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Shaktipat & Subtle Power of Spiritual Energy. Intrinsic need for spiritual energy for the expansion of consciousness from teacher or guru to the student. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 8:05 AM Comments comments (0)


While talking about the role played by a teacher, Master Choa Kok Sui said that the Guru is like a transformer who “brings down high spiritual energy to the level your subtle bodies can handle”. So, what is this spiritual energy?


Spiritual energy has often been referred to as Chi or Qi energy which is basically the life-force that permeates and energizes everything. Various techniques have been formulated to channel this energy and to use it for healing. Spiritual energy is therefore best regarded as a powerful force that is not bound by any confinement.


Grand Master Choa Kok Sui stated the intrinsic need for spiritual energy for the expansion of consciousness. Spiritual energy is also what makes it possible to travel into the inner realms of the spiritual world. The attainment of stillness and awareness is not enough to fuel spiritual growth. Without spiritual energy, the consciousness cannot grow and expansion is stalled.


Shaktipat is a Sanskrit term that is basically a conjugation of the two terms, “shakti”, meaning power or energy and “pat”, meaning to fall or descend. Shaktipat is therefore the “transference of tremendous spiritual energy” from the teacher or guru to the student. This enables the consciousness of the disciple to be able to traverse through the different levels of the inner world. This process of energy-transfer is referred to as spiritual initiation in various esoteric books that are available today.


To explain the immense power of spiritual energy and the process of it being transformed and transferred, Grand Master Choa Kok Sui use a very interesting analogy:-


“You have 110-volt plugs. If you put your equipment directly into the transfer outlet, it gets destroyed. If you put it directly into the power source, it gets really destroyed. So from the power source it gets stepped down, stepped down, stepped down until the appliances in your home can handle it. The same thing here; there is a stepping-down process. One of the functions of the teacher is to step down the energy so that the higher soul and the incarnated soul can handle it”.


What Master Choa Kok Sui explained in such simple terms is proof of how amazing a teacher he was to be able to relate to his students such difficult concepts with such ease.


The entire universe is a web of energy and this energy is emanated at all times, through all things. When we invoke or meditate, there is a descent of Divine energy into our beings. However, to be able to handle huge quantities of spiritual energy, one must develop his/her physical bodies. The development of our spiritual or energy body is not possible without the development of our tangible physical forms. Spiritual practices are all aimed at gaining mastery over spiritual energy which would then enable an individual to transform this energy and utilize its vast potential.

Indexed for World Pranic Healing by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


The (New) Natural Science of Inclusive Flow. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 8:00 AM Comments comments (0)


By Alan Rayner


Fundamental Principles


Matter that is devoid of space would be dimensionless (without size or shape); space without matter would be formless.

Therefore matter and space, as natural presences, are included in each other; they are not mutually exclusive opposites.

This is only possible if matter is made from energy swirling around particular spatial localities. These localities may be central points or straight or curved channels or interfaces. Together, the swirls of energy and the spatial localities combine to create tangible forms that exist for variable periods of time within particular places. Material bodies can hence be thought of as dynamic localities of ‘place-time’. Since they are products of natural energy flow, they can also be thought of as ‘flow-forms’.

Material form is intrinsically dynamic - a product of natural flow, which arises from the relationship between space and energy. Space plays a receptive, invitingrole and energy plays a responsive, informative role in this relationship, which distinguishes material bodies from one another and their surroundings, but does not isolate them as definitively bounded objects.


So matter both inhabits and incorporates space. It does not occupy or displace space. Space is a natural intangible – and therefore frictionless – presence that cannot be cut by anything or be excluded from anything.


Hence there is no such thing as instantaneous, independent material existence, isolated from space, time or energy.

Mechanisms of inter-action between material bodies are derived from intrinsic energy flux. They are not enforced from outside.

All natural geometrical forms either are, or are derived from circular or spherical form – not rectilinear form.

Natural numerical identities are energetic inclusions of zero-dimensional points in infinite space, not static material figures set aside from space.



Actual sensory human experience tells us:-


Natural material bodies are distinguishable from one another and their surroundings.

Natural material bodies can move, be moved, reconfigure, heat up, cool down, reflect or absorb light, melt, boil, solidify and react chemically with one another. They are never rigidly inert structures.

Natural materials resist the movement of material bodies to differing degrees.

Natural space does not resist the movement of material bodies to any degree.

Natural space is translucent, but not heat-conducting or absorbing, light-absorbing, light-reflecting or a source of light.

Sub-atomic identities do not consistently behave in accordance with mechanical cause and effect.

Living organisms display sentience and depend for their sustainability on forming relationships with one another and their surroundings, from which they gather the sources of energy they need to thrive.

Human beings are emotional creatures.



Evolution is a product of co-creative fluid relationship, not selective preservation of favoured varieties and removal of others.

Mechanical causation is not primary causation.

Emotionality is an expression of natural energy flow.

Organisms are primarily needful, not selfish.

Opposition, enmity, competition and co-operation are human constructs based on definitive logic, not necessarily natural occurrences.

Love is a natural occurrence, not a human construct.

Wholes and parts, in the sense of completely definable entities, do not exist naturally.

Utter stillness is a quality of intangible space, not tangible structur.

Positivity (‘generosity’) cannot exist without negativity (‘receptivity’), and neither can ‘current.

Modes of Inquiry

Based solely on actual experience of natural phenomena.

Do not invent what is not known to exist for the sake of theoretical or practical convenience. Rigorously subject all truth claims, assumptions and hypotheses to two questions: (1) Is this consistent with actual experience? (2) Does this make consistent, non-paradoxical sense?

Include all traditional modes of scientific observation, measurement, experimentation and analysis, but do not objectively isolate observer from observation.

Instead combine intimate (first person) with distanced (third person) modes of perception, to enable relational/empathetic (second person) perception.

Intuitive, aesthetic, imaginative, empathetic, poetic modes of enquiry and expression are all valid, so long

Sources of Reference


Rayner, A.D.M (2017) The Origin of Life Patterns – In the natural inclusion of space in flux. SpringerBriefs in Psychology and Cultural Developmental Science (G. Marsico and J. Valsiner series editors). Springer.

Rayner, A.D.M. (2011) NaturesScope: Unlocking our natural empathy and creativity - an inspiring new way of relating to our natural origins and one another through natural inclusion. O Books.



Essays on Web

Patterns of Life – Stars & Stripes, Circles, Lines, Spirals, Ripples, Rivers and Crazy Paving in the Natural World

The (True) Nature of Time

Never Quite Knowing - Self as a Natural Centre of Circulation

Natural Companionship

Natural Flow-Form: A Mutual Inclusion of Strength and Weakness

Holding Openness

The Nature of Receptive Omnipresence

Bombshells - The Devastating Mistakes of Abstract Perception

From Abstract to Natural Perception – Through the ‘Space Barrier’ to a Refreshing New Understanding of Life and Love

Inclusional Sustainability

Estrangement and Reconciliation

Natural Co-Creation


The Paleo Diet May Need a Rewrite, Ancient Humans Feasted on a Wide Variety of Plants. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

The Paleo diet is a fad that claims to be based on what the human body was designed to eat—a pre-agriculture mix including meats, roots, fruits, vegetables and nuts. While it has its plusses and minuses, the big fault is that we really don’t know what the original paleo diet, which humans ate between 2.6 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago, looked like. Colin Barras at New Scientist reports that the “caveman” fascination with meat is often overemphasized because the bones of butchered animals tend to last a long time, while other materials have disintegrated.


But researchers at the Gesher Benot Ya’aqov archaeological site on Lake Hula in northern Israel have found a camp used by human ancestors which includes a whole menu of the plant-based foods that they would have sampled. The site, reports Barras, was likely inhabited by Homo erectus or a closely related human species and includes the remains of at least 55 edible plant species, including nuts, fruit seeds, roots, tubers, leaves and stems.

........ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/paleo-diet-may-need-a-rewrite-ancient-humans-feasted-wide-variety-plants-180961402/

Your Etheric Body and Prana. Prana (chi) thus provides nourishment to and invigorates the physical body... - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 7:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Words such as “ether” or “ethereal” immediately conjure up images of a world beyond the clouds, of starlit spaces filled with heavenly light and of Divinity as well as a deep sense of peace. What if ether was not just up there, but within ourselves too? In reality, we ourselves have an etheric body. In Sanskrit, this subtle entity is referred to as “linga sarira”. The etheric body is clairvoyantly seen as a double or a twin of the physical body.


Did You Know You have a Twin?

Our etheric body is a bioplasmic and luminous in nature and surrounds the physical body while interpenetrating it. Clairvoyants are gifted with sight beyond what our physical eyes can see and are able to view this etheric double which actually appears to have two hands, two legs, two eyes, so on and so forth just like our physical bodies.


What does the word bioplasmic mean? The word “bioplasm” is an amalgamation of two words: bio, meaning life and plasma, referring to the fourth state of matter. When matter in the gaseous state has been ionized and possesses negative and positive charged particles, it may be termed as plasma. This, however, is very different from blood plasma.


The etheric body is thus a living aura or energy body that is constituted of subtle matter that is invisible to the naked eye. Kirlian photography is regarded as scientific proof of the existence of our etheric body. Kirlian photographs allow for viewing, observing and analyzing the energy field or the etheric body that surrounds our physical forms.


It is through the etheric body that prana or life energy can bee absorbed into and distributed through the physical body. The etheric body thus serves as a channel for life energy to flow into the visible physical body we possess and are so attached to.


Your Etheric Body and Prana

The flow of prana throughout the etheric body is facilitated by fine bioplasmic meridians the workings of which are much like the workings of the blood vessels in the physical body. Yogic terminology refers to these channels or meridians as 'nadis'. These nadis are further classified into major and minor nadis. Just like we possess blood vessels and capillaries of varied importance and function in our tangible body, there is order in our etheric body as well. Prana (chi) thus provides nourishment to and invigorates the physical body in its totality through the effective functioning of the channels in the etheric body.


The etheric body and the physical body share an intimate bond of interdependence and what affects one, affects the other. Master Choa Kok Sui, after several years of detailed study, research and analysis, provided his students with much information about the nature and functioning of spiritual energy and the etheric body. This process of inter-related functioning works in accordance with the Law of Correspondence. Just as sickness in the etheric body is a precursor to sickness in the physical body, healing the etheric body heals the ailments in the physical body. The etheric body is thus a tetra-dimensional energy entity that serves as an integral counterpart of the physical body.


Source: The Ancient Science and Art of Pranic Healing by Master Choa Kok Sui 

Indexed for World Pranic Healing 


Bio-Etheric Healing: Make Friends With Your Etheric Body. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 7:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Bio-Etheric Healing is an innovative method of alternative healing which uses a set of Communication Skills based on thought processes to direct our Etheric Body, and through it, our full energy field (our Aura) to help in healing work. It is possible to have this communication directly with one's own energy field. Also, when working with a client, a Bio-Etheric Healing professional can use this method to mobilize the client's own energy field to help in his healing. The actual healing work is not limited to face-to-face physical proximity. Rather, Bio-Etheric Healing via thought process communication can be accomplished over great distances.

This communication, and the healing work itself, is possible because of the energy field which surrounds our bodies, and indeed surrounds everyone and everything on this planet. It is called the Auric Field, and our own individual envelope of this energy which surrounds our bodies is called our Aura. The first layer of our Aura, closest to our Physical Bodies, is the Etheric Layer, and it plays a major role in Bio-Etheric Healing.

In almost all cases, the actual healing itself begins at the Etheric Body level. It is primarily with the Etheric Body that we communicate with thought messages to provide it the directions for healing. It is in a sense the "supervisor" of the process. The Etheric Body then communicates with the other participants and enlists their help, as needed, to accomplish the healing. These other players include the Physical Body, the Brain, the other layers of the Aura, and the Chakra System. Each of these have special functions in the healing process, and the appropriate one must be called upon by the Etheric Body to aid in the process. The Chakra System is a major player because of its unique role as the distribution system for energy flow throughout the body.

However, even though the Etheric Body may know what is wrong and what needs healing, it won't act unless told to do so. The key to Bio-Etheric Healing is that we ourselves, or a healer, must give the Etheric Body directions as to what to do and it will do it.

When the Etheric Body is asked to heal something, it does the best it is able to do, with the information has. The more information provided to the Etheric Body, and the greater the accuracy of the information, the better it can accomplish its healing role

Lemuria at the time of its greatest expansion nearly girdled the globe, extending as it then did from the site of the present Cape Verde Islands a few miles from the coast of Sierra Leone, in a south-easterly direction through Africa, Australia, the Socie

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 6:05 AM Comments comments (0)

From the older of the two maps it may be seen that the equatorial continent of Lemuria at the time of its greatest expansion nearly girdled the globe, extending as it then did from the site of the present Cape Verde Islands a few miles from the coast of Sierra Leone, in a south-easterly direction through Africa, Australia, the Society Islands and all the intervening seas, to a point but a few miles distant from a great island continent (about the size of the present South America) which spread over the remainder of the Pacific Ocean, and included Cape Horn and parts of Patagonia....... Indexed for Hermetics by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


A number of circumstances (especially chronological facts) which suggest that the primeval home of man was a continent now sunk below the surface of the Indian Ocean. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 5:55 AM Comments comments (0)

To sum up the views advanced in this paper.


1st. The plant-bearing series of India ranges from early Permian to the latest Jurassic times, indicating (except in a few cases and locally) the uninterrupted continuity of land and fresh water conditions. These may have prevailed from much earlier times.


2nd. In the early Permian, as in the Post-Pliocene age, a cold climate prevailed down to low latitudes, and I am inclined to believe in both hemispheres simultaneously. With the decrease of cold the flora and reptilian fauna of Permian times were diffused to Africa, India, and possibly Australia; or the flora may have existed in Australia somewhat earlier, and have been diffused thence.


3rd. India, South Africa and Australia were connected by an Indo- Oceanic Continent in the Permian epoch, and the two former countries remained connected (with at the utmost only short interruptions) up to the end of the Miocene period. During the latter part of the time this land was also connected with Malayana.


4th. In common with some previous writers, I consider that the position of this land was defined by the range of coral reefs and banks that now exist between the Arabian Sea and East Africa.


5th. Up to the end of the Nummulitic epoch no direct connection (except possibly for short periods) existed between India and Western Asia.


In the discussion which followed the reading of the paper, Professor Ramsay “agreed with the author in the belief in the junction of Africa with India and Australia in geological times.”


Mr. Woodward “was pleased to find that the author had added further evidence, derived from the fossil flora of the Mesozoic series of India, in corroboration of the views of Huxley, Sclater and others as to the former existence of an old submerged continent (‘Lemuria’) which Darwin’s researches on coral reefs had long since foreshadowed.”


“Of the five now existing continents, ” writes Ernst Haeckel, in his great work The History of Creation, (Vol. II., pp. 325-6) “neither Australia, nor America, nor Europe can have been this primaeval home (of man), or the so- called ‘Paradise,’ the ‘cradle of the human race.’ Most circumstances indicate Southern Asia as the locality in question. Besides Southern Asia, the only other of the now existing continents which might be viewed in this light is Africa. But there are a number of circumstances (especially chronological facts) which suggest that the primeval home of man was a continent now sunk below the surface of the Indian Ocean, which extended along the south of Asia, as it is at present (and probably in direct connection with it), towards the east, as far as Further India and the Sunda Islands; towards the west, as far as Madagascar and the south-eastern shores of Africa.


We have already mentioned that many facts in animal and vegetable geography render the former existence of such a South Indian continent very probable. Sclater has given this continent the name of Lemuria, from the semi-apes which were characteristic of it. By assuming this Lemuria to have been man’s primeval home, we greatly facilitate the explanation of the geographical distribution of the human species by migration.”


In a subsequent work, The Pedigree of Man, Haeckel asserts the existence of Lemuria at some early epoch of the earth’s history as an acknowledged fact.


The following quotation from Dr. Hartlaub’s writings may bring to a close this portion of the evidence in favor of the existence of the lost Lemuria (Dr. G. Hartlaub “On the Avifauna of Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands, ” see The Ibis, a Quarterly Journal of Ornithology Fourth Series, Vol. I., 1877, p. 334.):


“Five and thirty years ago, Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire remarked that, if one had to classify the Island of Madagascar exclusively on zoological considerations, and without reference to its geographical situation, it could be shown to be neither Asiatic nor African, but quite different from either, and almost a fourth continent. And this fourth continent could be further proved to be, as regards its fauna, much more different from Africa, which lies so near to it, than from India which is so far away. With these words the correctness and pregnancy of which later investigations tend to bring into their full light, the French naturalist first stated the interesting problem for the solution of which an hypothesis based on scientific knowledge has recently been propounded, for this fourth continent of Isidore Geoffroy is Sclater’s ‘Lemuria’ – that sunken land which, containing parts of Africa, must have extended far eastwards over Southern India and Ceylon, and the highest points of which we recognize in the volcanic peaks of Bourbon and Mauritius, and in the central range of Madagascar itself – the last resorts of the almost extinct Lemurine race which formerly peopled it.”.........

Indexed for Hermetics by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Paleontology, physical geography and geology, equally with the ascertained distribution of living animals and plants, offer thus their concurrent testimony to the former close connection of Africa and India. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 5:45 AM Comments comments (0)

William Scott-Elliot – The Lost Lemuria

The Lost Lemuria
William Scott-Elliott





William Scott-Elliot (1904)

The object of this paper is not so much to bring forward startling information about the lost continent of Lemuria and its inhabitants, as to establish by the evidence obtainable from geology and from the study of the relative distribution of living and extinct animals and plants, as well as from the observed processes of physical evolution in the lower kingdoms, the facts stated in The Secret Doctrine and in other works with reference to these now submerged lands.

It is generally recognized by science that what is now dry land, on the surface of our globe, was once the ocean floor, and that what is now the ocean floor was once dry land. Geologists have in some cases been able to specify the exact portions of the earth’s surface where these subsidences and upheavals have taken place, and although the lost continent of Atlantis has so far received scant recognition from the world of science, the general consensus of opinion has for long pointed to the existence, at some prehistoric time, of a vast southern continent to which the name of Lemuria has been assigned.

Evidence supplied by Geology and by the relative distribution of living and extinct Animals and Plants

“The history of the earth’s development shows us that the distribution of land and water on its surface is ever and continually changing. In consequence of geological changes of the earth’s crust, elevations and depressions of the ground take place everywhere, sometimes more strongly marked in one place, sometimes in another. Even if they happen so slowly that in the course of

centuries the seashore rises or sinks only a few inches, or even only a few lines, still they nevertheless effect great results in the course of long periods of time. And long – immeasurably long – periods of time have not been wanting in the earth’s history. During the course of many millions of years, ever since organic life existed on the earth, land and water have perpetually struggled for supremacy. Continents and islands have sunk into the sea, and new ones have arisen out of its bosom. Lakes and seas have been slowly raised and dried up, and new water basins have arisen by the sinking of the ground. Peninsulas have become islands by the narrow neck of land which connected them with the mainland sinking into the water. The islands of an archipelago have become the peaks of a continuous chain of mountains by the whole floor of their sea being considerably raised.

“Thus the Mediterranean at one time was an inland sea, when in the place of the Straits of Gibraltar, an isthmus connected Africa with Spain. England even during the more recent history of the earth, when man already existed, has repeatedly been connected with the European continent and been repeatedly separated from it. Nay, even Europe and North America have been directly connected. The South Sea at one time formed a large Pacific Continent, and the numerous little islands which now lie scattered in it were simply the highest peaks of the mountains covering that continent. The Indian Ocean formed a continent which extended from the Sunda Islands along the southern coast of Asia to the east coast of Africa. This large continent of former times Sclater, an Englishman, has called Lemuria, from the monkey-like animals which inhabited it, and it is at the same time of great importance from being the probable cradle of the human race, which in all likelihood here first developed out of anthropoid apes. (Haeckel is correct enough in his surmise that Lemuria was the cradle of the human race as it now exists, but it was not out of Anthropoid apes that mankind developed. A reference will be made later on to the position in nature which the Anthropoid apes really occupy.)

The important proof which Alfred Wallace has furnished, by the help of chronological facts, that the present Malayan Archipelago consists in reality of two completely different divisions, is particularly interesting. The western division, the Indo-Malayan Archipelago, comprising the large islands of Borneo, Java and Sumatra, was formerly connected by Malacca with the Asiatic continent, and probably also with the Lemurian continent just mentioned. The eastern division on the other hand, the Austro-Malayan Archipelago, comprising Celebes, the Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon’s Islands, etc., was formerly directly connected with Australia. Both divisions were formerly two continents separated by a strait, but they have now for the most part sunk below the level of the sea. Wallace, solely on the ground of his accurate chronological observations, has been able in the most accurate manner to determine the position of this former strait, the south end of which passes between Balij and Lombok.

“Thus, ever since liquid water existed on the earth, the boundaries of water and land have eternally changed, and we may assert that the outlines of continents and islands have never remained for an hour, nay, even for a minute, exactly the same. For the waves eternally and perpetually break on the edge of the coast, and whatever the land in these places loses in extent, it gains in other places by the accumulation of mud, which condenses into solid stone and again rises above the level of the sea as new land. Nothing can be more erroneous than the idea of a firm and unchangeable outline of our continents, such as is impressed upon us in early youth by defective lessons on geography, which are devoid of a geological basis.” (Ernst Haeckel’s History of Creation, 2nd ed., 1876, Vol. I., pp. 360-62.)

The name Lemuria, as above stated, was originally adopted by Mr. Sclater in recognition of the fact that it was probably on this continent that animals of the Lemuroid type were developed.

“This,“ writes A. R. Wallace, “is undoubtedly a legitimate and highly probable supposition, and it is an example of the way in which a study of the geographical distribution of animals may enable us to reconstruct the geography of a bygone age…. It [this continent] represents what was probably a primary zoological region in some past geological epoch; but what that epoch was and what were the limits of the region in question, we are quite unable to say. If we are to suppose that it comprised the whole area now inhabited by Lemuroid animals, we must make it extend from West Africa to Burmah, South China and Celebes, an area which it possibly did once occupy.” (Alfred Russell Wallace’s The Geographical Distribution of Animals – with a study of the relations of living and extinct Faunas as elucidating the past changes of the Earth’s Surface. London: Macmillan & Co., 1876. Vol. I., pp. 76-7.)

“We have already had occasion,” he elsewhere writes, “to refer to an ancient connection between this sub-region (the Ethiopian) and Madagascar, in order to explain the distribution of the Lemurine type, and some other curious affinities between the two countries. This view is supported by the geology of India, which shows us Ceylon and South India consisting mainly of granite and old-metamorphic rocks, while the greater part of the peninsula is of tertiary formation, with a few isolated patches of secondary rocks. It is evident, therefore, that during much of the tertiary period, (Ceylon and South India, it is true, have been bounded on the north by a considerable extent of sea, but that was at a much earlier date than the Tertiary period.) Ceylon and South India were bounded on the north by a considerable extent of sea, and probably formed part of an extensive Southern Continent or great island.

The very numerous and remarkable cases of affinity with Malaya, require, however, some closer approximation with these islands, which probably occurred at a later period. When, still later, the great plains and tablelands of Hindustan were formed, and a permanent land communication effected with the rich and highly developed Himalo-Chinese fauna, a rapid immigration of new types took place, and many of the less specialised forms of mammalia and birds became extinct. Among reptiles and insects the competition was less severe, or the older forms were too well adapted to local conditions to be expelled; so that it is among these groups alone that we find any considerable number of what are probably the remains of the ancient fauna of a now submerged Southern Continent.” (Wallace’s Geographical Distribution, etc., ” Vol. I., pp. 328-9.)

After stating that during the whole of the tertiary and perhaps during much of the secondary periods, the great land masses of the earth were probably situated in the Northern Hemisphere, Wallace proceeds, “In the Southern Hemisphere there appear to have been three considerable and very ancient land masses, varying in extent from time to time, but always keeping distinct from each other, and represented more or less completely by Australia, South Africa and South America of our time. Into these flowed successive waves of life as they each in turn became temporarily united with some part of the Northern land.” (Wallace’s Geographical Distribution, etc., Vol. II., p. 155.)

Although, apparently in vindication of some conclusions of his which had been criticized by Dr. Hartlaub, Wallace subsequently denied the necessity of postulating the existence of such a continent, his general recognition of the facts of subsidences and upheavals of great portions of the earth’s surface, as well as the inferences which he draws from the acknowledged relations of living and extinct faunas as above stated, remain of course unaltered.

The following extracts from Mr. H. F. Blandford’s most interesting paper read before a meeting of the Geological Society deals with the subject in still greater detail (H. F. Blandford On the age and correlations of the Plant- bearing series of India and the former existence of an Indo-Oceanic Continent, see Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. XXXI., 1875, pp. 534- 40.):

The affinities between the fossils of both animals and plants of the Beauort group of Africa and those of the Indian Panchets and Kathmis are such as to suggest the former existence of a land connection between the two areas. But the resemblance of the African and Indian fossil faunas does not cease with Permian and Triassic times. The plant beds of the Uitenhage group have furnished eleven forms of plants, two of which Mr. Tate has identified with Indian Rajmahal plants. The Indian Jurassic fossils have yet to be described (with a few exceptions), but it has been stated that Dr. Stoliezka was much struck with the affinities of certain of the Cutch fossils to African forms; and Dr. Stoliezka and Mr. Griesbach have shown that of the Cretaceous fossils of the Umtafuni river in Natal, the majority (22 out of 35 described forms) are identical with species from Southern India. Now the plant-bearing series of India and the Karoo and part of the Uitenhage formation of Africa are in all probability of fresh-water origin, both indicating the existence of a large land area around, from the waste of which these deposits are derived. Was this land continuous between the two regions? And is there anything in the present physical geography of the Indian Ocean which would suggest its probable position?

Further, what was the connection between this land and Australia which we must equally assume to have existed in Permian times? And, lastly, are there any peculiarities in the existing fauna and flora of India, Africa and the intervening islands which would lend support to the idea of a former connection more direct than that which now exists between Africa and South India and the Malay peninsula? The speculation here put forward is no new one. It has long been a subject of thought in the minds of some Indian and European naturalists, among the former of whom I may mention my brother (Mr. Blandford) and Dr. Stoliezka, their speculations being grounded on the relationship and partial identity of the faunas and floras of past times, not less than on that existing community of forms which has led Mr. Andrew Murray, Mr. Searles, V. Wood, jun., and Professor Huxley to infer the existence of a Miocene continent occupying a part of the Indian Ocean. Indeed, all that I can pretend to aim at in this paper is to endeavor to give some additional definition and extension to the conception of its geological aspect.

With regard to the geographical evidence, a glance at the map will show that from the neighbourhood of the West Coast of India to that of the Seychelles, Madagascar, and the Mauritius, extends a line of coral atolls and banks, including Adas bank, the Laccadives, Maldives, the Chagos group and the Saya de Mulha, all indicating the existence of a submerged mountain range or ranges. The Seychelles, too, are mentioned by Mr. Darwin as rising from an extensive and tolerably level bank having a depth of between 30 and 40 fathoms; so that, although now partly encircled by fringing reefs, they may be regarded as a virtual extension of the same submerged axis. Further west the Cosmoledo and Comoro Islands consist of atolls and islands surrounded by barrier reefs; and these bring us pretty close to the present shores of Africa and Madagascar.

It seems at least probable that in this chain of atolls, banks, and barrier reefs we have indicated the position of an ancient mountain chain, which possibly formed the back-bone of a tract of later Paleozoic Mesozoic, and early Tertiary land, being related to it much as the Alpine and Himalayan system is to the Europaeo-Asiatic continent, and the Rocky Mountains and Andes to the two Americas. As it is desirable to designate this Mesozoic land by a name, I would propose that of Indo-Oceana. (The name given to it by Mr. Sclater, viz., Lemuria, is, however, the one which has been most generally adopted.) Professor Huxley has suggested on palaeontological grounds that a land connection existed in this region (or rather between Abyssinia and India) during the Miocene epoch. From what has been said above it will be seen that I infer its existence from a far earlier date. (A reference to the maps will show that Mr. Blandford’s estimate of date is the more correct of the two.)

With regard to its depression, the only present evidence relates to its northern extremity, and shows that it was in this region, later than the great trapflows of the Dakhan. These enormous sheets of volcanic rock are remarkably horizontal to the east of the Ghats and the Sakyadri range, but to the west of this they begin to dip seawards, so that the island of Bombay is composed of the higher parts of the formation. This indicates only that the depression to the westward has taken place in Tertiary times; and to that extent Professor Huxley’s inference, that it was after the Miocene period, is quite consistent with the geological evidence. ”

After proceeding at some length to instance the close relationship of many of the fauna in the lands under consideration (Lion, Hyacna, Jackal, Leopard, Antelope, Gazelle, Sand-grouse, Indian Bustard, many Land Molusca, and notably the Lemur and the Scaly Anteater) the writer proceeds as follows:

“Paleontology, physical geography and geology, equally with the ascertained distribution of living animals and plants, offer thus their concurrent testimony to the former close connection of Africa and India, including the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean. This Indo-Oceanic land appears to have existed from at least early Permian times, probably (as Professor Huxley has pointed out) up to the close of the Miocene epoch; (Parts of the continent of course endured, but the dismemberment of Lemuria is said to have taken place before the beginning of the Eocene Age.) and South Africa and Peninsular India are the existing remnants of that ancient land............

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The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 1:35 PM Comments comments (0)

The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa, against N-diethylnitrosamine: initiated and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis

Sanaa A. Ali, Nabaweya A. Ibrahim, and Esraa A. Refaat


The present study discusses the isolation of ursolic acid from the chloroform extract of Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb) Steud fruits and its cytotoxic effect has been assessed in-vitro was performed in different cells lines (A-549, MCF-7, HepG2) and in-vivo using N-diethylnitrosamine. The obtained results revealed that ursolic acid showed significant cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in comparison to Doxorubicin as a reference drug. Moreover, we have assessed the inhibitory effects of Paulownia tomentosa fruit chloroform extract and the isolated ursolic acid on hepatocarcinogenesis was carried out for the first time using N-diethylnitrosamine, where the group treated with ursolic acid given orally after 8 weeks of cancer induction showed the most significant results in comparison to the chloroform extract. The effect of ursolic acid on intoxicated rats caused significant restoration of most of the normal hepatocytes architecture with regular dark nuclei and the group treated with Paulownia tomentosa fruits showed remarkable results with improvement in biochemical analysis.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Natural product chemistry, Pharmaceutical chemistry
1. Introduction
The liver is one of the most vital organs in the human body dealing with the metabolism and detoxification of external and internal chemical substances. Many toxins target the liver and cause hepatotoxic effects that can be observed through some biochemical parameters. As it is the main site of N-diethylnitrosamine (NDEA) metabolism, the production of ROS in liver may be responsible for its carcinogenic effects [1].

Many herbs have been proven to be effective as hepatoprotective agents; these hepatoprotective plants have the phytoconstituents such as iridoidglycosides, phenyl compounds, coumarins, essential oils, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids and other nitrogenous compounds [2].

The chemical hepatocarcinogen NDEA is known to induce over expression of TGF-α (the growth factor transforming growth factor-α) which is closely involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and transformation in humans and animals. Furthermore, elevated expression of TGF-α in hepatic cirrhosis as TGF-α expression is higher in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatic diseases compared with normal healthy subject [3].This phenomenon is thought to play an important role in the process of NDEA -induced hepatocarcinogenesis which is evidenced by changes in histopathological architecture and increased liver marker enzymes [4, 5].

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae, and it is commonly known as princess tree. It is a perennial tree native to China, Japan and the Far East but it has been adapted to the southern United States and it is even invasive now [6]. It has been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of gonorrhea, bruise and deodorant. A decoction of the leaves was used to wash foul ulcers and to promote the growth of hair and prevent greying [7].

Ursolic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene, found in many plants and has a chemo protective activity in human. It possesses many important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic [8]. Numerous reports discussed ursolic acid in-vitro activities against tumor cell lines [9]. Several suggest possible mechanisms of action for tumor inhibition; i.e the proliferation of MCF-7 breast tumor cells by exerting an early cytostatic effect on the cell cycle at G1.The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects are likely to involve apoptosis (cell self-destruction). Also ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2human hepatoblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, with DNA fragmentation, enhanced release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3 (mediator for apoptosis). Expression of p21WAF1 (tumor suppressor) was increased, indicating possible involvement in mediating cell-cycle arrest. Also ursolic acid was found to inhibit tumor invasion by inhibited expression of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 at micromole concentrations, a finding that is consistent with the observed ability of ursolic acid to inhibit MMP expression in fibrosarcoma cells, and also inhibits proliferation and colony formation of tumor and limit the ability of tumor to invade and metastasize [10]. Ursolic acid reduces the proliferation of many tumor cell lines and many possible mechanisms of action have been addressed. Studies in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells showed an early G1 cytostatic effect for ursolic acid [11, 12]. Enhancement of intracellular Ca2+ signaling is thought to play a role in reducing proliferation [9]. Ursolic acid has been previously isolated from Paulownia tomentosa Leaves [13, 14]. The Essential oil of the flowers of Paulownia tomentosa. Growing in Egypt play a roleas antimicrobial activity [15].The methanolic extract was reported as antioxidant Hypoglycemic [16]. 

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Evaluation of flavonoids as 2019-nCoV cell entry inhibitor through molecular docking and pharmacological analysis. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:55 AM Comments comments (0)

. 2021 Mar;7(3):e06515. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06515. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Evaluation of flavonoids as 2019-nCoV cell entry inhibitor through molecular docking and pharmacological analysis

Deep Bhowmik 1, Rajat Nandi 1, Amresh Prakash 2, Diwakar Kumar 1

PMID: 33748510

PMCID: PMC7955945

DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06515


The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is being rapidly spread by the extremely spreadable and pathogenic 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as SARS-CoV-2. Pandemic incidence of COVID-19 has created a severe threat to global public health, necessitating the development of effective drugs or inhibitors or therapeutics agents against SARS-CoV-2. Spike protein (S) of the SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in entering viruses into the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), and this specific interaction represents a promising drug target for the identification of potential drugs. This study aimed at the receptor-binding domain of S protein (RBD of nCoV-SP) and the ACE-2 receptor as a promising target for developing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Over 100 different flavonoids with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties from different literatures were taken as a ligand or inhibitor for molecular docking against target protein RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2 using PyRX and iGEMDOCK. Top flavonoids based on docking scores were selected for the pharmacokinetic study. Selected flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin, ECGC, and quercetin) showed excellent pharmacokinetics with proper absorption, solubility, permeability, distribution, metabolism, minimal toxicity, and excellent bioavailability. Molecular dynamics simulation studies up to 100 ns exhibited strong binding affinity of selected flavonoids to RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2, and the protein-ligand complexes were structurally stable........

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Epicatechin and quercetin exhibit in vitro antioxidant effect, improve biochemical parameters related to metabolic syndrome, and decrease cellular genotoxicity in humans. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Green tea is a natural source of polyphenols where their catechins and flavonols are the major components. Their antioxidant activities are the most important biological effect and often the object of study. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) radical assay has been carried out to measure the individual scavenging activities expressed as percentage of DPPH inhibition for each tea polyphenol, and (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) (74.04 ± 0.38 %) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (69.51 ± 0.27 %) were the most active compounds. Synergistic, antagonistic and additive interactions among catechin derivatives as well as combined with green tea extract have been analyzed, where GCG and EGCG provided most of the synergistic effects. Flavonols such as quercetin (54.61 ± 0.21 %) and kaempferol (24.06 ± 0.02 %) also showed free radicals’ scavenging activity. Interactions between flavonols and individual catechins as well as their mixtures in the tea extract have been investigated. The results suggested that the presence of tea flavonols in tea extract provided additive interactions and the tea catechins were responsible for synergism in green tea. This work can be the starting point of the research about supplemented green tea from its own catechins to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the green tea.

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Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Effects of (-)-Epicatechin and Other Polyphenols in Cancer, , Diabetes, and Neurodegeneration. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:40 AM Comments comments (0)


Special Issue

Dietary Polyphenols and Their Effects on Cell Biochemistry and Pathophysiology 2014

Review Article | Open Access


Volume 2015 |Article ID 181260 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/181260


Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Effects of (−)-Epicatechin and Other Polyphenols in Cancer, , Diabetes, and Neurodegeneration

Joseph Shay,1,2 Hosam A. Elbaz,1,3 Icksoo Lee,4 Steven P. Zielske,3 Moh H. Malek,5,6 and Maik Hüttemann 1,2,6







Academic Editor: Cristina Angeloni


09 Jun 2015


With recent insight into the mechanisms involved in diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes, more efficient modes of treatment are now being assessed. Traditional medicine including the use of natural products is widely practiced around the world, assuming that certain natural products contain the healing properties that may in fact have a preventative role in many of the diseases plaguing the human population. This paper reviews the biological effects of a group of natural compounds called polyphenols, including apigenin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, and (−)-epicatechin, with a focus on the latter. (−)-Epicatechin has several unique features responsible for a variety of its effects. One of these is its ability to interact with and neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. (−)-Epicatechin also modulates cell signaling including the MAP kinase pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation. Mutations in this pathway are often associated with malignancies, and the use of (−)-epicatechin holds promise as a preventative agent and as an adjunct for chemotherapy and radiation therapy to improve outcome. This paper discusses the potential of some phenolic compounds to maintain, protect, and possibly reinstate health.


Dedicated to Dr. Manfred Holz


1. Introduction: Structural Characteristics of Polyphenols

Polyphenols belong to a ubiquitous family of naturally occurring compounds that encompass several other classes of compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids consist of several groups of compounds called anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonones, flavones, and isoflavones. These compounds are polyphenols due to the presence of multiple phenolic units in their chemical structure. Thus, phenolic compounds share structural features including an aromatic or a phenolic ring. Polyphenol compounds are most abundant in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Fruits such as apples, grapes, pears, cherries, and berries contain 200–300 mg of polyphenols per 100 grams [1]. (−)-Epicatechin, the focus of this review article, belongs to the group of flavanols. It is most commonly found as a natural product in cacao and cacao products, such as dark chocolate, and in green tea.


2. Biological Functions

Polyphenols have various important biological properties in both plants and animals that can be divided into two main categories, with antioxidant and nonantioxidant function. These functions are discussed throughout this paper. Regarding antioxidant action, it is noteworthy that polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet with a total daily intake as high as 1 gram, exceeding the intake of vitamin C by about 10-fold and that of vitamin E and carotenoids by about 100-fold [2]. Given the large number of studies showing beneficial effects with vitamin antioxidants, similar or better effects might be expected for polyphenols. Antioxidants, in general, have been intensely studied due to the high prevalence of oxidative stress found in numerous disease states, including Alzheimer’s disease, muscular dystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and aging. For example, in a randomized clinical trial for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients were treated for 16 weeks with vitamin E (α-tocopherol/E) 800 IU daily, 500 mg of vitamin C daily, 900 mg of α-lipoic acid (ALA) daily, and 400 mg of coenzyme Q (CoQ) three times daily or placebo [3]. The study showed, following E/C/ALA treatment only, a 19% decrease in F2-isoprostanes, which are cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD [3], suggesting the potential application of antioxidant treatment in patients with AD. Oxidative stress has also been found to play a pivotal role in the development of complications due to diabetes, such as cardiovascular and microvascular disease. Following treatment of diabetic mice with vitamins C, E, and β-carotene for 8 weeks Mekinová et al. [4] observed reductions of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, used to determine oxidative stress status), glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). These examples all argue for the potential use of ROS scavengers including natural compounds with such activities in certain diseases where the redox balance and ROS load are not any longer under control, a research direction that should be pursued with polyphenol compounds in the future.


There are numerous nonantioxidant functions of polyphenols with select examples discussed later in this paper. These include effects on estrogen receptor activity, cell signaling cascades, and cell cycle control in mammalian cells. Since polyphenols are plant-derived compounds, it is not surprising that they play important roles in plant physiology. As an example related to plant signaling, flavonoids were found to greatly affect the growth pattern of Malus x domestica, the apple tree [5]. The authors found, following RNAi silencing of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS), which is responsible for flavonoid synthesis in apples, a loss in skin and leaf pigmentation and a reduction in size, with smaller leaves and shortened internode lengths [5]. This suggests that flavonoid production is important for the integrity and morphology of apples. Polyphenols also have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is thought to be a primary function of polyphenols in mammals and therefore they are typically referred to as antioxidants.


3. Beneficial Health Effects of Selected Flavonoid Compounds

In this section we will briefly summarize the cellular and organismal effects of the selected flavonoids epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, apigenin, and (−)-epicatechin, the latter of which will be discussed in more detail.............

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Epicatechin acts synergistically with curcumin-induced cytogenotoxic effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:35 AM Comments comments (0)


Aim: The low bioavailability of curcumin, a polyphenol, limits its use as an antitumor agent. Identifying mechanisms to improve the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin can modify utilization of other plant-derived phenolic compounds. This study was conducted with an aim to determine the influence of some flavonoids on the effects of curcumin in an HL-60 cell line.

Methods: Cells were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of curcumin and several flavonoids for 20 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using propidium iodide staining. The evaluation of γH2AX expression using a specific antibody, together with study of the cell cycle, was analyzed using flow cytometry.

Results: A synergistic effect was obtained only using a combination of curcumin and lower concentrations of epicatechin. The low concentration of quercetin exerted an additive effect only in combination with curcumin. Moreover, incubation with curcumin and epicatechin resulted in a significant increase in the γH2AX level.

Conclusion: Combination treatment with epicatechin and curcumin can potentially be considered for improving the effectiveness and bioavailability of curcumin in cell lines of myeloid leukemia.

Polyphenols, cytotoxic effect, γ-H2AX, flow cytometry, HL-60 cell line

Treatment effectiveness in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unsatisfactory because of frequent relapses and treatment-related problems in elderly patients (age > 65), in whom AML incidence is relatively high compared to that in younger people[1,2]. Therefore, researchers are still on a quest for new, more effective, and safer therapies for the treatment of AML, particularly in elderly patients in whom aggressive chemotherapy for leukemia may sometimes be impossible (e.g. due to age-related comorbidities)[1].

Polyphenols are natural phytochemicals, and some exhibit a chemopreventive effect as demonstrated in vitro and in vivo studies[3-6]. Some polyphenols can exert a cytotoxic effect in AML cells[7] and curcumin, isolated from the rhizome Curcuma longa L. and with broad-spectrum anticancer properties, is an example[8]. Curcumin not only inhibits multiple pathways on different levels that are often overexpressed in cancer cells but also sensitizes them to apoptosis; in cancer cells resistant to apoptosis, curcumin can induce an alternative cell death, such as a mitotic catastrophe[8-10]. Curcumin acts at the gene level and triggers many metabolic pathways[11,12]. It inhibits genes contributing to multidrug resistance and can modulate epigenetic phenomena by inhibiting the methyltransferase 1 in AML cells[13,14].

At present, intensive research efforts are directed toward leveraging the anticancer effect of curcumin and improving its bioavailability[15]. Interest in this polyphenol is high, and the number of research efforts studying its anticancer activity is steadily increasing[16]. Thus, curcumin has a potential role in the development of novel cancer treatments.

Curcumin’s significant advantage is its low toxicity. Curcumin does not exhibit toxic effects in the human body even at doses of 9 g/kg b.w.[17,18]. Unfortunately, a major problem in the use of curcumin is its low bioavail-ability and rapid metabolism in plasma[19]. To improve bioavailability and stability of the compound currently involves improving the methods for creating micro- and nanoparticles of curcumin, liposomes, micelles, and derivatives of curcumin[20-23]. The effectiveness of curcumin, however, can be potentiated simply by using a combination of the compound and other polyphenols. This constitutes one of the most natural ways to improve the efficiency of curcumin action, and effectively increase its bioavailability[24,25].

The use of curcumin in combination with other polyphenols may potentiate its effectiveness through synergistic interactions[26]. Furthermore, cancer is a clonal disease, and individual clones of cells differ in sensitivity to chemotherapy and fall in mutual interactions[27]. Therefore, therapeutic action directed at various molecular targets, such as those exhibited by curcumin, may be more effective than action directed towards only one of these targets. Combination therapy of curcumin with other polyphenols that act synergistically with curcumin may be an effective and safe addition to conventional chemotherapy, and may allow dose reduction of cytostatic drugs.

This preliminary study was conducted to investigate the influence of a several flavonoid polyphenols on the cytogenotoxic activity of curcumin in a HL-60 myeloid leukemia cell line.........

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Lost City of the Monkey God In Honduras? - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 7, 2021 at 5:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Hanuman’s popularity covers the entire country from the Himalayas in the North to the peninsular tip in the South. It spills over to the neighbouring countries in South East Asia and the worship of this deity is of immense antiquity.


“As a god of good fortune he held his ground as Thoth (the god of wisdom) among the Egyptian pantheon; he appeared here as a dog-headed baboon (cynocephalus). He was a symbol of wisdom in ancient Greece, associated with magic, sorcery and witchcraft. In the Maya civilisation, he was the only form that could survive the wrath of the gods,” Vedic scholar S K Ramachandra Rao has written in his book Hanuman Kosa.


There are ape statues from Babylonia, ancient figurines from Egypt and little silver and lapis-lazuli icons from Iraq (Khafaje) that remind one of Hanuman. Finds in the remains of the Aztec, South Babylonia, Egyptian, the Chinese civilisations suggest that the monkey-god was feared or adored by the people.


There are stories, myths and legends relating to the exploits of this God in all these countries with regional variations in the theme and content (like the Chinese Golden Monkey-sun), writes Professor Rao.


American aviator Charles Lindberg during one of his flights over the jungles of Mosquitia in Hondurus, is believed to have caught a glimpse of what he thought was the ‘Lost City of the Monkey God‘ where, local people worshipped huge ‘Monkey Sculptures’ (Source: Book Facts). ..... Full Article at https://www.softpowermag.com/hanumans-south-american-connection-lokadevata-invoked-today-for-medical-aid/


Posted on April 7, 2021 at 5:15 AM Comments comments (0)


The native name for Brazil is PindoRama and though it is said that Pindo Rama translates as 'Land of Palms' from Tupi, an ancient American-Indian language, there is much evidence that indicates that Sri Rama, the God-King of Ayodhya was worshipped in that part of the world.


In the Vedic tradition 'pinda' (पिण्ड) is a very meaningful word. It often appears in mantras and sutras. For example the Upanashid says 'yatha pindi tatha bramhanda'. 'As is the body so is the universe', or the body is a smaller version of the entire universe.


In Sanskrit, 'pinda' is the 'body', it is the body as the reflection of the 'world'. It is the body as the mirror of the whole universe.The significance of the term Pinda according to Upanasids is 'an organised whole, a unity of diversities'. Pindarama is 'Rama's Universe' or 'Rama as someone who is the universe'.


In the Krittivasi Ramayana, Ahiravan (Ahiravan or Mahiravan), brother of Ravana, was a rakshasa who secretly carried away Rama and his brother Lakshmana to the nether-world, consulted his friends and decided to sacrifice the life of the two divine brothers at the altar of his chosen deity, goddess Mahamaya. But Hanuman saved their life by killing Ahiravan and his army.The nether-world or 'patala' is often identified as the South American land-mass.


In the Valmiki Ramayana, after the abduction of Sita, Sugreeva - the 'vanara' commander, orders his chiefs to 'go round the earth and fetch all the monkey champions on earth'. The chiefs go to various mountains, rivers, oceans, and forests and motivate all monkeys to reach Sugreeva at once'. Valmiki Ramayana, Kishkinda Kand, Chapter 37).


Once the 'vanaras' assimilate, Sugreeva gives detailed instructions about the route that each of the search parties is to take in search of the abducted Sita. The route-map is so detailed, and mentions mountains and rivers, seas and oceans and the travel time involved, that it is absurd to deduct that Sugreeva was only detailing regions within India or had no knowledge of the world beyondpresent day India. Refer to Chapters 37, 40, 41, 42 and 43 of the Kishkinda Kand. That they reached Peru is substantiated by the mention of the ancient Paracas Trident of Peru in the Ramayana. For more on this click here.


Archaeology and ancient reliefs indicate that Ramayana, Sri Rama, Hanuman, Goddess Sita etc. were not unknown in Brazil, Honduras, Peru, Bolivia, Guatemala and Mexico.


There is archaeological support to the fact that Hanuman was not unknown in that part of the world.




An ancient sculpture of the 'Howler Monkey God'

of Copan, Honduros is linked to the Vedic Hanuman


The ancient name of Brazil, that is Pindorama, is also related to an ancient tribe of Brazil by the name 'RamaRama'. The RamaRama were a Tupi speaking group of considerable size living in the Brazilian Amazonian area in a place called Rondonia. When the Spanish rubber-collector's poured into Rondonia in 1880s they brought death and disease to the tribe so that it is now extinct as a culture.


Ancient civilizations such as the Maori's of New Zealand also had a tribe by the name RamaRama. There is a place by the name RamaRama in New Zealand which is 40 km away from the city of Auckland.


Researching the path of ancient sea-farers from India, Frank Joseph states in his book 'Archaeological Discoveries of Ancient America', "A general population spread, from India into Pacific and beyond the shores of South America, may begin with native Maori oral history in New Zealand. Folk tradition recounts that 161 generations ago (approximately 1500 BC), Maori ancestors migrated en-masse from a hot country called Iriha in the wake of war.... The Maoris' ancient 'Iriha' is an obvious variation of Vrihia, an ancient name for India...".


Joseph adds, "...archaeological digs throughout the Pacific suggest the Vedic mariners colonized areas as far eastward as Samoa and Tonga including Fiji.. and further on...".


Joseph also states that the names Kuru and Pandava finds its way into Peruvian ancient books as Urus and Puruha and is remembered by Peru's Ayamara tribes. The mixed descendants of some Urus still live on floating reed beds at Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Recently archaeologists have discovered huge amounts of gold artifacts in the lake Titicaca region which are at the least 4000 years old, indicating that civilization was not unknown in this part of the world in antiquity.


Not far from Lake Titicaca the Incan's celebrated the Inti Rayami festival (also called Rama-Sitva) which researchers have linked with the celebration of the winter Solstice. Sir William Jones (1744 - 1794) stated in his papers published by the the Asiatic Society that the Incan festival 'Rama-Sitva' celebrated on the Winter Solstice Day gets its name from the Hindu God King, Sri Rama and his wife, Goddess Sita. The Winter Solstice Day is celebrated in June in Peru. (Peru lies in the southern Hemisphere and the winter solstice day falls in June).


But now, back to Brazil. In his book, Mysteries of Ancient South America, author Harold T. Wilkins writes about the findings of an expedition in the 1920s lead by Colonel P.H. Fawcett into the woods of the Brazilian Amazon where he chanced upon an ancient city and some rock inscriptions, about which Wilkins says, "... those strange writings are something more remarkable... they are of an esoteric Hindu cult." (page 63).


Writing about the inscriptions, he further adds," I have myself discovered some queer links between these strange letters of old Brazil, and characters found in Tibet and Vedic Hindostan". (Page 118).


For example the inscriptions on the Inga stone of Brazil have been compared to RongoRongo (the ancient script of Easter island located in the South Pacific ocean) which itself bears a close resemblance to the Indus Valley script.

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385,000-year-old evidence: Ancient tools found in India undermine the "out of Africa" hypothesis. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 7, 2021 at 3:50 AM Comments comments (0)

Scientists have unveiled an extraordinary new analysis of thousands of stone tools found at a site called Attirampakkam in India, northwest of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Thanks to new dating techniques, a team led by archaeologist Shanti Pappu determined that most of the tools are between 385,000 and 172,000 years old. What makes these dates noteworthy is that they upend the idea that tool-making was transformed in India after an influx of modern Homo sapiens came from Africa starting about 130,000 years ago.

According to these findings, hominins in India were making tools that looked an awful lot like what people were making in Africa almost 250,000 years before they encountered modern humans. This is yet another piece of evidence that the "out of Africa" process was a lot messier and more complex than previously thought......... https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/01/new-discoveries-raise-critical-questions-for-out-of-africa-hypothesis/ ;

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Cradle Of Humanity & Return of the Continent "Lemuria" - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 7, 2021 at 3:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Now the third great continent, that of the third Root Race, that was destroyed, was Lemuria. It was land

where now the Pacific Ocean is rolling; the bed of the Pacific is the old continent of Lemuria, and that fact

has been recognised by European scientists. They admit that there was a land where the Pacific now is,

and they call it by the same name; and Haeckel, the great German biologist, regards Lemuria as the

cradle of the human race. He is quite right, for it was the first which was fully human. That was destroyed

by earthquakes and fire; water rushed in to fill up the destruction, to fill the great holes made by the

earthquakes; parts of it, however, are recognised as remaining; Australia is such a part, and New

Zealand; such a part is Mauritius; such a part is the Easter Islands, also belonging to it. I need not go

over the whole remains that are left, but the greater part is below the ocean. Now that is the site of the

coming sixth great continent. Lemuria will rise, and where there is now the Pacific, there will be

widespread land. And it is beginning. I am not talking fairy tales. At one of the important meetings of the

British Association for the Advancement of Science, where all the wisest men gather together, chemists,

arithmeticians, geographers, explorers, the cream as it were of precise knowledge gathered together to

study and to discuss — you could not have a more respectable authority, and I fall back upon them for

my new continent — they told us in the Geographical Section that the continent was rising, and they

pointed to the fact that parts of the new [Page 9] continent are already above the level of the sea, They

speak of an "earthquake ring" in the Pacific, and they point out that during the last few years thousands

of volcanic outbursts have occurred, and some have thrown up islands above the surface of the ocean,

and people travelling in ships, captains, were sometimes astonished to find solid land where a few years

before there was only water...........

The Coming Race

by Annie Besant

A lecture delivered at the Theosophical Conference held at Chittoor on 17th March, 1916,

and originally published in The Adyar Bulletin, April and May, 1916

Published in 1917

Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, Chennai [Madras] India

The Theosophist Office, Adyar, Madras. India

The Doctrine of Dependent Origination as Basis for a Paradigm of Human-Nature Relationship of Responsibility and Accountability. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 6, 2021 at 10:25 AM Comments comments (0)

The Doctrine of Dependent Origination as Basis for a Paradigm of Human-Nature Relationship of Responsibility and Accountability

Journal of Graduate Studies Review of Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, Vol.11, No.1, January-April 2015, pp. 123-144

Posted: 26 Oct 2017
Anthony Le Duc
Lux Mundi National Major Seminary, Thailand

Date Written: March 15, 2015

The doctrine of paṭiccasamuppāda or Dependent Origination is one of the most important teachings of Buddhism and serves as a source of inspiration for reflections on all kinds of issues including social, political, and spiritual. In this paper, the doctrine of Dependent Origination is examined as a resource for conceiving of a relationship between human beings and nature as one characterized by responsibility. This is done by reflecting upon the abstract form of the teaching as a law of universal causality that contains an environmental import. The environmental significance of this teaching appears when we realize that human thoughts and actions can lead certain things to arise in nature that may be either positive or negative. Based on these reflections, a paradigm of human-nature relationship of responsibility is proposed. In addition, the Buddhist virtues of moderation and contentment are presented as essential ways to nourish such a relationship.

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One Element. We recognise but one element in Nature (whether spiritual or physical) outside which there can be no Nature since it is Nature itself... - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 6, 2021 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

The Elements, in many philosophies and religious views, are said to be the simplest essential parts and principles of which everything consists. In ancient thought (such as the Greek, Hindu and Buddhist) there is reference to four elements (Earth, Water, Air, and Fire), sometimes including a fifth element or quintessence called Aether or Akasa (space). The Chinese had a somewhat different series of elements, namely Fire, Earth, Metal, Water and Wood, which were understood as different types of energy in a state of constant interaction and flux with one another, rather than the notion of different kinds of material. In the Theosophical literature there is mention to one ultimate element that differentiate in seven, although only four are completely manifested at this stage of evolution.



1 Elements in Theosophy

1.1 The One Element

1.2 Manifestation of the elements

2 In Hinduism

3 In Buddhism

3.1 The element or "dhatu"

4 In Greek philosophy

5 In Chinese philosophy

6 Notes

Elements in Theosophy

The Theosophical view maintains that there are seven fundamental elements in nature, which are differentiations of the one element. These seven elements do not manifest on all the planes simultaneously, but progressively as evolution goes on.


The One Element

In The Mahatma Letters, Master KH writes about one element, which is the homogeneous basis of all:


There is but one element and it is impossible to comprehend our system before a correct conception of it is firmly fixed in one's mind. You must therefore pardon me if I dwell on the subject longer than really seems necessary. But unless this great primary fact is firmly grasped the rest will appear unintelligible. This element then is the — to speak metaphysically — one sub-stratum or permanent cause of all manifestations in the phenomenal universe.[1]

This element is sometimes called Svābhāvat:


You will have first of all to view the eternal Essence, the Swabavat, not as a compound element you call spirit-matter, but as the one element for which the English has no name. It is both passive and active, pure Spirit Essence in its absoluteness, and repose, pure matter in its finite and conditioned state[2]

The one element penetrates the whole space and, in fact, is space itself:


We recognise but one element in Nature (whether spiritual or physical) outside which there can be no Nature since it is Nature itself, and which as the akasa pervades our solar system, every atom being part of itself pervades throughout space and is space in fact, which pulsates as in profound sleep during the pralayas, and [is] the universal Proteus, the ever active Nature during the manwantaras. . . . Consequently spirit and matter are one, being but a differentiation of states not essences.[3]

The great difficulty in grasping the idea in the above process lies in the liability to form more or less incomplete mental conceptions of the working of the one element, of its inevitable presence in every imponderable atom, and its subsequent ceaseless and almost illimitable multiplication of new centres of activity without affecting in the least its own original quantity.[4]

The one element not only fills space and is space, but interpenetrates every atom of cosmic matter.[5]

This one element is the origin of the different elements known by the ancients:


If the student bears in mind that there is but One Universal Element, which is infinite, unborn, and undying, and that all the rest — as in the world of phenomena — are but so many various differentiated aspects and transformations (correlations, they are now called) of that One, from Cosmical down to microcosmical effects, from super-human down to human and sub-human beings, the totality, in short, of objective existence — then the first and chief difficulty will disappear and Occult Cosmology may be mastered.[6]

Metaphysically and esoterically there is but One ELEMENT in nature, and at the root of it is the Deity; and the so-called seven elements, of which five have already manifested and asserted their existence, are the garment, the veil, of that deity; direct from the essence whereof comes MAN, whether physically, psychically, mentally or spiritually considered.[7]

The ancients speak of the five cognizable elements of ether, air, water, fire, earth, and of the one incognizable element (to the uninitiates) the 6th principle of the universe — call it Purush Sakti, while to speak of the seventh outside the sanctuary was punishable with death. But these five are but the differentiated aspects of the one.[8]

Manifestation of the elements

The process of cosmic manifestation proceeds gradually, manifesting six of these elements one after the other. Stanza VI.3 says:


Of the Seven (elements)—first one manifested, six concealed; two manifested—five concealed; three manifested—four concealed; four produced—three hidden; four and one tsan (fraction) revealed—two and one half concealed; six to be manifested—one laid aside.[9]

Mme. Blavatsky applies this sloka to the manifestation of the elements on the lowest plane, one at a time, with the succession of Rounds:


Although these Stanzas refer to the whole Universe after a Mahapralaya (universal destruction), yet this sentence, as any student of Occultism may see, refers also by analogy to the evolution and final formation of the primitive (though compound) Seven Elements on our Earth. Of these, four elements are now fully manifested, while the fifth—Ether—is only partially so, as we are hardly in the second half of the Fourth Round, and consequently the fifth Element will manifest fully only in the Fifth Round.[10]

Occult Science recognises Seven Cosmical Elements—four entirely physical, and the fifth (Ether) semi-material, as it will become visible in the air towards the end of our Fourth Round, to reign supreme over the others during the whole of the Fifth. The remaining two are as yet absolutely beyond the range of human perception. These latter will, however, appear as presentments during the 6th and 7th Races of this Round, and will become known in the 6th and 7th Rounds respectively. These seven elements with their numberless Sub-Elements far more numerous than those known to Science) are simply conditional modifications and aspects of the ONE and only Element.[11]

Four elements only are generally spoken of in later antiquity, five admitted only in philosophy. For the body of ether is not fully manifested yet, and its noumenon is still “the Omnipotent Father—Æther, the synthesis of the rest.”[12]

The succession of primary aspects of Nature with which the succession of Rounds is concerned, has to do, as already indicated, with the development of the “Elements” (in the Occult sense)—Fire, Air, Water, Earth. We are only in the fourth Round, and our catalogue so far stops short.[13]

The ordering of the elements mentioned by Mme. Blavatsky coincides with the degree of their spiritual quality. In a letter to Alfred Percy Sinnett, Mahatma K.H. wrote about:


. . . the principles of earth, water, air, fire and ether (akasa) following the order of their spirituality and beginning with the lowest.[14]

The elements can also be seen as the objective aspect of the seven Dhyani-Buddhas:


“These Brâhmanas (the Rishi Prajâpati?), the creators of the world, are born here (on earth) again and again. Whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements (the five, or rather seven, Dhyani Buddhas, also called “Elements” of Mankind), like billows in the ocean. These great elements are in every way beyond the elements that make up the world (the gross elements). And he who is released even from these five elements (the tanmâtras) goes to the highest goal.”[15]

In Hinduism

Hindus believe that all of creation, including the human body, is made up of these five essential elements (Mahābhūtas) and that upon death, the human body dissolves into these five elements of nature, thereby balancing the cycle of nature. These "five great elements" (panchamahābhūtas) are (in order of increasing subtlety):


1- Earth (pṛithvī or bhūmi)


2- Water (apa or jala)


3- Fire (tejas or agni)


4- Air or wind (vāyu)


5- Aether or space (akash).


The five great elements originate from the five tanmatra (subtle essences).


In Buddhism

The element or "dhatu"

The teaching about the existence of one single element, eternal and immutable, is not prevalent within Buddhism, which generally postulates Śūnyatā (emptiness) as the ultimate reality. However, as David Reigle has shown, the Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism holds this teaching. He writes:


The key term in Maitreya's Ratna-gotra-vihhaga is dhātu, or element. It is described in the following important verse:

It is not born, does not die, is not afflicted, and does not grow old, because it is permanent (nitya/rtag-pa), stable (dhruva/brtan-pa), quiescent (siva/zhi-ba), and eternal (sasvata/g.yung-drung). Ratna-gotra-vibhaga or Uttara-tantra, by Maitreya, verse 80.

As noted earlier, this one thing, dhatu or element, may be called tathagata-garbha or Buddha-nature when obscured, and dharma-kaya or body of the law when unobscured.....

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