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Shaktipat & Subtle Power of Spiritual Energy. Intrinsic need for spiritual energy for the expansion of consciousness from teacher or guru to the student. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 8:05 AM Comments comments (0)


While talking about the role played by a teacher, Master Choa Kok Sui said that the Guru is like a transformer who “brings down high spiritual energy to the level your subtle bodies can handle”. So, what is this spiritual energy?


Spiritual energy has often been referred to as Chi or Qi energy which is basically the life-force that permeates and energizes everything. Various techniques have been formulated to channel this energy and to use it for healing. Spiritual energy is therefore best regarded as a powerful force that is not bound by any confinement.


Grand Master Choa Kok Sui stated the intrinsic need for spiritual energy for the expansion of consciousness. Spiritual energy is also what makes it possible to travel into the inner realms of the spiritual world. The attainment of stillness and awareness is not enough to fuel spiritual growth. Without spiritual energy, the consciousness cannot grow and expansion is stalled.


Shaktipat is a Sanskrit term that is basically a conjugation of the two terms, “shakti”, meaning power or energy and “pat”, meaning to fall or descend. Shaktipat is therefore the “transference of tremendous spiritual energy” from the teacher or guru to the student. This enables the consciousness of the disciple to be able to traverse through the different levels of the inner world. This process of energy-transfer is referred to as spiritual initiation in various esoteric books that are available today.


To explain the immense power of spiritual energy and the process of it being transformed and transferred, Grand Master Choa Kok Sui use a very interesting analogy:-


“You have 110-volt plugs. If you put your equipment directly into the transfer outlet, it gets destroyed. If you put it directly into the power source, it gets really destroyed. So from the power source it gets stepped down, stepped down, stepped down until the appliances in your home can handle it. The same thing here; there is a stepping-down process. One of the functions of the teacher is to step down the energy so that the higher soul and the incarnated soul can handle it”.


What Master Choa Kok Sui explained in such simple terms is proof of how amazing a teacher he was to be able to relate to his students such difficult concepts with such ease.


The entire universe is a web of energy and this energy is emanated at all times, through all things. When we invoke or meditate, there is a descent of Divine energy into our beings. However, to be able to handle huge quantities of spiritual energy, one must develop his/her physical bodies. The development of our spiritual or energy body is not possible without the development of our tangible physical forms. Spiritual practices are all aimed at gaining mastery over spiritual energy which would then enable an individual to transform this energy and utilize its vast potential.

Indexed for World Pranic Healing by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Your Etheric Body and Prana. Prana (chi) thus provides nourishment to and invigorates the physical body... - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 7:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Words such as “ether” or “ethereal” immediately conjure up images of a world beyond the clouds, of starlit spaces filled with heavenly light and of Divinity as well as a deep sense of peace. What if ether was not just up there, but within ourselves too? In reality, we ourselves have an etheric body. In Sanskrit, this subtle entity is referred to as “linga sarira”. The etheric body is clairvoyantly seen as a double or a twin of the physical body.


Did You Know You have a Twin?

Our etheric body is a bioplasmic and luminous in nature and surrounds the physical body while interpenetrating it. Clairvoyants are gifted with sight beyond what our physical eyes can see and are able to view this etheric double which actually appears to have two hands, two legs, two eyes, so on and so forth just like our physical bodies.


What does the word bioplasmic mean? The word “bioplasm” is an amalgamation of two words: bio, meaning life and plasma, referring to the fourth state of matter. When matter in the gaseous state has been ionized and possesses negative and positive charged particles, it may be termed as plasma. This, however, is very different from blood plasma.


The etheric body is thus a living aura or energy body that is constituted of subtle matter that is invisible to the naked eye. Kirlian photography is regarded as scientific proof of the existence of our etheric body. Kirlian photographs allow for viewing, observing and analyzing the energy field or the etheric body that surrounds our physical forms.


It is through the etheric body that prana or life energy can bee absorbed into and distributed through the physical body. The etheric body thus serves as a channel for life energy to flow into the visible physical body we possess and are so attached to.


Your Etheric Body and Prana

The flow of prana throughout the etheric body is facilitated by fine bioplasmic meridians the workings of which are much like the workings of the blood vessels in the physical body. Yogic terminology refers to these channels or meridians as 'nadis'. These nadis are further classified into major and minor nadis. Just like we possess blood vessels and capillaries of varied importance and function in our tangible body, there is order in our etheric body as well. Prana (chi) thus provides nourishment to and invigorates the physical body in its totality through the effective functioning of the channels in the etheric body.


The etheric body and the physical body share an intimate bond of interdependence and what affects one, affects the other. Master Choa Kok Sui, after several years of detailed study, research and analysis, provided his students with much information about the nature and functioning of spiritual energy and the etheric body. This process of inter-related functioning works in accordance with the Law of Correspondence. Just as sickness in the etheric body is a precursor to sickness in the physical body, healing the etheric body heals the ailments in the physical body. The etheric body is thus a tetra-dimensional energy entity that serves as an integral counterpart of the physical body.


Source: The Ancient Science and Art of Pranic Healing by Master Choa Kok Sui 

Indexed for World Pranic Healing 


Bio-Etheric Healing: Make Friends With Your Etheric Body. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 7:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Bio-Etheric Healing is an innovative method of alternative healing which uses a set of Communication Skills based on thought processes to direct our Etheric Body, and through it, our full energy field (our Aura) to help in healing work. It is possible to have this communication directly with one's own energy field. Also, when working with a client, a Bio-Etheric Healing professional can use this method to mobilize the client's own energy field to help in his healing. The actual healing work is not limited to face-to-face physical proximity. Rather, Bio-Etheric Healing via thought process communication can be accomplished over great distances.

This communication, and the healing work itself, is possible because of the energy field which surrounds our bodies, and indeed surrounds everyone and everything on this planet. It is called the Auric Field, and our own individual envelope of this energy which surrounds our bodies is called our Aura. The first layer of our Aura, closest to our Physical Bodies, is the Etheric Layer, and it plays a major role in Bio-Etheric Healing.

In almost all cases, the actual healing itself begins at the Etheric Body level. It is primarily with the Etheric Body that we communicate with thought messages to provide it the directions for healing. It is in a sense the "supervisor" of the process. The Etheric Body then communicates with the other participants and enlists their help, as needed, to accomplish the healing. These other players include the Physical Body, the Brain, the other layers of the Aura, and the Chakra System. Each of these have special functions in the healing process, and the appropriate one must be called upon by the Etheric Body to aid in the process. The Chakra System is a major player because of its unique role as the distribution system for energy flow throughout the body.

However, even though the Etheric Body may know what is wrong and what needs healing, it won't act unless told to do so. The key to Bio-Etheric Healing is that we ourselves, or a healer, must give the Etheric Body directions as to what to do and it will do it.

When the Etheric Body is asked to heal something, it does the best it is able to do, with the information has. The more information provided to the Etheric Body, and the greater the accuracy of the information, the better it can accomplish its healing role

Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 1:45 PM Comments comments (0)


Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.



Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid that contributes to the waxy coats on apples, other fruits, and many herbs, including some folkloric herbal medicines for diabetes [1]–[4]. We recently identified ursolic acid in a screen for small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy [5]. In that study, we determined the effects of fasting and spinal cord injury on skeletal muscle mRNA levels in humans, and used that information to generate unbiased mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. We then used these signatures to query the Connectivity Map [6] for compounds whose expression signatures negatively correlated with the signatures of human muscle atrophy. Out of >1300 compounds in the Connectivity Map, ursolic acid emerged as the most likely inhibitor of muscle atrophy.


To test the hypothesis that ursolic acid might inhibit muscle atrophy, we studied mice that had been fasted or undergone surgical muscle denervation, and found that ursolic acid reduced muscle atrophy [5]. We then investigated ursolic acid's effect in the absence of an atrophy stimulus by adding ursolic acid to standard mouse chow for 5 weeks. In that setting, ursolic acid induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy [5]. Since the protein kinase Akt (also known as PKB) inhibits muscle atrophy and promotes muscle hypertrophy [7]–[13], we examined ursolic acid's effect on Akt. We found that ursolic acid increased Akt activity in mouse skeletal muscle and in cultured C2C12 skeletal myotubes [5]. In myotubes, ursolic acid increased Akt activity at least in part by enhancing ligand-dependent activation of the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor.


In addition to causing muscle hypertrophy, genetic interventions that activate Akt specifically in skeletal muscle also increase energy expenditure, reduce adiposity and blood glucose, and impart resistance to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease [8], [9]. Similarly, we found that ursolic acid reduced adiposity and blood glucose in non-obese mice [5], and others found that ursolic acid reduces total body weight, white fat, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in high fat-fed mice [14], [15]. Based on these considerations, we hypothesized that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, leading to muscle hypertrophy, increased energy expenditure and thus, reduced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis, and found that ursolic acid increases not only skeletal muscle, but also another tissue that opposes diet-induced obesity, brown fat.........

Indexed for NIH & PLOS ONE by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 1:35 PM Comments comments (0)

The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa, against N-diethylnitrosamine: initiated and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis

Sanaa A. Ali, Nabaweya A. Ibrahim, and Esraa A. Refaat


The present study discusses the isolation of ursolic acid from the chloroform extract of Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb) Steud fruits and its cytotoxic effect has been assessed in-vitro was performed in different cells lines (A-549, MCF-7, HepG2) and in-vivo using N-diethylnitrosamine. The obtained results revealed that ursolic acid showed significant cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in comparison to Doxorubicin as a reference drug. Moreover, we have assessed the inhibitory effects of Paulownia tomentosa fruit chloroform extract and the isolated ursolic acid on hepatocarcinogenesis was carried out for the first time using N-diethylnitrosamine, where the group treated with ursolic acid given orally after 8 weeks of cancer induction showed the most significant results in comparison to the chloroform extract. The effect of ursolic acid on intoxicated rats caused significant restoration of most of the normal hepatocytes architecture with regular dark nuclei and the group treated with Paulownia tomentosa fruits showed remarkable results with improvement in biochemical analysis.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Natural product chemistry, Pharmaceutical chemistry
1. Introduction
The liver is one of the most vital organs in the human body dealing with the metabolism and detoxification of external and internal chemical substances. Many toxins target the liver and cause hepatotoxic effects that can be observed through some biochemical parameters. As it is the main site of N-diethylnitrosamine (NDEA) metabolism, the production of ROS in liver may be responsible for its carcinogenic effects [1].

Many herbs have been proven to be effective as hepatoprotective agents; these hepatoprotective plants have the phytoconstituents such as iridoidglycosides, phenyl compounds, coumarins, essential oils, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids and other nitrogenous compounds [2].

The chemical hepatocarcinogen NDEA is known to induce over expression of TGF-α (the growth factor transforming growth factor-α) which is closely involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and transformation in humans and animals. Furthermore, elevated expression of TGF-α in hepatic cirrhosis as TGF-α expression is higher in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatic diseases compared with normal healthy subject [3].This phenomenon is thought to play an important role in the process of NDEA -induced hepatocarcinogenesis which is evidenced by changes in histopathological architecture and increased liver marker enzymes [4, 5].

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae, and it is commonly known as princess tree. It is a perennial tree native to China, Japan and the Far East but it has been adapted to the southern United States and it is even invasive now [6]. It has been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of gonorrhea, bruise and deodorant. A decoction of the leaves was used to wash foul ulcers and to promote the growth of hair and prevent greying [7].

Ursolic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene, found in many plants and has a chemo protective activity in human. It possesses many important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic [8]. Numerous reports discussed ursolic acid in-vitro activities against tumor cell lines [9]. Several suggest possible mechanisms of action for tumor inhibition; i.e the proliferation of MCF-7 breast tumor cells by exerting an early cytostatic effect on the cell cycle at G1.The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects are likely to involve apoptosis (cell self-destruction). Also ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2human hepatoblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, with DNA fragmentation, enhanced release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3 (mediator for apoptosis). Expression of p21WAF1 (tumor suppressor) was increased, indicating possible involvement in mediating cell-cycle arrest. Also ursolic acid was found to inhibit tumor invasion by inhibited expression of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 at micromole concentrations, a finding that is consistent with the observed ability of ursolic acid to inhibit MMP expression in fibrosarcoma cells, and also inhibits proliferation and colony formation of tumor and limit the ability of tumor to invade and metastasize [10]. Ursolic acid reduces the proliferation of many tumor cell lines and many possible mechanisms of action have been addressed. Studies in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells showed an early G1 cytostatic effect for ursolic acid [11, 12]. Enhancement of intracellular Ca2+ signaling is thought to play a role in reducing proliferation [9]. Ursolic acid has been previously isolated from Paulownia tomentosa Leaves [13, 14]. The Essential oil of the flowers of Paulownia tomentosa. Growing in Egypt play a roleas antimicrobial activity [15].The methanolic extract was reported as antioxidant Hypoglycemic [16]. 

........ Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Evaluation of flavonoids as 2019-nCoV cell entry inhibitor through molecular docking and pharmacological analysis. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:55 AM Comments comments (0)

. 2021 Mar;7(3):e06515. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06515. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Evaluation of flavonoids as 2019-nCoV cell entry inhibitor through molecular docking and pharmacological analysis

Deep Bhowmik 1, Rajat Nandi 1, Amresh Prakash 2, Diwakar Kumar 1

PMID: 33748510

PMCID: PMC7955945

DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06515


The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is being rapidly spread by the extremely spreadable and pathogenic 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as SARS-CoV-2. Pandemic incidence of COVID-19 has created a severe threat to global public health, necessitating the development of effective drugs or inhibitors or therapeutics agents against SARS-CoV-2. Spike protein (S) of the SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in entering viruses into the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), and this specific interaction represents a promising drug target for the identification of potential drugs. This study aimed at the receptor-binding domain of S protein (RBD of nCoV-SP) and the ACE-2 receptor as a promising target for developing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Over 100 different flavonoids with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties from different literatures were taken as a ligand or inhibitor for molecular docking against target protein RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2 using PyRX and iGEMDOCK. Top flavonoids based on docking scores were selected for the pharmacokinetic study. Selected flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin, ECGC, and quercetin) showed excellent pharmacokinetics with proper absorption, solubility, permeability, distribution, metabolism, minimal toxicity, and excellent bioavailability. Molecular dynamics simulation studies up to 100 ns exhibited strong binding affinity of selected flavonoids to RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2, and the protein-ligand complexes were structurally stable........

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Epicatechin and quercetin exhibit in vitro antioxidant effect, improve biochemical parameters related to metabolic syndrome, and decrease cellular genotoxicity in humans. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Green tea is a natural source of polyphenols where their catechins and flavonols are the major components. Their antioxidant activities are the most important biological effect and often the object of study. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) radical assay has been carried out to measure the individual scavenging activities expressed as percentage of DPPH inhibition for each tea polyphenol, and (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) (74.04 ± 0.38 %) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (69.51 ± 0.27 %) were the most active compounds. Synergistic, antagonistic and additive interactions among catechin derivatives as well as combined with green tea extract have been analyzed, where GCG and EGCG provided most of the synergistic effects. Flavonols such as quercetin (54.61 ± 0.21 %) and kaempferol (24.06 ± 0.02 %) also showed free radicals’ scavenging activity. Interactions between flavonols and individual catechins as well as their mixtures in the tea extract have been investigated. The results suggested that the presence of tea flavonols in tea extract provided additive interactions and the tea catechins were responsible for synergism in green tea. This work can be the starting point of the research about supplemented green tea from its own catechins to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the green tea.

Preview Indexed for Springer by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Effects of (-)-Epicatechin and Other Polyphenols in Cancer, , Diabetes, and Neurodegeneration. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:40 AM Comments comments (0)


Special Issue

Dietary Polyphenols and Their Effects on Cell Biochemistry and Pathophysiology 2014

Review Article | Open Access


Volume 2015 |Article ID 181260 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/181260


Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Effects of (−)-Epicatechin and Other Polyphenols in Cancer, , Diabetes, and Neurodegeneration

Joseph Shay,1,2 Hosam A. Elbaz,1,3 Icksoo Lee,4 Steven P. Zielske,3 Moh H. Malek,5,6 and Maik Hüttemann 1,2,6







Academic Editor: Cristina Angeloni


09 Jun 2015


With recent insight into the mechanisms involved in diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes, more efficient modes of treatment are now being assessed. Traditional medicine including the use of natural products is widely practiced around the world, assuming that certain natural products contain the healing properties that may in fact have a preventative role in many of the diseases plaguing the human population. This paper reviews the biological effects of a group of natural compounds called polyphenols, including apigenin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, and (−)-epicatechin, with a focus on the latter. (−)-Epicatechin has several unique features responsible for a variety of its effects. One of these is its ability to interact with and neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. (−)-Epicatechin also modulates cell signaling including the MAP kinase pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation. Mutations in this pathway are often associated with malignancies, and the use of (−)-epicatechin holds promise as a preventative agent and as an adjunct for chemotherapy and radiation therapy to improve outcome. This paper discusses the potential of some phenolic compounds to maintain, protect, and possibly reinstate health.


Dedicated to Dr. Manfred Holz


1. Introduction: Structural Characteristics of Polyphenols

Polyphenols belong to a ubiquitous family of naturally occurring compounds that encompass several other classes of compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids consist of several groups of compounds called anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonones, flavones, and isoflavones. These compounds are polyphenols due to the presence of multiple phenolic units in their chemical structure. Thus, phenolic compounds share structural features including an aromatic or a phenolic ring. Polyphenol compounds are most abundant in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Fruits such as apples, grapes, pears, cherries, and berries contain 200–300 mg of polyphenols per 100 grams [1]. (−)-Epicatechin, the focus of this review article, belongs to the group of flavanols. It is most commonly found as a natural product in cacao and cacao products, such as dark chocolate, and in green tea.


2. Biological Functions

Polyphenols have various important biological properties in both plants and animals that can be divided into two main categories, with antioxidant and nonantioxidant function. These functions are discussed throughout this paper. Regarding antioxidant action, it is noteworthy that polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet with a total daily intake as high as 1 gram, exceeding the intake of vitamin C by about 10-fold and that of vitamin E and carotenoids by about 100-fold [2]. Given the large number of studies showing beneficial effects with vitamin antioxidants, similar or better effects might be expected for polyphenols. Antioxidants, in general, have been intensely studied due to the high prevalence of oxidative stress found in numerous disease states, including Alzheimer’s disease, muscular dystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and aging. For example, in a randomized clinical trial for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients were treated for 16 weeks with vitamin E (α-tocopherol/E) 800 IU daily, 500 mg of vitamin C daily, 900 mg of α-lipoic acid (ALA) daily, and 400 mg of coenzyme Q (CoQ) three times daily or placebo [3]. The study showed, following E/C/ALA treatment only, a 19% decrease in F2-isoprostanes, which are cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD [3], suggesting the potential application of antioxidant treatment in patients with AD. Oxidative stress has also been found to play a pivotal role in the development of complications due to diabetes, such as cardiovascular and microvascular disease. Following treatment of diabetic mice with vitamins C, E, and β-carotene for 8 weeks Mekinová et al. [4] observed reductions of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, used to determine oxidative stress status), glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). These examples all argue for the potential use of ROS scavengers including natural compounds with such activities in certain diseases where the redox balance and ROS load are not any longer under control, a research direction that should be pursued with polyphenol compounds in the future.


There are numerous nonantioxidant functions of polyphenols with select examples discussed later in this paper. These include effects on estrogen receptor activity, cell signaling cascades, and cell cycle control in mammalian cells. Since polyphenols are plant-derived compounds, it is not surprising that they play important roles in plant physiology. As an example related to plant signaling, flavonoids were found to greatly affect the growth pattern of Malus x domestica, the apple tree [5]. The authors found, following RNAi silencing of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS), which is responsible for flavonoid synthesis in apples, a loss in skin and leaf pigmentation and a reduction in size, with smaller leaves and shortened internode lengths [5]. This suggests that flavonoid production is important for the integrity and morphology of apples. Polyphenols also have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is thought to be a primary function of polyphenols in mammals and therefore they are typically referred to as antioxidants.


3. Beneficial Health Effects of Selected Flavonoid Compounds

In this section we will briefly summarize the cellular and organismal effects of the selected flavonoids epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, apigenin, and (−)-epicatechin, the latter of which will be discussed in more detail.............

Indexed for Hindawi by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Epicatechin acts synergistically with curcumin-induced cytogenotoxic effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:35 AM Comments comments (0)


Aim: The low bioavailability of curcumin, a polyphenol, limits its use as an antitumor agent. Identifying mechanisms to improve the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin can modify utilization of other plant-derived phenolic compounds. This study was conducted with an aim to determine the influence of some flavonoids on the effects of curcumin in an HL-60 cell line.

Methods: Cells were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of curcumin and several flavonoids for 20 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using propidium iodide staining. The evaluation of γH2AX expression using a specific antibody, together with study of the cell cycle, was analyzed using flow cytometry.

Results: A synergistic effect was obtained only using a combination of curcumin and lower concentrations of epicatechin. The low concentration of quercetin exerted an additive effect only in combination with curcumin. Moreover, incubation with curcumin and epicatechin resulted in a significant increase in the γH2AX level.

Conclusion: Combination treatment with epicatechin and curcumin can potentially be considered for improving the effectiveness and bioavailability of curcumin in cell lines of myeloid leukemia.

Polyphenols, cytotoxic effect, γ-H2AX, flow cytometry, HL-60 cell line

Treatment effectiveness in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unsatisfactory because of frequent relapses and treatment-related problems in elderly patients (age > 65), in whom AML incidence is relatively high compared to that in younger people[1,2]. Therefore, researchers are still on a quest for new, more effective, and safer therapies for the treatment of AML, particularly in elderly patients in whom aggressive chemotherapy for leukemia may sometimes be impossible (e.g. due to age-related comorbidities)[1].

Polyphenols are natural phytochemicals, and some exhibit a chemopreventive effect as demonstrated in vitro and in vivo studies[3-6]. Some polyphenols can exert a cytotoxic effect in AML cells[7] and curcumin, isolated from the rhizome Curcuma longa L. and with broad-spectrum anticancer properties, is an example[8]. Curcumin not only inhibits multiple pathways on different levels that are often overexpressed in cancer cells but also sensitizes them to apoptosis; in cancer cells resistant to apoptosis, curcumin can induce an alternative cell death, such as a mitotic catastrophe[8-10]. Curcumin acts at the gene level and triggers many metabolic pathways[11,12]. It inhibits genes contributing to multidrug resistance and can modulate epigenetic phenomena by inhibiting the methyltransferase 1 in AML cells[13,14].

At present, intensive research efforts are directed toward leveraging the anticancer effect of curcumin and improving its bioavailability[15]. Interest in this polyphenol is high, and the number of research efforts studying its anticancer activity is steadily increasing[16]. Thus, curcumin has a potential role in the development of novel cancer treatments.

Curcumin’s significant advantage is its low toxicity. Curcumin does not exhibit toxic effects in the human body even at doses of 9 g/kg b.w.[17,18]. Unfortunately, a major problem in the use of curcumin is its low bioavail-ability and rapid metabolism in plasma[19]. To improve bioavailability and stability of the compound currently involves improving the methods for creating micro- and nanoparticles of curcumin, liposomes, micelles, and derivatives of curcumin[20-23]. The effectiveness of curcumin, however, can be potentiated simply by using a combination of the compound and other polyphenols. This constitutes one of the most natural ways to improve the efficiency of curcumin action, and effectively increase its bioavailability[24,25].

The use of curcumin in combination with other polyphenols may potentiate its effectiveness through synergistic interactions[26]. Furthermore, cancer is a clonal disease, and individual clones of cells differ in sensitivity to chemotherapy and fall in mutual interactions[27]. Therefore, therapeutic action directed at various molecular targets, such as those exhibited by curcumin, may be more effective than action directed towards only one of these targets. Combination therapy of curcumin with other polyphenols that act synergistically with curcumin may be an effective and safe addition to conventional chemotherapy, and may allow dose reduction of cytostatic drugs.

This preliminary study was conducted to investigate the influence of a several flavonoid polyphenols on the cytogenotoxic activity of curcumin in a HL-60 myeloid leukemia cell line.........

Indexed for Journal Of Unexplored Medicine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Effects of (-)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 8:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Effects of (−)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation

Gabriela Gutierrez-Salmean, Theodore P. Ciaraldi, [...], and Israel Ramirez-Sanchez


Additional article information



Sarcopenia is a notable and debilitating age-associated condition. Flavonoids are known for their healthy effects and limited toxicity. The flavanol (−)-epicatechin (Epi) enhances exercise capacity in mice and Epi-rich cocoa improves skeletal muscle structure in heart failure patients. (−)-Epicatechin may thus, hold promise as treatment for sarcopenia.


We examined changes in protein levels of molecular modulators of growth and differentiation in young vs. old, human and mouse skeletal muscle. We report the effects of Epi in mice and the results of an initial proof-of-concept trial in humans, where muscle strength and levels of modulators of muscle growth were measured. In mice, myostatin and senescence-associated β-galactosidase levels increase with aging, while those of follistatin and Myf5 decrease. (−)-Epicatechin decreases myostatin and β-galactosidase and increases levels of markers of muscle growth. In humans, myostatin and β-galactosidase increase with aging while follistatin, MyoD and myogenin decrease. Treatment for 7 days with (−)-epicatechin increases hand grip strength and the ratio of plasma follistatin/myostatin.


In conclusion, aging has deleterious effects on modulators of muscle growth/differentiation, the consumption of modest amounts of the flavanol (−)-epicatechin can partially reverse these changes. This flavanol warrants its comprehensive evaluation for the treatment of sarcopenia


Keywords: Epicatechin, sarcopenia, flavanoids........ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857584/ ;

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

The iron metabolism parameters might be risk factors and clinical biomarkers for COVID-19 prognosis. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 5:05 AM Comments comments (0)


Background & aims
Iron is an essential trace element to almost all organism, and the delicate balance between host defend system and viral proliferation plays an important role in infective conditions. While the association of the iron metabolism with the prognosis of COVID-19 remains poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the associations of systemic iron metabolism parameters with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19.

In this retrospective cohort study, we included 158 confirmed COVID-19 patients in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China (27 January to 5 April, 2020). Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory examinations, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate the association of iron parameter levels with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

We identified 60 (38%) severe cases in 158 COVID-19 patients. The median age was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 54–73) and the median length of hospital stay was 28 days (IQR: 17–40). After adjusting for age, sex, IL-6, and pre-existing comorbidities, all iron parameters were associated with the severity of COVID-19 with adjusted risk ratio of 0.42 [95% CI: 0.22–0.83], 4.38 [95% CI: 1.86–10.33], 0.19 [95% CI: 0.08–0.48], and 0.25 [95% CI: 0.10–0.58] for serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron-binding capacity, respectively. These iron indices were also related to the risk of ARDS, coagulopathy, acute cardiac injury, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients and high cytokine concentrations.

Patients with low serum iron status likely suffered from severe condition and multiple–organ injury in COVID-19. The iron metabolism parameters might be risk factors and clinical biomarkers for COVID-19 prognosis.......... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723754/

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Exposure to toxic chemical linked with worse COVID-19 outcomes. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:50 AM Comments comments (0)

People who had elevated blood levels of a toxic chemical called perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) had an increased risk of a more severe course of COVID-19 than those who did not have elevated levels, according to a new study led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. PFBA is part of a class of man-made chemicals known as perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs), which have previously been shown to suppress immune function.


The study, published Dec. 31, 2020 in PLOS ONE, was led by Philippe Grandjean, adjunct professor of environmental health.


PFASs have water- and grease-resistant properties and are used in a wide variety of products, including nonstick cookware, waterproof clothing, food packaging, and firefighting foams. PFBA, more than other PFASs, is known to accumulate in the lungs, according to the study.


Researchers looked at PFAS levels in blood samples from 323 Danish individuals infected with the coronavirus. They found that those with higher PFBA levels had higher odds of being hospitalized, winding up in intensive care, and dying than those with lower levels.


The findings suggest that further study is needed to determine whether elevated exposures to other environmental immunotoxicants may worsen COVID-19 outcomes, the authors wrote........


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Bacterial DNA and toxins were discovered in virtually all severely ill COVID-19..unrecognized concern for significant contribution of bacterial products in the pathogenesis of this disease. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Endotoxemia and circulating bacteriome in severe COVID-19 patients

Phatadon Sirivongrangson, Win Kulvichit, […]Nattachai Srisawat

Intensive Care Medicine Experimental volume 8, Article number: 72 (2020) Cite this article





When severe, COVID-19 shares many clinical features with bacterial sepsis. Yet, secondary bacterial infection is uncommon. However, as epithelium is injured and barrier function is lost, bacterial products entering the circulation might contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19.



We studied 19 adults, severely ill patients with COVID-19 infection, who were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, between 13th March and 17th April 2020. Blood samples on days 1, 3, and 7 of enrollment were analyzed for endotoxin activity assay (EAA), (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan (BG), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the circulating bacteriome.



Of the 19 patients, 13 were in intensive care and 10 patients received mechanical ventilation. We found 8 patients with high EAA (≥ 0.6) and about half of the patients had high serum BG levels which tended to be higher in later in the illness. Although only 1 patient had a positive blood culture, 18 of 19 patients were positive for 16S rRNA gene amplification. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum. The diversity of bacterial genera was decreased overtime.



Bacterial DNA and toxins were discovered in virtually all severely ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients. This raises a previously unrecognized concern for significant contribution of bacterial products in the pathogenesis of this disease........... https://icm-experimental.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40635-020-00362-8

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Pathways were identified as possible targets of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and as contributors to COVID-19 severity, thereby highlighting possible links between exposure to environmental chemicals and disease development. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:35 AM Comments comments (0)


Background Patients at high risk of severe forms of COVID-19 frequently suffer from chronic diseases, but other risk factors may also play a role. Environmental stressors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), can contribute to certain chronic diseases and might aggravate the course of COVID-19.

Objectives To explore putative links between EDCs and COVID-19 severity, an integrative systems biology approach was constructed and applied.

Methods As a first step, relevant data sets were compiled from major data sources. Biological associations of major EDCs to proteins were extracted from the CompTox database. Associations between proteins and diseases known as important COVID-19 comorbidities were obtained from the GeneCards and DisGeNET databases. Based on these data, we developed a tripartite network (EDCs-proteins-diseases) and used it to identify proteins overlapping between the EDCs and the diseases. Signaling pathways for common proteins were then investigated by over-representation analysis.

Results We found several statistically significant pathways that may be dysregulated by EDCs and that may also be involved in COVID-19 severity. The Th17 and the AGE/RAGE signaling pathways were particularly promising.

Conclusions Pathways were identified as possible targets of EDCs and as contributors to COVID-19 severity, thereby highlighting possible links between exposure to environmental chemicals and disease development. This study also documents the application of computational systems biology methods as a relevant approach to increase the understanding of molecular mechanisms linking EDCs and human diseases, thereby contributing to toxicology prediction.

Competing Interest Statement
The authors have declared no competing interest.

Funding Statement
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme grant agreement no. 825712. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH P42ES027706

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An Eye Opening Rapid Response To BMJ Article. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 4, 2021 at 1:10 PM Comments comments (0)

Do doctors have to have the covid-19 vaccine?

BMJ 2021; 372 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n810 (Published 29 March 2021)

Cite this as: BMJ 2021;372:n810

Rapid Response:

Re: Do doctors have to have the covid-19 vaccine?

Dear Editor


I have had more vaccines in my life than most people and come from a place of significant personal and professional experience in relation to this pandemic, having managed a service during the first 2 waves and all the contingencies that go with that.


Nevertheless, what I am currently struggling with is the failure to report the reality of the morbidity caused by our current vaccination program within the health service and staff population. The levels of sickness after vaccination is unprecedented and staff are getting very sick and some with neurological symptoms which is having a huge impact on the health service function. Even the young and healthy are off for days, some for weeks, and some requiring medical treatment. Whole teams are being taken out as they went to get vaccinated together.


Mandatory vaccination in this instance is stupid, unethical and irresponsible when it comes to protecting our staff and public health. We are in the voluntary phase of vaccination, and encouraging staff to take an unlicensed product that is impacting on their immediate health, and I have direct experience of staff contracting Covid AFTER vaccination and probably transmitting it. In fact, it is clearly stated that these vaccine products do not offer immunity or stop transmission. In which case why are we doing it? There is no longitudinal safety data (a couple of months of trial data at best) available and these products are only under emergency licensing. What is to say that there are no longitudinal adverse effects that we may face that may put the entire health sector at risk?


Flu is a massive annual killer, it inundates the health system, it kills young people, the old the comorbid, and yet people can chose whether or not they have that vaccine (which had been around for a long time). And you can list a whole number of other examples of vaccines that are not mandatory and yet they protect against diseases of higher consequence.


Coercion and mandating medical treatments on our staff, of members of the public especially when treatments are still in the experimental phase, are firmly in the realms of a totalitarian Nazi dystopia and fall far outside of our ethical values as the guardians of health.


I and my entire family have had COVID. This as well as most of my friends, relatives and colleagues. I have recently lost a relatively young family member with comorbidities to heart failure, resulting from the pneumonia caused by Covid. Despite this, I would never debase myself and agree, that we should abandon our liberal principles and the international stance on bodily sovereignty, free informed choice and human rights and support unprecedented coercion of professionals, patients and people to have experimental treatments with limited safety data. This and the policies that go with this are more of a danger to our society than anything else we have faced over the last year.


What has happened to “my body my choice?” What has happened to scientific and open debate? If I don’t prescribe an antibiotic to a patient who doesn’t need it as they are healthy, am I anti-antibiotics? Or an antibiotic-denier? Is it not time that people truly thought about what is happening to us and where all of this is taking us?


Competing interests: No competing interests


02 April 2021

K Polyakova



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Posted on April 4, 2021 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)

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Carvacrol, a Plant Metabolite Targeting Viral Protease (Mpro) and ACE2 in Host Cells Can Be a Possible Candidate for COVID-19. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 31, 2021 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Hayate Javed1*, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran2, Niraj Kumar Jha3 and Shreesh Ojha2*

1Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

3Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology (SET), Sharda University, Knowledge Park III, Greater Noida, India

The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019, resulting in the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are solely accountable for rising mortality and socioeconomic saddles. Presently, there are few repurposed drugs such as remdesivir or favipiravir approved for the treatment of COVID-19, although vaccines and plasma therapy is also subject to emergency approval. However, some potential natural treatments and cures have also been proposed. Molecules of natural origin showed therapeutic importance such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, and could be useful drug candidates for treating COVID-19. In recent years, essential oils have shown promising therapeutic effects against many viral diseases. Carvacrol is one of the monoterpene phenol with abundant presence in essential oils of many aromatic plants, including thyme and oregano. It is being used as food flavoring, additive, and preservatives. Carvacrol is also used as a fragrance in cosmetic products. A number of research studies have shown biological actions of carvacrol with its therapeutic potential is of clinical significance. The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown multiple pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective, and spasmolytic. This review highlights the various biological and pharmacological properties of carvacrol within the scope of COVID-19............ https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.601335/full

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Prevalence of anemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was high and was associated with poor outcomes of COVID-19. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 31, 2021 at 6:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Anemia predicts poor outcomes of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients: a prospective study in Iran

Masood Faghih Dinevari, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Elham Sadeghi Majd, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi & Zeinab Nikniaz 
BMC Infectious Diseases volume 21, Article number: 170 (2021) Cite this article

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There are limited number of studies with controversial findings regarding the association between anemia at admission and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to investigate the prospective association between anemia and COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients in Iran.

In this prospective study, the data of 1274 consecutive patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were statistically analyzed. All biomarkers, including hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using standard methods. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of less than 13 g/dL and 12 g/dL in males and females, respectively. Assessing the association between anemia and COVID-19 survival in hospitalized patients was our primary endpoint.

The mean age of the participants was 64.43 ± 17.16 years, out of whom 615 (48.27%) were anemic subjects. Patients with anemia were significantly older (P = 0.02) and had a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes, and cancer (P < 0.05). The frequency of death (anemic: 23.9% vs. nonanemic: 13.8%), ICU admission (anemic: 27.8% vs. nonanemic:14.71%), and ventilator requirement (anemic: 35.93% vs. nonanemic: 20.63%) were significantly higher in anemic patients than in nonanemic patients (P < 0.001). According to the results of regression analysis, after adjusting for significant covariate in the univariable model, anemia was independently associated with mortality (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.57, P = 0.01), ventilator requirement (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54, P = 0.004), and the risk of ICU admission (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.46, 2.90, P < 0.001).

The prevalence of anemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was high and was associated with poor outcomes of COVID-19

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Persisting alterations of iron homeostasis in COVID-19 are associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and poor patients´┐Ż?? performance: a prospective observational cohort study. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 31, 2021 at 5:50 AM Comments comments (0)


Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with hyperinflammation and hyperferritinemia. The latter is related to increased mortality in COVID-19. Still, it is not clear if iron dysmetabolism is mechanistically linked to COVID-19 pathobiology.

We herein present data from the ongoing prospective, multicentre, observational CovILD cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04416100), which systematically follows up patients after COVID-19. 109 participants were evaluated 60 days after onset of first COVID-19 symptoms including clinical examination, chest computed tomography and laboratory testing.

We investigated subjects with mild to critical COVID-19, of which the majority received hospital treatment. 60 days after disease onset, 30% of subjects still presented with iron deficiency and 9% had anemia, mostly categorized as anemia of inflammation. Anemic patients had increased levels of inflammation markers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and survived a more severe course of COVID-19. Hyperferritinemia was still present in 38% of all individuals and was more frequent in subjects with preceding severe or critical COVID-19. Analysis of the mRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a correlation of increased ferritin and cytokine mRNA expression in these patients. Finally, persisting hyperferritinemia was significantly associated with severe lung pathologies in computed tomography scans and a decreased performance status as compared to patients without hyperferritinemia.

Alterations of iron homeostasis can persist for at least two months after the onset of COVID-19 and are closely associated with non-resolving lung pathologies and impaired physical performance. Determination of serum iron parameters may thus be a easy to access measure to monitor the resolution of COVID-19

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