fetal cell lines during research and development. The list includes acetaminophen, albuterol, aspirin, ibuprofen, Tylenol, Pepto Bismol, Tums, Lipitor, Senokot, Motrin, Maalox, Ex-Lax, Benadryl, Sudafed, Preparation H, Claritin, Prilosec, and Zoloft......... Full article at https://www.webmd.com/vaccines/covid-19-vaccine/news/20210918/some-medications-also-tied-to-religious-vaccine-exemption


Natura Life Labs. A Higher Standard

Posted on April 27, 2022 at 4:00 AM Comments comments (0)




View all supplements by Natura Life Labs at








Powered by Amazon

Supporting our advertising partners is the best way to help yourself and ensure continued services by Dragonfly Kingdom Library/Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency 

Sexual activity played a protective effect, in both genders, on the quarantine-related plague of anxiety and mood disorders.

Posted on April 24, 2022 at 8:50 AM Comments comments (0)




Abstract

Background

The COVID-19–related lockdown has profoundly changed human behaviors and habits, impairing general and psychological well-being. Along with psychosocial consequences, it is possible that sexual behavior was also affected.

 

Aims

With the present study, we evaluated the impact of the community-wide containment and consequent social distancing on the intrapsychic, relational, and sexual health through standardized psychometric tools.

 

Methods

A case-control study was performed through a web-based survey and comparing subjects of both genders with (group A, N = 2,608) and without (group B, N = 4,213) sexual activity during lockdown. The Welch and chi-square tests were used to assess differences between groups. Univariate analysis of covariance, logistic regression models, and structural equation modeling were performed to measure influence and mediation effects of sexual activity on psychological, relational, and sexual outcomes.

 

Outcomes

Main outcome measures were General Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Dyadic Adjustment Scale for quality of relationship and a set of well-validated sexological inventories (International Index of Erectile Function, Female Sexual Function Index, and male-female versions of the Orgasmometer).

 

Results

Anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower in subjects sexually active during lockdown. Analysis of covariance identified gender, sexual activity, and living without partner during lockdown as significantly affecting anxiety and depression scores (P < .0001). Logistic regression models showed that lack of sexual activity during lockdown was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing anxiety and depression (OR: 1.32 [95% CI: 1.12 - 1.57, P < .001] and 1.34 [95% CI: 1.15 - 1.57, P < .0001], respectively). Structural equation modeling evidenced the protective role of sexual activity toward psychological distress (βmales = -0.18 and βfemales = -0.14), relational health (βmales = 0.26 and βfemales = 0.29) and sexual health, both directly (βmales = 0.43 and βfemales = 0.31), and indirectly (βmales = 0.13 and βfemales = 0.13).

 

Clinical translation

The demonstrated mutual influence of sexual health on psychological and relational health could direct the clinical community toward a reinterpretation of the relationship among these factors.


Strengths and limitations

Based on a large number of subjects and well-validated psychometric tools, this study elucidated the protective role of sexual activity for psychological distress, as well for relational and sexual health. Main limitations were the web-based characteristics of the protocol and the retrospective nature of prelockdown data on psychorelational and sexual health of subjects recruited


Conclusio

COVID-19 lockdown dramatically impacted on psychological, relational, and sexual health of the population. In this scenario, sexual activity played a protective effect, in both genders, on the quarantine-related plague of anxiety and mood disorders



Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Mollaioli D, Sansone A, Ciocca G, et al. Benefits of Sexual Activity on Psychological, Relational, and Sexual Health During the COVID-19 Breakout. J Sex Med 2021;18:35–

9..ns.35–49.

Intentional Community Fundraiser: Marco's Spiritual Sports Medicine, Nutrition & Respite Center. Recovery is possible & probable.

Posted on April 24, 2022 at 8:40 AM Comments comments (0)



Energy Medicine meets Bodybuilding, Nutritional Harm Reduction & Mental Health Recovery


Fundraiser for Marco's Clubhouse: Spiritual Sports Medicine, Nutrition & Respite Center

With Holistic Health Wellness & Fitness Specialist
Sahaj Marco Andre

Donate at 



Have You Heard of MCS? May is MCS Awareness Month

Posted on April 22, 2022 at 6:50 AM Comments comments (0)
Have you heard of MCS? MCS stands for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. MCS is also sometimes referred to as EI (Environmental Illness). It is estimated that 15% of the population has MCS; however, we rarely hear about it. I had never heard of it until I did a lot of research and figured out it was what I had. I so wish I would have known about MCS in the beginning. Unfortunately, many doctors are not aware of it either. MCS reactions can range from mild to severe. Personally, my reactions started off as mild. I didn’t even know I had a problem until it was too late. Unfortunately, since I dismissed my symptoms, they only progressed until they became debilitating. There isn’t an easy, one-time cure for MCS. However, I’m happy to say that I am better today than I once was. Still, I believe I will always have to take precautions regarding toxins as certain chemicals and neurotoxins can still create horrible symptoms, but I can recover more quickly. To those of you with MCS, I can say after many doctors, supplements, trial and error, it is possible to live a more “normal” life. It has been a very difficult road to go down, but there can be a light at the end of the tunnel if you muster up enough strength to do the research.

 

May is MCS Awareness Month

May is MCS Awareness Month and May 12 is designated as International Awareness Day. International Awareness Day brings awareness for Chronic Immunological and Neurological Diseases (CIND). The CIND illnesses include Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Fibromyalgia (FM), Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS).

I am thankful for those organizations, such as MCS-Aware who provide helpful information about MCS. Also for Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families and Women’s Voices for the Earth who are trying to get harmful chemicals out of products. I am thankful to those manufacturers and retailers who are finally saying “enough is enough” and are providing non-toxic options.......... https://www.livingnaturaltoday.com/have-you-heard-of-mcs-may-is-mcs-awareness-month/


Good News! Regular sex benefits your mental health, too

Posted on April 20, 2022 at 7:20 AM Comments comments (0)


Now for some good news: regular sex benefits your mental health, too



Everyone has probably heard about the physical benefits of having sex (it helps the immune system, lowers blood pressure, burns calories). But are you aware of the long list of psychological benefits?

 


L-Arginine HCL (Vegan) Powder


Sex eases stress

It’s well known stress can have serious implications. Stress is largely the result of many interacting psychological factors and can vary significantly between people. Nevertheless, it can cause all kinds of health problems from mild headaches, sleeping difficulties and muscle tension, to more severe issues such as malfunction of the immune system and chronic depression.

Underwear

 

There is evidence that being close to your partner (physically and emotionally) can lower stress levels. Physical intimacy can trigger the release of all kinds of chemicals in the brain including:

 

dopamine - which plays a major role in reward-motivated behaviour, focuses attention and generally increases motivation

endorphins – our body’s natural pain and stress fighters, and

oxytocin – affectionately known as “the cuddle hormone”, which can trigger feelings of compassion.

After an orgasm, the body releases the hormone prolactin, which often leads to drowsiness and a general feeling of relaxation. Comfort ultimately resulting in sleep is a common post-orgasm response.


Shop 100's of Men's Health and Sexual Wellness Products at Incredible Prices.


Sex boosts self-esteem

There’s an old saying “sex is like food; it’s only a big deal when you’re not getting enough of it”. With sex it’s not so much a matter of “the more the better”, but a complete lack of sex can be quite harmful. There is some evidence a lack of sex is associated with feelings of depression and low self-worth


In today’s world there is a lot of social pressure to be sexually active. Having a nonexistent or minimal sex life can feel socially stigmatising. In this way, having sex can unburden someone from a strong social pressure and enhance their self-estee


All of us have fundamental psychological needs we need to fulfil in order to remain mentally healthy. Having sex isn’t (strictly) a fundamental human need, but it’s an important part of love and connection...... Full article at 


https://theconversation.com/now-for-some-good-news-regular-sex-benefits-your-mental-health-too-71626

Saffron is as effective as fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate OCD.

Posted on April 15, 2022 at 11:20 AM Comments comments (0)
Comparison of Saffron and Fluvoxamine in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial


Abstract

Objective: There are different pathophysiological mechanisms for obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) as suggested by the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic hypotheses. The present study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus) and fluvoxamine in the treatment of mild to moderate obsessive- compulsive disorder.




Method: In this study, 50 males and females, aged 18 to 60 years, with mild to moderate OCD, participated. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either saffron (30 mg/day, 15 mg twice a day) or fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) for 10 weeks. Using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Adverse Event Checklist, we assessed the patients at baseline, and at the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, and tenth week. Finally, the data were analyzed using general linear repeated measures.



Results: In this study, 46 patients completed the trial. General linear repeated measures demonstrated no significant effect for time-treatment interaction on the Y-BOCS total scores [F (2.42, 106.87) = 0.70, P = 0.52], obsession Y-BOCS subscale scores [F (2.47, 108.87) = 0.77, p = 0.49], and compulsion Y-BOCS subscale scores [F (2.18, 96.06) = 0.25, P = 0.79]. Frequency of adverse events was not significantly different between the 2 groups.


Click HERE for Organic Saffron


Conclusion: Our findings suggest that saffron is as effective as fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate OCD........



Indexed for NIH and

Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

by Dragonfly Kingdom Library



OWYN: Only What You Need Vegan Protein Shakes & Powder With & Without Probiotics

Posted on April 11, 2022 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)


I love OWYN!

Shop through my link to get a reward 







What is OWYN?
The world’s best tasting nutrition products, made from earth’s finest ingredients. 100% Plant-Based. Uncompromised Taste. We bring together the essential elements of advanced nutrition – amazingly clean ingredients, functional superiority, and uncompromised taste.

OWYN is a portfolio company of Purchase Capital, an investment firm that provides patient capital for private and public companies that have significant potential for long-term value creation.

Why is it called OWYN?
OWYN (pronounced ‘Oh-Win’) stands for Only What You Need – and serves as the guiding principle behind how we live our lives and how we craft our products. We use Only What You Need, the essential ingredients of life, sustainably sourced from nature and slash out all the rest. No nonsense. Because proper nutrition has the power to change your life, and we don’t let anything get in the way.

 

Increased sexual activity was associated with positive physical, social, and emotional health indicators.

Posted on April 11, 2022 at 7:15 AM Comments comments (0)




Abstract


Introduction: Understanding sexual behavior is important when evaluating the health needs of older adults. Little research has addressed the effect of specific health conditions on sexual inactivity in this growing population.

 


Shop 100's of Men's Health and Sexual Wellness Products at Incredible Prices.

Aim: The study aims to assess the association of mental and physical health conditions with sexual inactivity among adults 55 and older living in The Villages, Florida.


Methods: Exposure data for 22 self-reported health conditions were assessed in relation to sexual inactivity in 22,654 participants ages 55 and older, including 1,879 participants over age 80 in a community-based cross-sectional study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for men and women to evaluate the likelihood of being sexually active for each health condition. Covariates included age, race, education, income, self-reported overall health, and marital status.

3 X 60 GUMMIES OPTIMUM NUTRITION AMIN.O. ENERGY for $29.99!

Main outcome measures: The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for sexual activity status were calculated separately for men and women.

bachelorette party straws

Results: Fifty-five percent of men and 45% of women reported being sexually active. Significant positive correlates of sexual activity included walking at least 1-2 times per week, participating in at least two registered clubs, engaging in physical and social activities, no tobacco use, fewer medications, increased alcohol consumption, and reporting a good quality of life, psychological well-being, or social support. Sexual inactivity was significantly related to cancer, bladder/bowl problems, major surgery, poor vision, mental health conditions, and cardiovascular disease and its risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. Additional associations with sexual inactivity included hearing loss and dementia for men, and dermatologic conditions, problems with the joints, bone or back, gastrointestinal problems, alcohol misuse, chronic wound care, and gum disease in women.

Here’s How the ISOCHAIN Can Help You Smash Through Your Previous Limitations and Unleash Stunning New Gains in Physical Capability

Dragon Door's Instructor Certification Workshops


Conclusions: Mental and physical health conditions have very similar associations with sexual inactivity in men and women. Increased sexual activity was associated with positive physical, social, and emotional health indicators.


 


Keywords: Aging; Epidemiology; Risk Factors; Sexual Behavior.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

 

© 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.



Rss_feed