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Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 9:55 AM Comments comments (0)



Aspergillus oryzae lectin induces anaphylactoid oedema and mast cell activation through its interaction with fucose of mast cell-bound non-specific IgE

K Yamaki 1, S Yoshino

 



PMID: 21790704 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3083.2011.02598.x



Abstract


We investigated whether Aspergillus oryzae lectin (AOL), a fucose-specific lectin, induces anaphylactoid reactions and mast cell activation. The injection of AOL into footpads of mice produced a dose-related acute paw oedema. The AOL-induced oedema was attenuated by predose of histamine H1 receptor blocker or pretreatment of the lectin with fucose before injection and was not observed in SCID and mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv mice. These results suggested that the AOL-induced anaphylactoid reaction was mediated by histamine released from mast cells. In addition, the activation of mast cells was seemed to be induced by the crosslinking of IgE on the cell surface following the binding of AOL to fucose residues in IgE. Consistent with the in vivo results, AOL induced the degranulation of the rat mast cell line RBL2H3 sensitized with monoclonal IgE. As AOL induced the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells as well as antigen stimulation, AOL could input signals from FcεRI. The degranulation of IgE-sensitized RBL2H3 cells by AOL was diminished by pretreatment of AOL with fucose. Defucosylated IgE did not induce degranulation of RBL2H3 cells in response to AOL stimulation, in spite of its ability to induce degranulation by antigen stimulation as intact IgE. These results indicated that AOL bound to fucose residue of IgE causing antigen-independent IgE-mediated mast cell activation and anaphylactoid reactions in vitro and in vivo, respectively. AOL bound to human IgE as well as to mouse IgE, suggesting the possible implication of AOL in the allergic response to Aspergillus oryzae in humans.


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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21790704/

The role of lectins in allergic sensitization and allergic disease

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 9:40 AM Comments comments (0)


The role of lectins in allergic sensitization and allergic disease

Fabián Salazar, Herb F Sewell, Farouk Shakib, Amir M Ghaemmaghami

PMID: 23534971 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.02.001


Abstract

Allergic diseases are a global public health issue affecting millions of persons around the world. However, full understanding of the molecular basis of this group of chronic inflammatory disorders remains rather elusive. Recently, the role of carbohydrates on allergens and their counterstructures on antigen-presenting cells (lectins) have been highlighted as crucial factors in allergen sensitization, which culminates in TH2 cell differentiation and the production of deleterious specific IgE antibodies. Here we review recent progress on the role of different lectins in patients with type I hypersensitivity or allergy, their interplay with other determinants of allergenicity, and ways of developing therapeutic modalities against newly identified targets.

Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase cell proliferation in lymphocytes from young and aged subjects

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase cell proliferation in lymphocytes from young and aged subjects


A Cossarizza, D Monti, F Bersani, M Cantini, R Cadossi, A Sacchi, C Franceschi


PMID: 2719691 DOI: 10.1016/0006-291x(89)92488-1
Full text linksCite

Abstract

The effect of the in vitro exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation of human lymphocytes from 24 young and 24 old subjects was studied. The exposure to PEMFs during a 3-days culture period or during the first 24 hours was able to increase phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in both groups. Such effect was greater in lymphocytes from old people which showed a markedly reduced proliferative capability and, after PEMF exposure, reached values of 3H-TdR incorporation similar to those of young subjects. The relevance of these data for the understanding and the reversibility of the proliferative defects in cells from aged subjects and for the assessment of risk related to the environmental exposure to PEMFs has to be considered.

Phytohaemagglutinin - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Lectins and phytohemagglutinins (PHA) are natural toxicants present in many foods, especially in beans and other dietary pulses, which can have toxic effects ...



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Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 8:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Environmental Research

Volume 212, Part A, September 2022, 113374

Environmental Research



Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment


https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113374Get rights and content


Electrohypersensitivity is caused by electromagnetic fields.

 

Electrohypersensitivity is a neurological disorder with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood brain.

 

barrier opening and neurotransmitter abnormalities.

 

Electrohypersensitivity must be defined by the decrease of brain electromagnetic fields tolerance threshold.

 

 



Abstract


Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless their causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven “functional impairment”. To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radiofrequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a mainly new real EMF causally-related pathology.




1. Introduction

We have previously published evidence that a) electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is a distinct newly identified and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder which can be clinically diagnosed, and treated using peripheral blood and urine molecular biomarkers and cerebral imaging (Belpomme and Irigaray, 2020); b) EHS and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) are possibly associated in EHS patients, both presenting similar clinical presentation and biological and radiological abnormal changes, therefore EHS and MCS could in fact be two etiopathogenic disorders of a unique common pathological syndrome (Belpomme et al., 2015, 2016); c) EHS and MCs are both associated with detectable low grade inflammation (Belpomme et al., 2015) and oxidative stress (Irigaray et al., 2018a) with possible consequent blood brain barrier (BBB) opening (Belpomme and Irigaray, 2020) as in Alzheimer diseases (Heneka and O'Banion, 2007; Bell and Zlokovic, 2009; Erickson and Banks, 2013) and in other chronic pathological disorders (Patel and Frey, 2015) and d) EHS is associated with brain neurotransmitters abnormal concentrations (Belpomme and Irigaray, 2020) as in laboratory animals exposed to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF) (Hu et al., 2021).

 

In a recent scientific international consensus report molecular biomarkers and imaging have been recognized to be of critical value to study EHS by many scientists (Belpomme et al., 2021). In addition, as emphasized in this report, a clear distinction has been made between the causal origin of EHS itself (its etiology) and the daily environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms in EHS patients after EHS has occurred (its pathogenesis). A pending question is however the role of EMF exposure, both in triggering clinical symptoms and biological changes, and in causing EHS itself. At present, the lack of clear answer to these two questions may explain why most mainstream medical, sanitary and societal bodies still believe that there is not sufficient scientific proof to assert that the clinical symptoms experienced by EHS self-reported patients are really caused by EMF exposure; nor that EHS genesis could be the consequence of excessive man-made EMF exposure. Additionally, since the World Health Organization (WHO) officially stated in 2005 (WHO, 2005) and more recently in 2014 (WHO, 2014), that EHS is a “disabling condition” associated with “non-specific symptoms that lack apparent toxicological or physiological basis or independent verification” and that there are “no clear diagnosis criteria”; it is widely accepted that EHS cannot be diagnosed medically and is not causally related to EMF exposure.

 

The uncertainty of provocation studies testing the existence of a positive correlative effect of EMF exposure versus sham exposure in EHS patients explain why the cause of symptomatic occurrence is still debated among scientists, some of them refuting the possibility of a causal effect of EMF in triggering symptoms not only in EHS patients (Levallois, 2002; Röösli, 2008; Röösli et al. 2010a, b) but also in healthy people (Baliatsas et al., 2015); some others postulating that EHS is of psychologic origin, i.e. a psychosomatic disease (Rubin et al., 2010, 2011); while still others contrary to the present WHO statements even question the existence of EHS itself (Leszczynski, 2021).

 

Recalling the historical main scientific research steps and the international institutional statements concerning EHS and MCS, we would like here to summarize how man-made EMF exposure and in some cases marketed environmental chemicals can really trigger symptoms in EHS patients, that exposure to non-thermal man-made EMF are objectively noxious for healthy people and that the etiology of EHS is in fact mainly causally related to man-made EMF exposure in genetically (or epigenetically) susceptible people.........


Indexed for Science Direct Elsevier by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Full study at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935122007010

Genetic and environmental factors contributing to the onset of allergic disorders

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 8:40 AM Comments comments (0)
Genetic and environmental factors contributing to the onset of allergic disorders

P Parronchi, F Brugnolo, S Sampognaro, E Maggi

PMID: 10686503 DOI: 10.1159/000024291


Abstract

Evidence has been accumulated to suggest that allergen-reactive Th2 cells play a triggering role in the activation and/or recruitment of IgE antibody-producing B cells, mast cells and eosinophils, the cellular triad involved in allergic inflammation. Recently, chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in such Th2-type response have been also defined. Th2 cells represent the polarized arm of the effector-specific responses that contribute to the protection against gastrointestinal nematodes and act as regulatory cells for chronic and/or excessive Th1-mediated responses. Th2 cells are generated from precursor naive Th cells when they encounter the specific antigen in an IL-4-containing microenvironment. The question of how these Th2 cells are selected in atopic patients is also unclear. Both the nature of the T cell receptor signalling provided by the allergen peptide ligand and a disregulation of IL-4 production likely concur to determine the Th2 profile of allergen-specific Th cells, but the genetic unbalanced IL-4 production is certainly overwhelming. Some gene products selectively expressed in Th2 cells or selectively controlling the expression of IL-4 have recently been described. These findings allow to suggest that the upregulation of genes controlling IL-4 expression and/or abnormalities of regulatory mechanisms of Th2 development and/or function may be responsible for Th2 responses against allergens in atopic people. The increasing prevalence of allergy in developed countries suggests that environmental factors acting either before or after birth also contribute to regulate the development of Th2 cells and/or their function. The reduction of infectious diseases in early life due to increasing vaccinations, antimicrobial treatments as well as changed lifestyle are certainly important in influencing the individual outcome in the Th response to ubiquitous allergens. Moreover, the recent evidence that bacterial DNA or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated 'CpG motifs' promote the development of Th1 cells via the production of immunomodulatory cytokines (namely IL-12, IL-18 and IFNs) by professional antigen-presenting cells confirms previous epidemiological data. The new insight into the pathophysiology of T cell responses in atopic diseases provides exciting opportunities for the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies.

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Mold inhalation causes innate immune activation, neural, cognitive and emotional dysfunction

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 8:00 AM Comments comments (0)



Mold inhalation causes innate immune activation, neural, cognitive and emotional dysfunction


Cheryl F. Harding,a,b,* Carolyn L. Pytte,b,c Kimberly G. Page,b Kelly J. Ryberg,a Edna Normand,d,e Gregory J. Remigio,a Richard A. DeStefano,e,f David B. Morris,d Julia Voronina,f Ariel Lopez,c Lauren A. Stalbow,c,e Erin P. Williams,c,e and Nohely Abreuc


Abstract

Individuals living or working in moldy buildings complain of a variety of health problems including pain, fatigue, increased anxiety, depression, and cognitive deficits. The ability of mold to cause such symptoms is controversial since no published research has examined the effects of controlled mold exposure on brain function or proposed a plausible mechanism of action. Patient symptoms following mold exposure are indistinguishable from those caused by innate immune activation following bacterial or viral exposure. We tested the hypothesis that repeated, quantified doses of both toxic and nontoxic mold stimuli would cause innate immune activation with concomitant neural effects and cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms. We intranasally administered either 1) intact, toxic Stachybotrys spores; 2) extracted, nontoxic Stachybotrys spores; or 3) saline vehicle to mice. As predicted, intact spores increased interleukin-1β immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. Both spore types decreased neurogenesis and caused striking contextual memory deficits in young mice, while decreasing pain thresholds and enhancing auditory-cued memory in older mice. Nontoxic spores also increased anxiety-like behavior. Levels of hippocampal immune activation correlated with decreased neurogenesis, contextual memory deficits, and/or enhanced auditory-cued fear memory. Innate-immune activation may explain how both toxic mold and nontoxic mold skeletal elements caused cognitive and emotional dysfunction........


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Neurologic and neuropsychiatric syndrome features of mold and mycotoxin exposure

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 7:55 AM Comments comments (0)



Neurologic and neuropsychiatric syndrome features of mold and mycotoxin exposure

L D Empting 


PMID: 19854819 DOI: 10.1177/0748233709348393


Abstract

Human exposure to molds, mycotoxins, and water-damaged buildings can cause neurologic and neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms. Many of these clinical features can partly mimic or be similar to classic neurologic disorders including pain syndromes, movement disorders, delirium, dementia, and disorders of balance and coordination. In this article, the author delineates the signs and symptoms of a syndrome precipitated by mold and mycotoxin exposure and contrasts and separates these findings neurodiagnostically from known neurologic diseases. This clinical process is designed to further the scientific exploration of the underlying neuropathophysiologic processes and to promote better understanding of effects of mold/mycotoxin/water-damaged buildings on the human nervous system and diseases of the nervous system. It is clear that mycotoxins can affect sensitive individuals, and possibly accelerate underlying neurologic/pathologic processes, but it is crucial to separate known neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders from mycotoxin effects in order to study it properly.

Indexed for NIH PubMed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Mycotoxins, fungus and 'electrohypersensitivity'

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 7:45 AM Comments comments (0)




Mycotoxins, fungus and 'electrohypersensitivity'

K Anttila 


PMID: 10985910 DOI: 10.1054/mehy.1999.1045

 


Abstract


'Electrohypersensitivity' is often explained as a psychological syndrome. Our modern environment contains a lot of different substances and some of them are toxic. Mycotoxins are types of toxins that are biologically very active and that affect living organisms. Mycotoxins and fungi capable of producing toxins have been detected in ventilation systems, water damage and in foodstuff. Many of those displaying symptoms caused by electromagnetic fields have fungus infections or have been living in fungus-contaminated environments for long periods. In animal studies mycotoxins have shown the same effects as those seen in the 'electrohypersensitivity' syndrome. Phototoxic reactions are well known in veterinary medicine and in medical science, so the question is whether the 'electrohypersensitivity' syndrome is caused by 'phototoxic' reactions?


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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10985910/

Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

Posted on January 21, 2023 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)



Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

Joseph H Brewer, Jack D Thrasher, David C Straus, Roberta A Madison, Dennis Hooper

PMID: 23580077 PMCID: PMC3705282 DOI: 10.3390/toxins5040605


Abstract

Over the past 20 years, exposure to mycotoxin producing mold has been recognized as a significant health risk. Scientific literature has demonstrated mycotoxins as possible causes of human disease in water-damaged buildings (WDB). This study was conducted to determine if selected mycotoxins could be identified in human urine from patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Patients (n = 112) with a prior diagnosis of CFS were evaluated for mold exposure and the presence of mycotoxins in their urine. Urine was tested for aflatoxins (AT), ochratoxin A (OTA) and macrocyclic trichothecenes (MT) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Urine specimens from 104 of 112 patients (93%) were positive for at least one mycotoxin (one in the equivocal range). Almost 30% of the cases had more than one mycotoxin present. OTA was the most prevalent mycotoxin detected (83%) with MT as the next most common (44%). Exposure histories indicated current and/or past exposure to WDB in over 90% of cases. Environmental testing was performed in the WDB from a subset of these patients. This testing revealed the presence of potentially mycotoxin producing mold species and mycotoxins in the environment of the WDB. Prior testing in a healthy control population with no history of exposure to a WDB or moldy environment (n = 55) by the same laboratory, utilizing the same methods, revealed no positive cases at the limits of detection.


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Association between obesity and helicobacter pylori infection

Posted on January 15, 2023 at 12:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Association between obesity and helicobacter pylori infection



Abstract

Objectives

The relationship between obesity and helicobacter pylori infection has been extensively reported; however, evidence from existing literature showing conflicting data. This current meta-analysis sought to assess the association between obesity and the risk of helicobacter pylori infection by summarizing all available data.

Methods

PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases were screened to identify relevant literature that assessed the association between obesity and helicobacter pylori infection in participants before the end of May, 2022. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to estimate the association between obesity and helicobacter pylori infection by using a random-effects model. In addition, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted.

Results

A total of twenty-one studies with 307,462 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled estimates showed that obesity is associated with an increased risk of helicobacter pylori infection compared to non-obese counterparts (21 studies; OR:1.34; 95% CI: 1.17–1.52; I2 = 91%). We also conducted subgroup analysis according to sex and study design, respectively. We found that males were more likely to have helicobacter pylori infection than females (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.28–1.97; I2 = 94.7% for male percent > 50%; OR:1.14; 95% CI: 0.94–1.38; I2 = 75.2% for male percent < 50%). Furthermore, pooled studies of case-control study (OR: 1.20; 95% CI:1.05, 1.37; I2 = 82.4%) showed that the people with obesity had a significantly higher prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection.

Conclusion

This comprehensive quantitative analysis provides an affirmation that obesity is associated with an increased risk of helicobacter pylori infection. From this point of view, the prevention of obesity is important in the treatment of helicobacter pylori infection.

Indexed for Science Direct Elsevier by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Central obesity is associated with helicobacter pylori infection

Posted on January 15, 2023 at 12:35 AM Comments comments (0)



Central obesity is associated with helicobacter pylori infection: a large-scale cross-sectional retrospective study in West China

Qinqin Wu, Ken Qin & Youjuan Wang 

International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries volume 40, pages52–60 (2020)

Abstract


Context

The association between obesity and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection remains controversial.

Aims

The objective is to investigate the relationship between obesity and H. pylori infection, as diagnosed on the basis of a 14C urea breath test (14C-UBT) and waist circumference (WC).

Settings and design

A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed at Health management center of a Tertiary care teaching hospital in Southwest of China.

Materials and methods

Clinical information of 76,915 individuals (46,003 men and 30,912 women) with 44.0 (35.0–51.0) years was extracted from medical record. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by a positive 14C-UBT, and obesity was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women.

Statistical analysis

Descriptive statistics, Student’s t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-square test, followed by binary logistic regression were performed in SPSS.

Results

The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.95%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in subjects with central obesity was significantly higher than that in normal-WC subjects (42.20% vs. 39.10%, p < 0.001). WC was significantly higher in H. pylori-positive subjects compared with H. pylori-negative subjects (p < 0.01). There was a linear association between WC quintiles and H. pylori infection prevalence. After adjusting for confounders, central obesity was associated with H. pylori infection (OR = 1.052, 95% CI, 1.009–1.096, p = 0.02).

Conclusions

Central obesity is associated with H. pylori infection after adjusting for multiple confounding factors such as age, gender, and lifestyle characteristics


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Fuel Your Day & Workouts With Oxygen Plus

Posted on December 23, 2022 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)



Oxygen Plus


Yoga improves mitochondrial health and reduces severity of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis: A randomized controlled trial

Posted on December 20, 2022 at 7:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract
Background
Oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Various environmental triggers like air pollutants, smoking, unhealthy social habits and sedentary lifestyle induce OS, which may compromise mitochondrial integrity. This trial was designed to explore the effect of 8-weeks yoga practice on mitochondrial health and disease severity in an active RA group compared with a usual-care control group.

Methods
A total of 70 subjects were randomized into two groups: yoga group and non-yoga group. Mitochondrial health was assessed by calculation of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), OS markers, mitochondrial activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), circadian rhythm markers and transcripts associated with mitochondrial integrity: AMPK, TIMP-1, KLOTHO, SIRT-1, and TFAM. Parameters of disease activity and disability quotient were also assessed by disease activity score – erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) and health assessment questionnaire-disability index (HAQ-DI), respectively.

Results
In yoga group, there was a significant upregulation of mtDNA-CN, mitochondrial activity markers, ΔΨm, and transcripts that maintain mitochondrial integrity after 8-weeks of yoga. There was optimization of OS markers, and circadian rhythm markers post 8-weeks practice of yoga. Yoga group participants showed significant improvements in DAS28-ESR (p < 0.05) and HAQ-DI (p < 0.05) over the non-yoga group.

Conclusion
Adoption of yoga by RA patients holds the key to enhance mitochondrial health, improve circadian rhythm markers, OS marker regulation, upregulation of transcripts that maintain mitochondrial integrity, reduce disease activity and its associated consequences on health outcome and hence can be beneficial as an adjunct therapy.

Introduction........

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Not All Meditation Is The Same: Vedic Meditation is associated with Alpha Brainwaves, Mindfulness with Theta/Gamma Brainwaves.

Posted on December 19, 2022 at 9:10 AM Comments comments (0)


Originating thousands of years ago in ancient India, meditation has long been practiced to aid in the discovery of wisdom, peace, spirituality and self-enlightenment. But today, as it is practiced more for its stress-relieving effects, the term ‘meditation’ is often confused with a similar, yet separate practice: mindfulness.

“Nowadays, the term ‘meditation’ is used to refer to many different techniques that bring about calmness, including focusing, concentrating, contemplating, observing and listening to relaxing music or nature sounds,” says Hari Sharma, MD, an Integrative Medicine specialist at the Ohio State Wexner Medical Center.

“Some of these techniques are difficult to do and further aggravate an already overactive mind.”

A technique like mindfulness is relaxing but still involves use of the mind, so a more accurate description of these is ‘relaxation techniques.’

“Relaxation is helpful for reducing stress and promoting health, but should not be confused with the deep experience of meditation that results in a wide array of benefits for health and well-being,” Dr. Sharma says.

So what really is the difference between meditation and other relaxation techniques like mindfulness? Dr. Sharma has the answer to that and other common meditation questions.

1. What is meditation?
Common thinking of meditation is of sitting in a quiet place focusing on breathing. Dr. Sharma says that the practice of meditation is actually much simpler and less controlled than that.

“The type of meditation that originated in the ancient times of India is an easy and effortless process that takes you beyond the mind, to the source of the mind deep inside,” he says. “It does not involve concentration, focus or any type of control or manipulation of the mind.”

According to Dr. Sharma, the mind is a collection of thoughts that continue to flow freely, except during deep sleep.

“Thoughts are moving and give direction to our lives,” he says. “Anything that moves needs energy, and anything that gives direction to life needs intelligence and creativity. Thus, we have a source of energy and intelligence deep within us.”

This area deep within us is peaceful and blissful. We experience this peace and bliss in deep sleep, when the mind is at rest and not active. This is why you wake up feeling rested and rejuvenated when you’ve had a good night’s sleep.

 

2. What is the difference between meditation and mindfulness?
Vedic meditation is an effortless process that doesn’t require you to try to control your mind. The brain waves that are predominant in this type of meditation are alpha waves, which are associated with deep relaxation.

On the other hand, mindfulness practices generally involve a certain degree of control of the mind. One practice involves keeping attention on the breath and bringing the attention back to the breath if it strays.

“Mindfulness practices function on the level of the mind and do not go to the deeper levels that are beyond the mind,” Dr. Sharma explains. “As such, they do not access that area deep within us that is full of peace, bliss, energy, intelligence and creativity.”

According to Dr. Sharma, theta and gamma brain waves are predominant during these practices, which are associated with monitoring inner processes, focus and concentration. These brain waves, however, are not associated with deep relaxation.

“Being mindful in all aspects of your life – thoughts, speech, action, use of senses – is beneficial,” Dr. Sharma says. “But with time, this type of awareness starts happening automatically when you practice Vedic meditation.”

3. What is the best way to meditate?
Dr. Sharma recommends meditation be done twice a day for twenty minutes, before breakfast and prior to dinner:

Morning meditation prepares us to be energetic and efficient in the day ahead.
Evening meditation relieves the stresses of the day and prepares us for a relaxing evening.
The easiest and best way to meditate is to learn from an experienced and trained instructor.

“The natural tendency of the mind is to go to an area of increasing charm and bliss, which is deep inside us,” Dr. Sharma says. “So meditation is not difficult when learned from a trained instructor.”

The effects of meditation can be immediate, and accumulate the more it is practiced.

“Once you properly learn the technique, you are able to do it on your own and can utilize it for the rest of your life,” Dr. Sharma says.

 

4. What are the health benefits of meditation?
When we connect with our deep inner source of peace through meditation – according to Dr. Sharma – we will experience better health and wellness on many different levels: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual.

Health benefits of meditation:

Decreases inflammation and reduces stress
Normalizes blood pressure
Reduces anxiety and depression (helpful for post-traumatic stress disorder) and improves sleep
Improves brain function, as demonstrated by an EEG test, by synchronizing the functions of both sides of the brain and increasing its neuroplasticity, which improves learning and memory
Increases levels of the hormone DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), associated with increased longevity and youthfulness
Improves chronic disorders such as asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, heart disease, autoimmune disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain, premenstrual syndrome and menopausal symptoms
“Meditation quiets the fluctuations of the mind and takes you to a higher level of consciousness,” Dr. Sharma says. “Your creativity and intelligence increase, your intuition increases and you become more sensitive and discerning. You experience a sense of connectedness, or unity, with everything and everyone around you.”

Aberrant cellular oscillatory patterning is associated with severe disease.

Posted on December 19, 2022 at 6:15 AM Comments comments (0)

 

Glob Adv Health Med. 2014 Mar; 3(2): 40–55.

Published online 2014 Mar 1. doi: 10.7453/gahmj.2014.008

PMCID: PMC4010966

PMID: 24808981

Life Rhythm as a Symphony of Oscillatory Patterns: Electromagnetic Energy and Sound Vibration Modulates Gene Expression for Biological Signaling and Healing

David Muehsam, PhDcorresponding author and Carlo Ventura, MD, PhD




INTRODUCTION—BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS: MUSIC MEETING SCIENCE


All life exists within a sea of vibration, and rhythm is fundamental to all of life. Diurnal, seasonal, lunar, and solar cycles, and the resonant electromagnetic field (EMF) oscillations of our planet make up the symphony of rhythms in which life on Earth exists. As life evolved amidst these natural rhythms, they were integrated into many basic human biological responses, which coincide with diurnal and seasonal cycles1 and the many aspects of human and animal behavior and physiology that are correlated with the phases of the moon.2 From the basic activities of daily life to our relationship with the animals on Earth,3 human society is structured around the moon's rhythm, and deeply rooted monthly circadian rhythms govern human sleep patterns, persisting even in isolation from our conscious awareness of the lunar phase.4 Our lives contain a seeming infinity of rhythms, with vibrations at the atomic and molecular levels and within biochemical reaction rates. The physiological correlates of the rhythms of the breath, heartbeat, and brain have been extensively studied and shown to be intimately related to our emotions, thoughts, and psychospiritual state. For example, respiratory output is coupled to a complex interaction between the brainstem and higher centers connecting the limbic system and cortical structures, thus creating a basic link between breathing and the emotions.5 A substantial body of research has demonstrated the fundamental interconnectedness of mind and emotion, brain and heart rhythms,6 variations in circadian heart rhythms have been shown to correlate with psychiatric disorders,7 an emerging language for interpreting brainwave electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms is now allowing a deeper understanding of the relationships between EEG rhythms, cognition and neuropsychiatric disease,8 and pulsa-tile dynamics in genetic circuits is essential for the temporal organization of cellular stress response, signaling, and development.9 The thread that connects these various studies is the impact of rhythm and the notion that rhythms can communicate bio-information that governs a wide variety of functions, including that of guiding living beings towards health and well-being.

 

Rhythm is the fundamental characteristic of music. In frequencies, timbres, and the passage of beats through time to form rhythms, music is an apt metaphor for this carrier of life-information. And the notion that music can touch the core of our being and is as old as human consciousness. Plato grappled with the powers of music in The Republic, stating that the various Greek modes convey specific qualities: “Then beauty of style and harmony and grace and good rhythm depend on simplicity—I mean the true simplicity of a rightly and nobly ordered mind and character.”10 And though Shakespeare has been famously quoted as referring to music as the “food of love,” he went much further, writing that music has the power to create: “Orpheus with his lute made trees, And the mountain tops that freeze, Bow themselves, when he did sing,” and the power to destroy life: “In sweet music is such art, Killing care and grief of heart, Fall asleep, or hearing, die.”11

 

Music has been shown to modulate several cardiac and neurological functions and to trigger measurable stress-reducing pathways,12 to modulate blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, EEG measurements, body temperature and galvanic skin response; alter immune and endocrine function; and ameliorate pain, anxiety, nausea, fatigue, and depression.13 Significant correspondence has been found between specific musical tones played to the skin through speakers and traditional Chinese descriptions musical tones associated with the acupuncture meridians.14 The notion that one “hears” sounds not only through the ears but rather through the whole body is echoed in the words of the Sufi musician, healer and mystic, Hazrat Inayat Khan:

 

A person does not hear sound only through the ears; he hears sound through every pore of his body. It permeates the entire being, and according to its particular influence either slows or quickens the rhythm of the blood circulation; it either wakens or soothes the nervous system. It arouses a person to greater passions or it calms him by bringing him peace. According to the sound and its influence a certain effect is produced. Sound becomes visible in the form of radiance. This shows that the same energy which goes into the form of sound before being visible is absorbed by the physical body. In that way the physical body recuperates and becomes charged with new magnetism.15

 

Here, Khan reinforces the notion of a deep relationship between music and neurobiology, indicating that further understanding of how music can modify nervous system activity could have implications for developing mind-body-spirit therapies that are effective not only as adjuncts, but as central treatment modalities in rehabilitation and therapy.16

 

Rhythms show up in many aspects of life. They affect the way we feel day by day or throughout the seasons. They affect our moods and attitudes deeply, even on a personal basis, so that some activities and personal disciplines “click” with us while others don't. Even the language we use to communicate with each other is able to deliver multiple, between-the-lines, meanings according to the fine tuning of the sound of voice. In our daily activities, we may sometimes find deep satisfaction while at other times we are simply engaged in a boring routine, perhaps without realizing that at one time our activities are in tune with our natural life rhythm, and at another time we may be forced to adapt to a different rhythm for reasons that may not be fully natural.

 

In this review, we will provide evidence that, from the cellular level to the whole organism, every signaling event is fashioned by rhythms—as vibratory patterns—and that synchronization of coupled oscillators and dynamical systems is a crucial issue in the orchestration of essential processes of life. We will show that changes in the rhythms and modes of interaction of subcellular oscillators can result in remarkable modulation of gene expression and cellular dynamics, playing an essential role in states of wellness and disease. Within this context, we will discuss the use of EMFs and sound energy as tools for restoring healthy cellular dynamics, reprogramming DNA structure, and eliciting self-healing mechanisms. We will highlight how EMFs and sound energies can “sing” with stem cells, and even with non-stem-adult somatic cells to reprogram cell gene expression and fate, activate natural repairing abilities, and counteract cellular aging processes, paving the way toward unprecedented strategies of regenerative medicine. Particular emphasis will be placed on the large body of evidence demonstrating that cytoskeletal structures are dynamic modulators of subcellular, cellular, and intercellular information that coordinate biological regulation across the atomic/molecular to organismic levels, giving rise to the notion of a field of dynamic bio-information or “biofield.” While molecular and gene expression rhythms affect the entire individual, it has been shown that the reverse also occurs. To this end, we will summarize how recent advances in neurobiology, psychosocial genomics, and research on yoga, meditation, and other mind-body disciplines have shown that emotional states, cognition, states of stress or relaxation and psychosocial factors can strongly affect genome function. This deep-seated bidirectional flow of information, branching between the atomic/molecular, organismic, and psychosocial levels, thus produces a dynamic, holistic biofield wherein our consciousness, emotional expression, and social behavior are intimately interwoven with our molecular and gene expression patterning.

 


BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS: SETTING LIFE'S RHYTHMS

The synchronization of multiple rhythms is an essential manifestation of living processes. While it is well known that biological clocks located in the central nervous system drive our circadian rhythms, there is now compelling evidence that the central nervous system also acts as a merging/integration point of biorhythms emerging from self-sustaining cellular and subcellular oscillators. For example, it has been shown that the regulation of metabolism and energy production of the entire organism across the daily cycles of fasting and feeding is orchestrated by subcellular transcriptional oscillations (clocks) controlling the basic dynamics of substrate biosyn-thesis and energy production (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) at the mitochondria.17

 

Another basic type of biological clock is made up of the mechanisms governing essential biological processes such as embryonic development, neuronal plasticity, cell memory, and differentiation of various types of stem cells. For these processes, calcium (Ca2+) ions act as important messengers, for which intracellular sequestration of Ca2+ by specific agents has been shown to modulate the above pathways. It is striking that experimental evidence indicates that transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, rather than occurring in a manner corresponding to diffusion and passive transport (ie, increasing from a baseline to a stable long-lasting plateau and then declining again), is orchestrated in real-time by subcellular pacemaker sites producing Ca2+ waves and oscillations.18 Accordingly, the rhythmic beating of stem cell–derived cardiac cells is governed by dynamic coupling of cellular electrophysiology and cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations.19 Thus, Nature chose to create subcellular clocks to guarantee an exquisite regulation of the Ca2+ dynamics essential for many processes.

 

Cellular oscillators also play a crucial role in orchestrating embryogenesis and the patterning of differentiation in stem cells, which relies on the timely proliferation of progenitor cells and their subsequent differentiation into the multiple lineages that form different parts of the embryo. Modulation and orchestration of the timing of cell differentiation and cell fate choice are key issues for making organs of the right size, shape, and cell composition. To this end, both during embryogenesis and throughout adult life, the composition of secreted proteins that determine the overall rhythmicity of multiple-cell networks has been shown to be dependent upon cell crowding.20 Starting from a single fertilized oocyte, up to the level of the entire organism, cell proliferation and differentiation are antagonistically regulated by multiple activator and repressor genes, whose activity is fashioned according to specific oscillatory patterns in gene transcription.21,22 There is compelling evidence that during embryonic development, during somite segmentation, for example, specific genes function as biological clocks, acting through both short and long lived oscillatory pathways often involving tonic feed-forward and feedback mechanisms.23–30 The biomedical implications of this are extremely important, as the impairment of these biological clocks leads to premature or aberrant stem cell differentiation, or depletion of certain stem cell pools, resulting in dysmorphic brain and heart structures incompatible with post-natal survival. 27,31–35

 

In general, aberrant cellular oscillatory patterning is associated with severe disease. For example, genetic defects in the assembly or rhythmic function of primary cilia, which are oscillatory sensory organelles, give rise to developmental defects and diseases in mammals. One of these genetic disorders, known as primary ciliary dyskinesia, most commonly arises from loss of molecular motors that power ciliary beating.36 The disease involves abnormal lung development and function, infertility, and in some cases a condition called situs inversus, in which the internal organs (for example, the heart, stomach, spleen, liver, and gall-bladder) are in opposite positions from where they would normally be located. In mice, embryos bearing a mutation associated with lack of primary cilia develop a severe cardiac disease, including ventricular dilation, decreased myocardial trabeculation, and an abnormal outflow tract.37 It is clear that impairment of the molecular mechanisms that govern the circadian clock at cellular level also play a central role in the so-called “metabolic syndrome” that represents a spectrum of disorders whose incidence continues to increase across the industrialized world. Comprised of several metabolic abnormalities, including central (intraabdominal) obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hyper-tension,38 this syndrome has become a major public health challenge worldwide, with an estimated 25% to 40% of the population between 25 and 64 years of age affected. An essential distinctive trait of the syndrome is the disruption of the fine tuning of cellular oscillators that compose the “mammalian circadian clock.”38 This clock consists of a series of interlocking transcription/translation feedback loops, involving the synchronization of the availability of transcription factors that activate the expression of downstream clock target genes. Recent evidence also indicates that disruption of circadian rhythms may play a pivotal role in cognitive disorders associated with schizophrenia.39 In this disease, impairment may occur not only in the circadian master clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei that is responsible for controlling circa-dian rhythms but also at the level of local semi-autonomous oscillators capable of generating self-sustained circadian oscillations in individual cells in a number of brain tissues, including the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum.39

 

Underlying all of the above reported findings one may see that the coupling of intrinsic oscillatory rhythms originating at the molecular and single cell level is intimately related to higher-level structure, function, and the generation of a wide range of biological rhythms. At the cellular and subcellular levels, oscillatory behaviors have been shown to emerge as a direct result of simple negative feedback loops and coupled positive and negative feedback loops,40 and rhythms arise from stochastic, nonlinear biological mechanisms interacting with a fluctuating environment41, indicating that oscillations are a natural outcome of a variety of essential cellular biochemical interactions. Another concept central to the study of biological rhythms is the existence of coupling between oscillators giving rise to collective behaviors such as phase synchronization.41 An extremely large body of research has examined the conditions under which periodic behaviors, stochastic resonance (coherent entrainment due to noisy signals), and chaotic behaviors can occur in dynamical systems and systems of coupled oscillators, and the results have been applied to nearly every level of biological function, from the subcellular to the organismic.41 For example, it has been clearly demonstrated that the generation of circa-dian rhythms at the suprachiasmatic nucleus is the result of the coupling of oscillators across the cellular and multicellular levels,42 and a general framework for the emergence of synchronization in circadian cooperative systems employs non-linear coupled oscillators, resulting in phase-synchrony across large numbers of cells,43 In neuronal networks, large scale simulations typically employ electrically phase-coupled systems that give rise to cooperative behaviors across large numbers of neurons.44 Systems of genetic oscillators governing the synchronization of cells mediated by intercellular communication exhibit synchronous behaviors in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations and the presence of extrinsic noise.45 Several novel behaviors have been noted, including phase synchronization within a system of weakly coupled self-sustained chaotic oscillators, suggesting that even under chaotic conditions, phases between individual oscillators can tend toward synchrony,45 and there has recently been interest in the existence of “chimera states” in networks of coupled oscillators wherein a wide spectrum of complex states emerge from the underlying dynamics of a system of weakly coupled oscillators containing both synchronous and asynchronous elements.46 Thus, the progression toward rhythmicity and complex behavior is a natural outcome of multi-part, dynamically interlinked systems.

 

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BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

All life exists in a sea of EMFs. In the modern world, we are constantly immersed in both natural and human-made fields, including the geomagnetic field, globally propagating waves in the earth-ionosphere cavity (Schumann resonances), the many EMFs produced by power transmission lines, microwave communication relays, and fields from a wide variety of commonly used devices, including mobile telephones and radiofrequency Wi-Fi stations. Because life on Earth evolved in the ambient geomagnetic environment, of particular interest to the question of possible coupling with natural geomagnetism are weak EMFs, ie, those with strength on the order of the Earth's 50 μT field. The existence of bioeffects for EMF signals of this strength has been firmly established, and the mechanisms by which constant and extremely low frequency (ELF) μT-range magnetic fields can directly influence biological processes have now been more clearly elucidated.47–50 In addition to a significant amount of literature on bioeffects due to geomagnetic-range field strengths,51 a growing body of evidence has shown that effects can also occur at much lower field strengths, on the order of nanoTesla, including effects on development in chick embryos,52,53 in vitro breast cancer cell proliferation,54 in vivo tumor growth,55–57 planarian fission and regeneration58,59; allergic encephalomyelitis in rats60; gravitropism of plants,61 MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth,62 and an Alzheimer's model in mice.63 A significant aspect of these extremely weak EMF bioeffects is that the energies of interaction are substantially lower than the average random thermal energy due to Brownian motion,48 suggesting the existence of a more subtle level of bioinformation transduction operating at extremely low energies.

 


RESONANCES OBSERVED FOR WEAK EMF BIOEFFECTS

Resonance produces enhanced effects when the frequency and/or amplitude of an applied EMF matches specific values for which cells or tissues have increased or decreased sensitivity. In recent years, it has been firmly established that amplitude and frequency resonances can occur for μT-range EMF exposures in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems, such as brainwaves and neuronal calcium efflux,64 membrane transport,65 45Ca incorporation in human lymphocytes,66 calcium flux in bone cells,67 liposome permeability,68 calcium signal transduction in the lymphocytes,69 neurite outgrowth in PC-12 cells,70,71 myosin phosphorylation,72 calcium efflux though lipid vesicles,73 glutamic acid currents in aqueous solution,74–78 IGF-II expression for human osteosarcoma bone cells,79 survival curve for mice infected with Ascites Ehrlich carcinoma,80 and cytokine release from osteoblasts in response to different intensities of EMF stimulation.81 In addition, recent experiments have shown that specific combinations and temporal sequences of weak subthreshold EMFs can alter neurological activity.82–84 For these experiments, the EMF amplitudes and frequencies were below the thresholds required to evoke nerve firing, suggesting that the specific rhythms and patterning of weak EMFs are detectable by the nervous system at this more subtle sub-threshold level. The above evidence for weak EMF resonances has been supported by theoretical modeling, with the results of current models corresponding well with experimental data.49,50,68,85,86 Both theory and this experimental evidence show that resonances in this amplitude range often occur at frequencies at or near integral multiples of the Larmor and cyclotron frequencies,49,50,85,86 which lie in the 5 Hz to 50 Hz range for the most common biological ions in μT-range fields.50,86 Interestingly, the constant component of Earth's magnetic field averages approximately 50 μT worldwide, and the time varying components in the pT-nT range due to the Schumann resonances constitute the principal components of the natural background of the EMF spectrum in a similar frequency range from 6 Hz to 50 Hz.87 Because of the ambient-range amplitudes employed, the above results suggest the possibility of functional interactions between living creatures and Earth's magnetic field. In addition to the substantial literature on animal navigation via Earth's magnetic field,88 recent experiments report a functional role for the ambient geomagnetic field in a variety of biological processes. Bioeffects have been reported due to attenuation or shielding from the Earth's magnetic field, including modulation of neuronal spike frequencies,89,90 reduction in stress-induced analgesia,91,92 induction of amnesia in mice,93,94 inhibition of tumor cell growth,95 reduction in ability to survive ionizing radiation in drosophila,96 and an increase in pain threshold in humans.97


 


SOLAR-GEOMAGNETIC RHYTHMS AND LIFE ON EARTH....... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010966/


Indexed for Global Advances In Health and Medicine/ NIH PubMed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

urgent need to better understand the ecological role of sound and the consequences of acoustic pollution for plant as well as animal populations

Posted on December 19, 2022 at 5:55 AM Comments comments (0)


Tuned in: plant roots use sound to locate water


Abstract

Because water is essential to life, organisms have evolved a wide range of strategies to cope with water limitations, including actively searching for their preferred moisture levels to avoid dehydration. Plants use moisture gradients to direct their roots through the soil once a water source is detected, but how they first detect the source is unknown. We used the model plant Pisum sativum to investigate the mechanism by which roots sense and locate water. We found that roots were able to locate a water source by sensing the vibrations generated by water moving inside pipes, even in the absence of substrate moisture. When both moisture and acoustic cues were available, roots preferentially used moisture in the soil over acoustic vibrations, suggesting that acoustic gradients enable roots to broadly detect a water source at a distance, while moisture gradients help them to reach their target more accurately. Our results also showed that the presence of noise affected the abilities of roots to perceive and respond correctly to the surrounding soundscape. These findings highlight the urgent need to better understand the ecological role of sound and the consequences of acoustic pollution for plant as well as animal populations..........

 

Keywords: Bioacoustics; Directional root growth; Foraging behavior; Hydrotropism; Moisture sensing 


Indexed for NIH PubMed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28382479/


 




Beyond Chemical Triggers: Evidence for Sound-Evoked Physiological Reactions in Plants

Posted on December 19, 2022 at 5:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Abstract

Sound is ubiquitous in nature. Recent evidence supports the notion that naturally occurring and artificially generated sound waves contribute to plant robustness. New information is emerging about the responses of plants to sound and the associated downstream signaling pathways. Here, beyond chemical triggers which can improve plant health by enhancing plant growth and resistance, we provide an overview of the latest findings, limitations, and potential applications of sound wave treatment as a physical trigger to modulate physiological traits and to confer an adaptive advantage in plants. We believe that sound wave treatment is a new trigger to help protect plants against unfavorable conditions and to maintain plant fitness.......

Indexed for Frontiers In Plant Science/NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

Measuring effects of music, noise, and healing energy using a seed germination bioassay

Posted on December 19, 2022 at 5:15 AM Comments comments (0)


Measuring effects of music, noise, and healing energy using a seed germination bioassay


By Katherine Creath, Gary E Schwartz

PMID: 15025885 DOI: 10.1089/107555304322849039

Abstract

Objective: To measure biologic effects of music, noise, and healing energy without human preferences or placebo effects using seed germination as an objective biomarker.

Methods: A series of five experiments were performed utilizing okra and zucchini seeds germinated in acoustically shielded, thermally insulated, dark, humid growth chambers. Conditions compared were an untreated control, musical sound, pink noise, and healing energy. Healing energy was administered for 15-20 minutes every 12 hours with the intention that the treated seeds would germinate faster than the untreated seeds. The objective marker was the number of seeds sprouted out of groups of 25 seeds counted at 12-hour intervals over a 72-hour growing period. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored every 15 minutes inside the seed germination containers. A total of 14 trials were run testing a total of 4600 seeds.

Results: Musical sound had a highly statistically significant effect on the number of seeds sprouted compared to the untreated control over all five experiments for the main condition (p < 0.002) and over time (p < 0.000002). This effect was independent of temperature, seed type, position in room, specific petri dish, and person doing the scoring. Musical sound had a significant effect compared to noise and an untreated control as a function of time (p < 0.03) while there was no significant difference between seeds exposed to noise and an untreated control. Healing energy also had a significant effect compared to an untreated control (main condition, p < 0.0006) and over time (p < 0.0001) with a magnitude of effect comparable to that of musical sound.

Conclusion: This study suggests that sound vibrations (music and noise) as well as biofields (bioelectromagnetic and healing intention) both directly affect living biologic systems, and that a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions.

Indexed for NIH PubMed / National Library of Medicine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library