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Antioxidant/restorative effects of calcined gold preparations used in Indian systems of medicine against global and focal models of ischaemia

Posted on October 14, 2021 at 6:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Stroke, or ischaemic brain damage, is of great geriatric importance being the third most common cause of death after cancer and heart diseases in developed countries. Despite such high frequency, its management has received inadequate attention. Many studies have shown the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of ischaemic brain damage. Search for safe and effective antioxidant and free radial scavenger agents, therefore, appear to be a promising approach for stroke therapy. Gold, widely used in modern medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is highly valued for various medicinal uses in Indian systems of medicine. Traditional gold preparations are attributed with tonic/rejuvenating and antioxidant properties. Our earlier studies revealed interesting analgesic, immunostimulant, adaptogenic and glycogen sparing properties in these preparations, but their effects in cerebral ischaemia have not been investigated. This prompted us to initiate the present study using global and focal models of ischaemia in albino rats. Enzymatic parameters (lipid peroxidase, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were employed to assess ischaemic brain damage and its modulation. Significant restoration of altered values to near normal levels by Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (25 mg/kg, orally for 10 days), suggest potentials for gold preparations in cerebrovascular diseases. The preparations deserve more scientific attention for possible therapeutic 


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12076306/



Attenuation of stress-elicited brain catecholamines, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels by calcined gold preparations used in Indian system of medicine

Posted on October 14, 2021 at 6:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Attenuation of stress-elicited brain catecholamines, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels by calcined gold preparations used in Indian system of medicine



Zahoor Ahmad Shah et al. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jun.



 

Abstract

Problems associated with mental health have increased tremendously in modern times. The search for effective and safe alternatives should, therefore, be pursued vigorously. Forced immobilization is one of the best explored models of stress in rats and the role of corticosterone, serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamines, i.e. norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine is well documented. We investigated the therapeutic potential of two gold preparations (Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan) in restraint induced stress at different time points of 1 hr, 2 hr and 4 hr. We pretreated rats with two gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (25 mg/kg, orally for 10 days) prior to restraint stress. Brain catecholamine, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels were determined following 1, 2 and 4 hr restraint stress, using HPLC and also plasma corticosterone using luminescence spectrophotometry. Gold preparations restored restraint stress-induced elevation in levels of brain catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopmine), 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to near normal levels. Gold, widely used in modern medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is highly valued for various medicinal uses in Indian systems of medicine. Traditional gold preparations are attributed with tonic/rejuvenating and antioxidant properties. Our earlier studies revealed interesting analgesic, immunostimulant, adaptogenic and glycogen sparing properties in these preparations, but their effects in stress and depression have not been investigated yet. Significant restoration of altered values to near normal levels suggest potentials for gold preparations in stress and depression


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15910411/

Enhancing the Alternative Cellular Energy (ACE) Pathway with KELEA Activated Water as Therapy for Infectious Diseases. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on August 25, 2021 at 6:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Many infectious diseases have yet to be conquered by modern medicine. This is generally attributed to both a failure of the immune system and the lack of an effective anti-microbial pharmaceutical. Infections can be regarded as a competitive process between the microbe and the host for cellular energy-generated resources. Cells obtain energy not only from the metabolism of food but also from the alternative cellular energy (ACE) pathway. This pathway utilizes an environmental force termed as KELEA (kinetic energy limiting electrostatic attraction), which provides an added kinetic/chemical energy to the body's fluids. The ACE pathway can be enhanced through the use of KELEA activated water, which is currently available under different names from several sources. Enhancing the body's ACE pathway, including the use of a wearable waterceutical ™, provides a novel means of potentially increasing the body's resistance against all infectious diseases.

 

Keywords: ACE pathway; Alternative cellular energy; KELEA activated water; stealth adapted viruses; waterceutical.

 

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32066365/

Far-UVC light (222nm) efficiently and safely inactivates airborne human coronaviruses

Posted on August 4, 2021 at 7:30 AM Comments comments (0)

A direct approach to limit airborne viral transmissions is to inactivate them within a short time of their production. Germicidal ultraviolet light, typically at 254 nm, is effective in this context but, used directly, can be a health hazard to skin and eyes. By contrast, far-UVC light (207–222 nm) efficiently kills pathogens potentially without harm to exposed human tissues. We previously demonstrated that 222-nm far-UVC light efficiently kills airborne influenza virus and we extend those studies to explore far-UVC efficacy against airborne human coronaviruses alpha HCoV-229E and beta HCoV-OC43. Low doses of 1.7 and 1.2 mJ/cm2 inactivated 99.9% of aerosolized coronavirus 229E and OC43, respectively. As all human coronaviruses have similar genomic sizes, far-UVC light would be expected to show similar inactivation efficiency against other human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Based on the beta-HCoV-OC43 results, continuous far-UVC exposure in occupied public locations at the current regulatory exposure limit (~3 mJ/cm2/hour) would result in ~90% viral inactivation in ~8 minutes, 95% in ~11 minutes, 99% in ~16 minutes and 99.9% inactivation in ~25 minutes. Thus while staying within current regulatory dose limits, low-dose-rate far-UVC exposure can potentially safely provide a major reduction in the ambient level of airborne coronaviruses in occupied public locations.


Indexed for Nature Journal by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-67211-2

Sunlight Inactivates Coronavirus 8 Times Faster Than Predicted. UVB Radiation Alone May Not Explain Sunlight Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2

Posted on August 4, 2021 at 7:25 AM Comments comments (0)

Recently, Ratnesar-Shumate et al [1] reported rapid sunlight inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in simulated saliva and in complete growth medium (gMEM). Independently and essentially simultaneously, Sagripanti and Lytle [2] introduced a theory for sunlight inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, building on their earlier work with similar viruses [3]. To the best of our knowledge, these data and theory had not been compared. When establishing this comparison, the experimentally reported sunlight inactivation in Ratnesar-Shumate et al [1] is several times faster than predicted by theory, suggesting that additional experiments and hypotheses may be needed to fully elucidate the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 sunlight inactivation.

 

Briefly, the theory of Sagripanti and Lytle [2, 3] considers direct photochemical damage to viral RNA, which is maximal for UVC (wavelengths between 200 and 280 nm). The effectiveness of UVC is expressed as the exposure that produces one e-fold reduction in infectious virion concentration (ie, to 37% of the initial value) at a wavelength of 254 nm, which is written as D37 [3]. Because larger D37 implies slower inactivation, D37 is effectively an inverse sensitivity. Based on genome size, for Coronaviridae, Lytle and Sagripanti estimated D37 between 2.5 and 3.9 J/m2, and D37 = 3.0 J/m2 for SARS-CoV-2 [2]; this value is used in the calculations presented here. Although no UVC reaches the Earth’s surface, longer UV wavelengths can still affect viral RNA, albeit with decreased sensitivity. To account for this, Lytle and Sagripanti [3] introduced an action spectrum, expressed as the ratio between sensitivity at a given wavelength λ and the UVC sensitivity at 254 nm........


Indexed for Oxford Academic by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/223/8/1500/6129304

A Meta-Integrative Qualitative Study on the Hidden Threats of Smart Buildings/Cities and Their Associated Impacts on Humans and the Environment

Posted on July 26, 2021 at 8:30 AM Comments comments (0)

A Meta-Integrative Qualitative Study on the Hidden Threats of

Smart Buildings/Cities and Their Associated Impacts on

Humans and the Environment

Reshna Raveendran and Kheira Anissa Tabet Aoul *

-

-

Citation: Raveendran, R.; Tabet Aoul,

K.A. A Meta-Integrative Qualitative

Study on the Hidden Threats of Smart

Buildings/Cities and Their

Associated Impacts on Humans and

the Environment. Buildings 2021, 11,

251.


https://doi.org/10.3390/

buildings11060251

Received: 19 April 2021

Accepted: 7 June 2021

Published: 10 June 2021


Copyright: © 2021 by the authors.

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article

distributed under the terms and

conditions of the Creative Commons

Attribution (CC BY) license (https://

creativecommons.org/licenses/by/

4.0/).

Architectural Engineering Department, United Arab Emirates University,

Al Ain P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates; reshna.r@uaeu.ac.ae

* Correspondence: Kheira.Anissa@uaeu.ac.ae

Abstract: Smart buildings deploying 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) are viewed as the next

sustainable solution that can be seamlessly integrated in all sectors of the built environment. The

benefits are well advertised and range from inducing wellness and monitoring health, amplifying

productivity, to energy savings. Comparatively, potential negative risks are less known and mostly

relate to cyber-security threats and radiation effects. This meta-integrative qualitative synthesis

research sought to determine the possible underlying demerits from developing smart buildings,

and whether they outweigh the possible benefits. The study identified five master themes as threats

of smart buildings: a surfeit of data centers, the proliferation of undersea cables, the consternation

of cyber-security threats, electromagnetic pollution, and E-waste accumulation. Further, the paper

discusses the rebound impacts on humans and the environment as smart buildings’ actualization

becomes a reality. The study reveals that, although some aspects of smart buildings do have their

tangible benefits, the potential repercussions from these not-so-discussed threats could undermine

the former when all perspectives and interactions are analyzed collectively rather than in isolation.

Keywords: smart buildings; 5G; internet of things; IoTs; sustainability; climate change; humans;

cyber security; electromagnetic radiation; undersea internet cables; datacenters; E-waste

Beyond Bioelectromagnetics: Bioinformation within the biofield. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library/ Spiritual Sports Medicine & Nutrition

Posted on July 21, 2021 at 12:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

This review article extends previous scientific definitions of the biofield (endogenous energy fields of the body) to include nonclassical and quantum energy fields. The biofield is defined further in terms of its functional property to act as a resonance target for external forms of energy used as treatment modalities in energy medicine.


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The functional role of the biofield in the body's innate self-healing mechanisms is hypothesized, based on the concept of bioinformation which, mediated by consciousness, functions globally at the quantum level to supply coherence, phase, spin, and pattern information to regulate and heal all physiologic processes. This model is used to explain a wide variety of anomalies reported in the scientific literature, which can not be explained by traditional biophysics and bioelectromagnetics.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15025879/

These structures may provide a target for energy-based therapeutic intervention in stealth-virus-infected patients. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on June 16, 2021 at 12:25 AM Comments comments (0)

Complex intracellular inclusions in the brain of a child with a stealth virus encephalopathy.

Martin WJ1

Author information

Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 01 Jun 2003, 74(3):197-209

DOI: 10.1016/s0014-4800(03)00038-8 PMID: 12782006

 


Abstract

Unusual pigmented intracellular inclusions are commonly seen in cultures obtained from patients infected with stealth viruses. Some of these structures may potentially provide a source of chemical energy for the infected cells to help compensate for the apparent damage to the cells' mitochondria. They have accordingly been termed alternative cellular energy pigments (ACE pigments). In keeping with this suggestion, the present paper illustrates the diversity of extraneous materials present in vacuolated, mitochondria-damaged cells seen in the brain biopsy of a child with a stealth-virus-associated encephalopathy. Many of the intracellular inclusions show highly ordered structuring, while others have a more amorphous appearance. These structures may provide a target for energy-based therapeutic intervention in stealth-virus-infected patients.





Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on May 22, 2021 at 7:50 AM Comments comments (0)


refurb.io

Abstract

The importance of information technology to the world economy has brought about a surge in demand for electronic equipment. With rapid technological change, a growing fraction of the increasing stock of many types of electronics becomes obsolete each year. We model the costs and benefits of policies to manage 'e-waste' by focusing on a large component of the electronic waste stream-computer monitors-and the environmental concerns associated with disposal of the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors.

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We find that the benefits of avoiding health effects associated with CRT disposal appear far outweighed by the costs for a wide range of policies. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, we find that policies restricting or banning some popular disposal options would increase disposal costs from about US dollar 1 per monitor to between US dollars 3 and US dollars 20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including lead, can be less expensive. In all cases, however, the costs of the policies exceed the value of the avoided health effects of CRT disposal.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 



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A Potential Non-Invasive Therapy to Treat COVID-19, As Yet Unrecognized in the Medical Literature. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 26, 2021 at 6:35 AM Comments comments (0)

1. Mitchell BW, King DJ (1994) Effect of negative air ionization
on airborne transmission of Newcastle disease virus. Avian
Dis 38: 725-732.
2. Susuki T, Kobayashi N (2004) Plasmacluster ions inacti-
vate an airborne coronavirus: A world first verification re-
search conducted jointly with the Kitasato Institute. Sharp
Company.
3. Scherlag BJ, Scherlag RA, Po SS (2020) Apparatus for
generating negative air ions: Inactivation of coronaviruses.
Lett Health and Biol Sci 5: 1-3.
4. Liu L, Wang P, Nair MS, Yu J, Rapp M, et al. (2020) Po-
tent neutralizing antibodies directed to multiple epitopes on
SARS-CoV-2 spike. Nature.
5. Duan HJ, Gao f, Oguchi K, Nagata T (1994) Light and elec-
tron microscopic radioautographic study on the incorpora-
tion of 3H-thymidine into the lung by means of a new nebu-
lizer. Arzneimittelforschung 44: 880-883.
6. Business Insider (2020) Used in large-scale ventilation sys-
tems worldwide, bipolar ionization could be a secret weap-
on in the war against COVID-19.
7. OU to Install specialized microbe-fighting devices in resi-
dence hall rooms, University of Oklahoma, June 12, 2020.

Crystal Healing: In a crystal we have clear evidence of the existence of a formative life principle, and though we cannot understand the life of a crystal, it is nonetheless a living being. (Nikola Tesla) -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on December 4, 2020 at 12:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Crystal Healing



Crystal healing is an alternative medicine technique that uses crystals and other stones as conduits for natural healing energy. Crystals vibrate at their own frequency, the same way that the cells in your body and your energetic centers vibrate at their own frequency. That means that when we come into contact with crystals these different frequencies meet and enhance your physical, emotional and spiritual balance. When placing a crystal on the body, the geometric and highly synchronized vibrations begin to merge with the bio-energetic field of the person and create a healing effect that can liberate and transform lower energy patterns.



 

While some dismiss this form of vibrational medicine, it is important to note that crystals are used in computers, radios, watches, fiber-optic technology, lasers and credit cards. The ability for crystals to store and transmit information is incredible. (https://upliftconnect.com/vibrational-medicine/)


 

Even the genius scientist Nikola Tesla said that crystals are actually living beings:

 

In a crystal we have clear evidence of the existence of a formative life principle, and though we cannot understand the life of a crystal, it is nonetheless a living being

 


 

Crystals and gemstones have been used for thousands of years as powerful healing aids. In addition to herbalism and acupuncture, Chinese Medicine has a rich tradition of using stones as medicine, passed from generation to generation for thousands of years, as do many other cultures. We may not always be conscious of it, but Crystal Therapy is part of our everyday life. Many people wear precious, semi-precious stones and different minerals not only as jewelry but for their healing benefits as well. Crystal healing is a powerful, yet gentle therapy that works on all levels of the body, mind and spirit. Crystals have the potential to help all of us in a specialized way. You’ll discover how they can draw in and radiate healing energy specific to each area of the body, mind, and spirit.



Indexed for Integrative Healing Arts Studio by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

 

 

Dirty Electricity: Invisible role in the US Health Crisis?. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 16, 2020 at 7:15 AM Comments comments (0)

A dramatic rise in chronic disease, medical conditions and stress symptoms have arisen in the US. Between 1990-2015 Americans experienced a surge of more than 400 million cases of just 36 fast growing germ-less chronic conditions. Environmental factors such as chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are suspected. One growing form of EMR, dirty electricity, is discussed here and causally-linked to many of the exploding health and stress symptoms. Connections between dirty electricity (also called power-line EMI) are established by both statistical correlation and the identification of a plausible mechanism. This electrical energy acts like an exogenous trigger and is associated with free radical production, proliferations of peroxynitrite and the initiation of a self-sustaining biological system, undermining homeostasis called p-Factor.


Indexed for Research Gate / Brown University https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336778115_Dirty_Electricity_Invisible_role_in_the_US_Health_Crisis

Climate change: Electrical industry's 'dirty secret' boosts warming. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 16, 2020 at 6:15 AM Comments comments (0)

It's the most powerful greenhouse gas known to humanity, and emissions have risen rapidly in recent years, the BBC has learned.

 

Sulphur hexafluoride, or SF6, is widely used in the electrical industry to prevent short circuits and accidents.

 

But leaks of the little-known gas in the UK and the rest of the EU in 2017 were the equivalent of putting an extra 1.3 million cars on the road.

 

Levels are rising as an unintended consequence of the green energy boom.

 

Greenland's ice faces melting 'death sentence'

China confirmed as source of rise in CFCs

Manx public 'backs onshore wind turbines'

Big lifestyle changes 'needed to cut emissions'

Cheap and non-flammable, SF6 is a colourless, odourless, synthetic gas. It makes a hugely effective insulating material for medium and high-voltage electrical installations.

 

It is widely used across the industry, from large power stations to wind turbines to electrical sub-stations in towns and cities. It prevents electrical accidents and fires.


Indexed for the BBC News by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49567197

Evidence that dirty electricity is causing the worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 16, 2020 at 5:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract and Figures

Abstract The epidemics of obesity and diabetes most apparent in recent years had their origins with Thomas Edison's development of distributed electricity in New York City in 1882. His original direct current (DC) generators suffered serious commutator brush arcing which is a major source of high-frequency voltage transients (dirty electricity). From the onset of the electrical grid, electrified populations have been exposed to dirty electricity. Diesel generator sets are a major source of dirty electricity today and are used almost universally to electrify small islands and places unreachable by the conventional electric grid. This accounts for the fact that diabetes prevalence, fasting plasma glucose and obesity are highest on small islands and other places electrified by generator sets and lowest in places with low levels of electrification like sub-Saharan Africa and east and Southeast Asia.




Indexed for Research Gate / Samuel Milham / Washington State Department of Health by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239940746_Evidence_that_dirty_electricity_is_causing_the_worldwide_epidemics_of_obesity_and_diabetes

COVID-19 and surface water quality: Improved lake water quality during the lockdown. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 16, 2020 at 5:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Science of The Total Environment

Volume 731, 20 August 2020, 139012

COVID-19 and surface water quality: Improved lake water quality during the lockdown

Author links open overlay panelAli P.YunusabYasuakiHijiokab

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139012

Get rights and content

Under a Creative Commons licenseopen access

Highlights

First attempt to track the impact of the COVID-19 spread on the hydrosphere.

 

Business lockdown due to the COVID-19 spread improved adjacent lake water quality.

 

Suspended particular matter concentration in Vembanad lake decreased by 15.9%.

 

Eleven out of 20 zones showed the lowest April SPM in 2020.

 

Business activities have a significant impact on the lake water quality.

 

 

Abstract

Human life comes to a standstill as many countries shut themselves off from the work due to the novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) that hit the world severely in the first quarter of 2020. All types of industries, vehicle movement, and people's activity suddenly halted, perhaps for the first time in modern history. For a long time, it has been stated in various literature that the increased industrialization and anthropogenic activities in the last two decades polluted the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Since the industries and people's activities have been shut off for a month or more in many parts of the world, it is expected to show some improvement in the prevailing conditions in the aforementioned spheres of environment. Here, with the help of remote sensing images, this work quantitatively demonstrated the improvement in surface water quality in terms of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Vembanad Lake, the longest freshwater lake in India. The SPM estimated based on established turbidity algorithm from Landsat-8 OLI images showed that the SPM concentration during the lockdown period decreased by 15.9% on average (range: −10.3% to 36.4%, up to 8 mg/l decrease) compared with the pre-lockdown period. Time series analysis of satellite image collections (April 2013 – April 2020) showed that the SPM quantified for April 2020 is the lowest for 11 out of 20 zones of the Vembanad lake. When compared with preceding years, the percentage decrease in SPM for April 2020 is up to 34% from the previous minima.

Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: The message of the engraved stones of Ica. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 7:30 AM Comments comments (0)

Cover of: The message of the engraved stones of Ica
The message of the engraved stones of Ica
2000, [s.n.]
in English - Millenium ed.
Not in Library
Add another edition?

The message of the engraved stones of Ica
First published in 2000

SUBJECTS Antiquities, Petroglyphs, Indians of South America, Internplanetary voyages
PLACES Ica (Dept.), Peru, Ica (Peru : Dept.)
Edit
The message of the engraved stones of Ica
Millenium ed.
This edition published in 2000 by [s.n.] in Ica, Perú.
First Sentence
"On the 8th of April of 1976 I had the satisfaction of presenting to the Peruvian public the first edition of this book in Spanish in the Room of Conventions of the Hotel Crillon in Lima. Today I have the pleasure to offer it in Shakespeare's language to the important and immense group of English spoken people. The book has been named "THE MESSAGE OF THE ENGRAVED STONES OF ICA" and contains the results of about ten years of patient and systematic scientific investigation about the origin and meaning of some strange "stones" with enigmatic inscriptions engraved on their surfaces which were found in 1961 in a hidden deposit under the sands of the huge desert of Ocucaje situated on the coast of the Department of Ica, Peru. I regret the Peruvian and foreign archeologists’ prejudgment who got to know the "stones" because they deprived the people from seeing the scientific magnitude and transcendency of these lithic specimens - the only ones all over the world - and instead of studying them, irrespectively and showing irresponsibility they declared - by simple visual observation - the engraving was just made and therefore the "stones" were of no archeological value. With no scruples at all they decided not to make any analysis which could confirm their rushed opinions, asseverating that the lithic specimens were archeological fakes. From that ominous opinion these mysterious "engraved stones" were forsaken and given up to the unbeaten time in the most opprobious forgetfulness. When everything looked as if the archeologists had achieved their purposes of proscribing, from the national archeology, these suggestive "stones", a friend of my childhood and also my patient had the idea of giving me as a gift, on May 13, 1966; one of these stones "in order to use it as a paperweight on my desk". And that it was our happy encounter. Neither Dr. Cabrera nor anybody else could have imagined that working as a doctor in medicine I could have gotten the opportunity to free these lithic specimens from the unjust prison they were confined to during six long years in a junkyard of the Regional Museum from Ica. I confess once I had the first Engraved Stone of Ica I felt I was right in front of a very archaic human fact and had the necessity to begin the expensive mission of rescuing, studying and guarding these abandoned "stones". Years later, I discovered they were a great part of an extraordinary documental of human facts beyond the Peruvian space, beyond the planet and not within the geological time which scientists had assigned to the origin and evolution of humankind. This was really an unprecedented discovery which threw down the human prehistory and brought to the ground the Universal History built up in millenniums with an ingenuous imagination, prejudgments and dogmas and without suspecting that some day it could have been found bibliography from archaic files as the ones I have had the privilege to be their finder and lucky reader and interpreter. My researches reveal that in this huge lithic document, a "Library of Stone Books", it has been written the true history of humankind and though this is a discomposing history because it is not within the limits of the established knowledge in the world's official history; the scientific rigor and my professional honesty are a MUST in order to let the world know these stone books tell us that our humanity is not the first and in the most remote past of the earth, when wild and giant dinosaurs were alive, there lived a cultivated, technical and scientific humanity who owned an incredible level of civilization. Obviously the coexistence of men with reptiles of the Mesozoic breaks not only the traditional scheme of Anthropology but the Universal History. This surprising discovery was given to the Peruvian press in 1971, with the aim to create the archeologists’ scientific conscience and the responsibility of the cultural authorities of the country. Whatever was done it called the attention of the archeologists but only to persevere selfishly in their unscientific attitude to declare once more, in newspapers and books, that the coexistence of man and dinosaur was an unquestionable prove of the archeological fake of the Engraved Stones of Ica, asseverating with no responsibility at all that the keen author of this deceit was the investigator himself. It is profound my sadness when I have to point out that 27 years have elapsed since the fortuitous finding of the Engraved Stones of Ica and over 13 years since I first officially gave away my discoveries and invited cultural authorities and Peruvian and foreigner archeologists to come and know and study the Engraved Stone (gliptolithics) Collection that I keep and guard at my museum. This collection is composed of eleven thousand lithic specimens. However from that day forth - nobody is a prophet among his own - not even one Peruvian archeologist have had neither the curiosity to visit my museum nor the interest to meet the investigator only to make evident they have not gotten free from their prejudices. These drove them to the gross error of supposing Gliptolithics were archeological fakes. Ten years later they pointed out to Dr. Cabrera himself as the creator of such unusual craftsmanship and as the mentor of a group of countrymen dedicated to carve stones. I am convinced man is not perfect and so he is allowed to make mistakes. This affirmation prevents, in some way, national archeologists from the judgment history could make of them because of their scientific disdain, true lese-humanity. The Library of Stone Books of Ica is a human fact of such magnitude and transcendency that, as a scientist, I consider it as a discovery which makes the archeological science richer and mainly invades every science and philosophy. That is why reiterate the invitation I have made not only to the cultural authorities and archeologists from Peru but so scientists and philosophers from all over the world. I also address my invitation to all goodwill men from one end to the other in the planet with no discrimination of age, sex, race, and social, political, and religious condition; asking them to come and know the ele­ven thousand Engraved Stones on display at my museum. I do this because these Stone Books advise us to forget selfishness and to use science and technology in a conscientious way in order to maintain the natural resources and the planetary ecology system. Not to do so it would mean to jeopardize the actual humanity putting it on the risk of suffering the terrible effects of a giant cataclysm. This phenomenon would make the world lose not only the brightness of civilization but plants, animals and perhaps our whole humanity. By now it is probable that you may be thinking that I have no scientific reasons to affirm what it has been said about the future of our humanity. However my latest investigations have proved the above said because I have discovered in the Ocucaje desert, a few kilometers from the deposit where the Engraved Stones of Ica were found, a paleontoligic treasure set on sedentary rocks from the superior Cretacic period of the Mesozoic geological era. In Chapter 1 it is said that I am still exploring the Ocucaje desert. I began to look for fossils in this very reach measure in a systematic way and in accordance to the time and money I was able to spend. On the 14th of October of 1984 I found a section of sedimentary strata in which there was a number of fossilized animal and vegetable specimens from the Mesozoic fauna and flora. Suddenly and with a great surprise I found part of a backbone; dorso-lumbar with its iliac bones which belongs to a human being similar to the man of our days. It was found at a very few meters from three incomplete heads and fragments of backbone of dinosaurs belonging to the triceratops species. Close to these giant eggs specimens, sections of skin of dinosaurs of different species and an almost complete skeleton of a phitosaur (extinguished archaic reptile similar to the modern crocodile) equally fossilized were also found. In the first place, it is confirmed through this discovery, the coexistence of man and dinosaur expressed on the Stone Books of the Library of Ica. In the second place, it is scientifically confirmed that man has lived with wild arid giant saurians at the end of the Mesozoic because their fossils were found in the same geologic stratum. In the third place, it has been proved the coexistence man and dinosaur, consequently it is only scientific to suppose that man was the main cause of the extinction of these archaic reptiles. In the fourth place, there has been found at the Ocucaje desert in the paleontologic measure, tracks of a monstrous deluge which covered with mud whatever there was on this side of the planet. You can objectively verify this. I have no doubt about finding objects, instruments, houses/buildings and so forth, in this place if I shall continue exploring it. These remains are to be irrefutable proof of the scientific and technological standard of that humanity that could not stay as it is written on the stone books. These discoveries will be given in detail on my next book 'THE HUMANITY IN THE MESOZOIC". Being responsible of the scientific obligation of giving away to the world these meaningful anthropologic discoveries I accepted the invitation made by Don Rafael Mendez, President of the Organizer Committee of the International Congress “Cien anos de Investigacion de los Grandes Misterios del Hombre” (Hundred years of investigation on the Great Mysteries of Man) which took place at San Jose City, Costa Rica from the 14th thru the 19th of October 1985 in order to participate as an Official Lecturer. There I had not only the opportunity to give away these discoveries but to invite my colleagues - foreign scientific investigators - to prosecute alongside with me the paleontological explorations at the Ocucaje measure. Finally I ask for your understanding in front of my passionate defense about the scientific validity of the information which is contained in the texts engraved on the Stones of Ica. I believe that giving 22 years of my life to this cause it is not good enough to embrace the immense field of investigation which is offered by the hundreds of thousands of stone books of this unique Library some of which are still hidden under the hot and hostile Ocucaje desert. There will be no rest for me as long as I see men not involved with the thru past of the humankind because keeping away from it constitutes a terrible hazard for the future of our civilization. As I know we are still on time to straighten our errors I will use all my strength and will in order to alert humanity about the historic truth of our planet: It is going to face another cataclysm like the one that destroyed the existing world at the end of the Mesozoic time. Javier Cabrera Darquea, January 20, 1989"

Edition Description
At 360 kilometers south of Lima - capital of Peru - in the coastal province of Ica, there were discovered in 1961 some strange and mysterious stones shaped somewhat like river rocks. The strangeness, the mystery of the stones was that they pictured animals, men and ways of life very different from those previously discovered by students of the classical cultures of Peru. The stones came from Ocucaje, an agreeable little town located 40 kilometers south of Ica. In this region, underground, are to he found innumerable graves of men who lived in the times of the Inca and before; lying on the surface of the earth are petrified remains of both tiny and huge prehistoric animals. Ocucaje lies in an immense desert criss-crossed by mounds of ancient rocks, perhaps the oldest on the planet. There, in the solitude of the desert landscape, testimonials to the recent past and the ancient past lie side by side. And if it were not for the small fields that arise on either side of the river - dry most of the year - that crosses the desert, it might be said that this part of the world had died, that time stopped here.

The strange stones were found by the peasants of Ocucaje. Ocucaje lies in the zone where since the beginning of the century the finest ancient textiles and ceramics have been unearthed, and the peasants have dedicated themselves, generation after generation, to the clandestine practice of searching for artifacts. On a clear night, armies of men armed with picks, their faces covered so as not to breath the stench of the graves, protected by amulets to defend them against evil spirits, with the silence as their only witness, perform the enigmatic task of literally uncovering the past. For long hours these moving shadows people the desert; if someone unaware of what they were doing should happen to surprise then at their work, he would think that the dead had abandoned their endless sleep to arise from the grave and take up their lives where death had interrupted them in some unknown moment so long ago.

The unusual figures engraved on the stones amazed the archeologists who saw them: they could not he reconciled with what was known of the men who had lived in ancient Peru, and they toppled all knowledge that had been pieced together regarding that era. Doubt about the authenticity of the stones was their first response. Loyal to the notion that the oldest human beings in Peru dated from no more than 20,000 years ago and that only 3,000 years ago was there an advanced civilization to he found in the region, they could not admit the hypothesis that the stones might be evidence of a civilization much older than the classical cultures of Peru, that is to say, older than the Incas or the Pre-Incas.

The incredulity of the archeologists was communicated to the cultural authorities of the country. The engraved stones of Ica, which kept appearing and finding their way into private collections, were passed over by the archeologists and other specialists. Carlos and Pablo Soldi, who had collected the first stones that appeared in Ocucaje repeatedly requested that their specimens he studied, but the experts decided to ignore their persistent petitions. In 1966, an architect named Santiago Agurto Calvo carried out excavations in the graves of Ocucaje to try to determine if the engraved stones, of which he had a substantial collection acquired years before, came from them. Santiago Agurto Calvo was able to find some specimens which led him to believe that the stones had been carved by pre-Incaic man. It was the first time that the exact provenance of some specimens was known. But despite this conformity with the demands of the science of archeology, archeologists were still not interested in studying the stones.

Six years after the first discoveries of the engraved stones, and without being aware of the work of the Soldi brothers and of Santiago Agurto Calvo, I came across several hundred examples. My investigations in the field of biology, in connection with my lectureship at the Universidad Nacional "San Luis Gonzaga" of Ica, allowed me to identify the unusual fauna engraved on the stones as animals which paleontologists tell us existed in prehistory. By a simple process of deduction I realized that the engraved stones of Ica revealed the contemporaneous existence of man and prehistoric animals, which meant that man existed a million years ago. I knew, of course, that scientists are convinced of the idea that man, as an intelligent being, appeared - after a long, slow process of primate brain development - only 250,000 years ago; but I was forced to the conclusion that the Ica stones called into question not only conventional wisdom about the antiquity of original Peruvians but also about the appearance of man on earth. I began to collect the stones in order to study then and determine their scientific validity.

Later, after more examination, I observed that certain apparently enigmatic figures which in some cases gave the impression of being decorative, were symbols used in a system of expression. Thus the engraved stones of Ica were revealed not as evidence of an art form carved in stone, but as testimonials to the deeds and actions of human beings. After nearly ten years of patient and systematic study of the over 11,000 specimens which up my museum, I have been able to derive much valuable information, not all of which, given its variety and its sheer mass, fit in one book. They are facts that have nothing to do with the Inca or Pre-Inca cultures, cultures of Peru's recent past. On the contrary, they are proof that the engraved stones come only very rarely from the tombs of these cultures, and that man existed on earth millions of years ago. They speak of the existence of a people whose capacity to reflect, whose ability to increase and conserve knowledge led them to reach a scientific and technological level much more advanced even than today. The marks left by this humanity are to be found in many mediums, in many and varied objects from all aver the world; the figures and symbols used by other ancient cultures are part of the same system of expression that was used in the engraved stones of Ica. These signs of universality reveal that one people was established throughout the globe. Put since the medium of choice of this ancient people to leave their record was that almost eternal material, the stone I have decided to call the engraved stones "glyptoliths" and the people that left them "glyptolithic humanity".

The information conveyed in the stones of Ica contains invaluable messages left by an ancient humanity to the humanity of the future. Under strange and difficult to explain circumstances, they have been deciphered in our time. And as their messages reveal to us that man is capable of unthinkable intellectual achievements if he merely aspires to the heights that those who came before him have attained, I believe that the engraved stones of Ica are the most important legacy of our time. My belief in this has compelled me, willingly, to open my museum to the disposition not only of students and scientists but of any person who wishes to see them. When I am asked to publish my opinion about them or to share the results of my investigations, or for permission to photograph them, I have acceded with great pleasure. The 11,000 stones wait for other foreign students and scientist and, especially, for the students of the Peruvian past to examine them and confirm the truth they tell.

I think that the engraved stones of Ica explain rationally much of what we now see as enigmatic or fabulous about the past existence of man. The achievements of that remote humanity are so far beyond the present capabilities of man that, if the concrete evidence did not exist, the inferences I draw from them in this book would risk sounding like the product of an extraordinary imagination.

ANOTHER HUMANITY EXISTED

It was the beginning of May, 1966. Felix Llosa Romero, my childhood friend, crossed the Plaza de Arras of Ica and arrived at ray home, where I regularly saw my patients. Felix Llosa Romero had in his right hand a small stone. "I’ve brought you a present", he said, "I thought it would make a pretty paperweight for your desk". When he handed it to me it felt surprisingly heavy. It was shaped like an oval, and it was engraved on one side with a carving of a fish I did not recognize. The stone struck me as most unusual (Fig. 1).

This was the second carved stone I had seen. About thirty years earlier, when the land my father owned in Salas (a district of Ica) was being cleared for planting, the plow uncovered a similar stone. The workers said the stone had been carved by the Incas. They attributed the engraving to the Incas because it was common in this zone to find ceramics, metal and wood objects, textiles, and human remains of the ancient Peruvian civilizations that had inhabited the region (1). I remember that the stone the plow brought to light was decorated with a bird unknown to me. My father kept the stone. I was sixteen years old at the time and intended to enroll at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de "San Marcos" in Lima to study medicine. I was intrigued by the stone, but my studies quickly made me forget it, and I do not know what became of it...

My friend Felix Llosa Romero stood in my doorway as I pondered the possible origin of the stone he had just given me. I asked him where he had gotten it and he said his brother, who had a vast collection of such stones, had given it to him. This surprised me, because in Ica one was always hearing of ceramics, textiles, and other objects that from time to tine were found in Precolombian graves, but I have never heard of engraved stones. My surprise grew when Felix Llosa Romero added that for many years the huaqueros (2) of Ocucaje had been discovering a large number of these stones and had been selling them to archeology buffs. He also told me that Carlos and Pablo Soldi, who owned and lived on a plantation in Ocucaje, had the biggest collection of these stones that the architect Santiago Agurto Calvo had a collection, and that the Museo Regional of Ica had a few. I was perplexed.

Immediately I went to see Llosa's brother and caught a glimpse, for the first time, of the enormous range of these ancient engravings. I saw carvings of birds, lizards, spiders, snakes, fish, shrimp, frogs, turtles, llamas (3). I saw drawings of men. I saw both staple and elaborately executed scenes of hunting and fishing. I saw also that the animals represented had different characteristics from those of the species as we know them: there were snakes with small wings on their spines; birds with horns; insects with pincers as long as their bodies; fish covered with wings. The scenes seemed actually to move, as if they were being enacted for my benefit. The owner of this collection confirmed what his brother had told me of the provenance of the stones.

This first experience with the engraved stones of Ica truly engaged my interest: I felt profoundly the need for a scientific investigation to clarify their mysterious origin and relation to the classical cultures of ancient Peru.

Quite by chance about that time, something happened which made me think there was a possibility that such an investigation might be carried out with official support: I was asked to found and direct the Casa de Cultura of Ica, an institution devoted to the promotion of science and letters in the region. It would be affiliated with the Casa de Cultura del Peru in Lima.

With the authority of new position, the first thing I did was approach Adolfo Bermudez Jenkis, Director of the Museo Regional of Ica, and ask him to let me see the engraved stones that, according to my friend Llosa, were in the possession of the Museum, none of which, on numerous visits, could I ever recall having seen. The Director confirmed the existence of the stones, and called for them to be taken out of storage so I could inspect them. When I tried to interest him in the idea of an official study of the stones, he replied that this was not necessary, since a friend of his had told him they were carved by the same huaqueros who then sold them. I asked him if his friend's opinion was supported by laboratory tests, and again he replied that such tests were not called for.

To try to awaken the interest of Peruvian and visiting foreign scholars in the stones, I decided to form a collection of them to exhibit in the Casa de Cultura. With my own funds I began to acquire specimens, and eventually I accumulated over 5000. Some time afterwards I found out that to my surprise a year before my friend Llosa had given me my first stone, a student of Peru's past, Herman Buse, had published a book in which he acknowledged the existence of the Ica stones (4). Buse writes that in 1961 a flooding of the Ica River had uncovered, in the zone of Ocucaje, a large number of these stones, which ever since had been an object of commerce for the huaqueros who found them. He added that many of these stones had been acquired by the Soldi brothers, who had later tried again and again, in vain, to interest archeologists in a study.

On December 11, 1966, I read a Lima newspaper article by Santiago Agurto Calvo - then Rector of the Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria - in which he noted the recent discovery of engraved stones in Pre-Incaic graves in the digs known as Max Uhle and Tomaluz, to the south of Ocucaje (5). The article said that one of the stones was carved on one side with the figure of a bird with outstretched wings, in full flight, carrying an ear of corn in its claws; another had a star-shaped design. The discovery had been made in the company of Alejandro Pezzia Assereto, an archeologist from the Patronato Nacional de Archeologia del Peru, a trustee of the Museo Regional of Ica and in charge of archeological investigations in the region. Agurto Calvo concluded that the discoveries proved the authenticity of the Ica stones and that they promised to open new avenues of research. After the publication of this article, written by a prestigious intellectual, I felt certain that archeologists would finally take an interest in the stones. In the months that followed I waited impatiently for an influx of students of ancient Peru, but they did not come.

While I waited, with my own collection of the stones before me, I set myself, somewhat idly at first, to try to discover the significance of the drawings. I had always had the feeling that the figures were not intended so much for artistic or decorative purposes as for the purpose of communicating aspects of the life of the human beings who had inhabited Peru in remote times. What I found as I continued to study the stones convinced me more and more each day that this had indeed been the intention.

Footnotes:

(1) Archaeologists say that humanity in Peru is 20000 years old and that only 3,000 years ago did it acquire a cultural level of any importance. Culturally the Peruvians form very differentiated groups, distributed in different valleys of the Peruvians’ geography, and are referred to as Pre-Inca kingdoms or cultures. The kingdom of Cusco, the Inca culture, is much more recent and it dominated the others, some of which were by that time decadent, others having disappeared and the rest having maintained their splendor. The Inca and Pre-Inca cultures are called cultures of ancient Peru, Pre-Columbian cultures or Pre-Hispanic cultures; in the last two cases to indicate the limit of their existence, due respectively to the arrival of Columbus in America and the Spanish Conquerors in Peru. Sometimes in this book I refer to them as the classical cultures of ancient Peru, with the intention of stressing that they are from a recent past and therefore do not correspond to the humanity which is the subject matter of this book and which was spread throughout the world; and whose remains (the engraved stones of Ica) are the proof that man's existence on Earth goes back billions of years.

(2) Huaquero: One who illegally does excavations in search of archaeological treasures, an activity severely penalized by Peruvian laws to protect the archaeological heritage of the country. The word comes from the Quechua word: huaca, which was used to designate all that was sacred, especially certain places. Nowadays, along the Peruvian coast, the mounds which contain retains of Pre-Columbian cultures, are known as "huacas".

(3) Llama: Animal of the camel family, native to Peru.

(4) Herman Buse: INTRODUCCION AL PERU. Lima, 1965.

(5) Santiago Agurto Calvo: "Las piedras magicas de Ocucaje". In the supplement of the daily newspaper El Comercio. Lima, 11 December 1966.

THE MYSTERY OF THE CARVINGS

Daily exposure to the stones was gradually permitting to penetrate the mysteries of the stones’ designs. The stones are of different sizes, weight, and color. The smallest weigh 15-20 grams, and the largest about 500 kilograms. They are grey, black, yellowish, and pinkish. They are shaped like river rocks, the pebbles and small boulders seen on river barks, beaches, and alluvial plains. But river rocks are notable for their durability; the Ica stones, on the other hand, are so fragile that if one knocks against another or is dropped to the floor, it will shatter. This singular characteristic of the stones was suggested when I first held the one given to me by my friend Liosa Romero. I refer to its high specific gravity compared to the river rock.

From the outset I felt that mere contemplation, no matter how serious, of the figures engraved on the stones was not sufficient to understand them. Before an object of art, perhaps, such contemplation would have sufficed. But observation had raised more questions than it had answered, making me suspect that the carvings had been conceived with a purpose in mind other than to amuse or engage the eye. It occurred to me that perhaps the designs conveyed some message. This idea kept recurring; I began to think that the etchings might be some unknown form of writing, in which the figures were symbols that represented objects, subjects, qualities, attitudes, circumstances, events. Operating on this principle, I set myself to deciphering this strange form of writing.

But then I remembered something that momentarily deterred my progress: the findings of historical investigations on ancient Peru all agreed that the Incas and Pre-Incas lacked a system of writing. This led me to restate the problem in the form of a question: are the Ica stones art or a form of writing? I had noted during my long hours and days spent observing the stones that they lacked plan, proportion, and perspective. I remembered that the absence of these elements also characterized the drawings left by cultures like the Sumerians and the Egyptians (from 6000 years ago), considered much older than the Incas or Pre-Incas, drawings that all concede are a form of writing. I was more than ever convinced that the Ica stones contained a form of writing that only could have existed in a past much earlier than the Inca or Pre-Inca periods.

I found myself, as a result of these ruminations, at the door that could lead me to an understanding of the strange messages that these ancient men had carved. This obliged me to study the stones even more carefully. After a systematic review of the 6000 samples that made up my collection, I realized that in many stones the designs seemed to repeat themselves. Comparative analysis revealed, however, that even when two figures were very similar, the presence of one or more new elements inserted in the design, or variations in the posture of figures, animal and vegetable, as well as changes in the placement of objects, made each design unique. I then began to separate into groups stones with superficial likeness to each other. It was at this point that I discovered something that meant a big step forward in my investigation: each group of stones made up a series built around a theme and, within these series, the design of each stone presented a different aspect of the theme. Examining the themes, I found that they revolved around aspects of the human knowledge. But if the nature of the theme could be determined at a single glance, it was harder to know precisely the significance of each part of the design. It seemed that, in order to decipher the system of expression used, I would have to have at my disposal more stones so as to avoid inferences based on incomplete series. To this end I began increasing my collection, all the while continuing my study of the system of expression which would permit me to extract the information, the messages contained in the drawings.

With the new acquisitions and the ordering of the stones in series, my collection began to present a more logical vision of the engravings, since each series had its own compartment on my shelves. The series were arranged around relating to astronomy, biology, zoology, anthropology, transportation, rituals, fishing, hunting, etc. It is worthy of note that the human figures had a different form from that of modern man and for that matter from the Inca and Pre-Inca (which are, after all, modern man), although certain ornaments that the figures wore on their heads looked like the three feathers the Incas used to denote power and nobility (Fig. 3).

It is also noteworthy that the animals, while they bore resemblances to modern creatures, had characteristics which set them apart. I consulted manuals of Paleontology (6) to be certain, and I found that they had a morphological affinity to prehistoric animals. The stones show, for example, horses and llamas with five toes (Fig. 4 and 5); megatherium (huge giant sloth bear, Fig. 6); alticamellus (a mammal with the head and neck of a giraffe and the body of a camel, Fig. 7); Megaceros (giant deer, Fig. 8); mammoths (primitive elephants, Fig. 9); diatrymas (giant carnivorous birds, Fig. 10); and other animals. This could only mean that the people who had carved these stones lived in a time that much preceded the Incas or the Pre-Incas. I remembered that in 1920 the doctor and archeologist Julio C. Tello had studied Tiahuanaco-influenced artifacts in which llamas appeared with five toes, like the prehistoric llamas, extinct for 40 million years (I derive this date from analogy with the evolution of equine animals). These representations in the queros were attributed to the imaginations of Precolombian artists, who it was assumed, wished to invest the llama with human characteristics. The possibility that man and these animals coexisted was dismissed. But later Tello found in Peru fossilized skeletons of the llama with five toes. This discovery, which ought to have suggested to paleontologists and archeologists the possible coexistence of man and prehistoric animals, passed unnoticed, despite the fact that present day llamas come from Peru (7).

I remembered also that in 1865 Ephrain George Squier, an early Northamerican archeologist, after long and careful study of the civilizations of ancient Peru, had claimed that Peruvian culture existed in two culturally differentiated epochs: one in the remote past, possessed of a high technology and culture, and another - that of the Incas - very close to contemporary man, with low levels of technology and culture. Squier thought that between the two epochs an indiscernible amount of time had passed. He also thought that the huge stone edifices spread across Peru were left by a remote culture. Squier says: "From what period do they date? They were, of course, the result of a gradual evolution, the last stage of progress. But where are the rest of the stages, where are the monuments that mark the antecedents of this evolution?... Weren't those works built, inspired, or suggested by an exotic people, fully developed, by immigrants or masters of much older civilizations, of civilizations of which this one is no more than a copy, a caricature?" (8). And he answers that there exists some evidence in Peru of a remote past, such as the ruins of Tiahuanaco, which, he affirms, are as admirable as the ruins of Assyria, Egypt, Greece, or Rome, and that the sundials of Sillustani are so similar to those of England, Denmark, and Tartary that only the most discerning eye could tell the difference. As regards the hypothesis that the ancestors of the Peruvians had been imported from across the sea or that their civilizations were imported, he asserts that even if this were the case, "there is still evidence that their arrival in Peru predates all human record" (9).

The discovery of Tello and the argument of Squier confirm that the Ica stones suggest: the existence of a Peruvian culture of unknown antiquity, but very much older than the Incas or the Pre-Incas. This made me reflect on the attitude of archeologists toward the discoveries they make in excavating Inca or Pre-Inca graves. The textile, ceramics, carved stones, necklaces, tools, weapons, food, and other objects that they often find next to a mummified body are assured to have belonged to the dead or his contemporaries, by the arbitrary rule of association, a basic tenet of the archeological method. The arbitrariness of applying this rule derives from the fact that they do not consider the possibility that at least some of the objects found were not made by the occupant of the tomb or his contemporaries; he may just have found the object himself, and not having at hand an explanation for where it came from nor what it represented, may have thought it came from the gods and would be a good thing to deposit in his grave to accompany him to his next life. It is also possible that although the object may have been made by the Inca or Pre-Inca man, the design or the style was not of his conception, but was instead copied from another object which, generations and generations of copies before, was conceived by a culture that lived in the remote past.

Tello and Squier's words were confirmed by a startling discovery that I made studying my new acquisitions: I found figures of prehistoric animals even older than the ones I had already identified. There were megacheiroptera (huge bats), dinosaurs (giant reptiles), and agnata (primitive fish without maxillae, all animals that the paleontologists tell us existed in geological eras earlier than the era in which man appeared. The megacheiroptera dates from the Cenozoic era (63 million years ago); the dinosaur from the Mesozoic era (181 millions years ago), and the agnata from the Paleozoic era (405 million years ago). I can only deduce that the men who carved these stones co-existed with these animals. This of course means that man is at least 405 million years old, as apposed to 40-250 thousands years old as paleontologists would have it, based on human fossils found for the Cenozoic era (Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Neanderthal man). But this was not all. Arranged according to theme, the stones show that the men who carved them not only knew these animals, but knew them well in a biological sense: the reproductive cycle of the megacheiroptera, dinosaur, and agnata; their eating habits; and their physical vulnerabilities are all portrayed in the drawings.

Footnotes:

(6) Paleontology: the science which deals with the discovery, classification and interpretation of the many remains of the existence of life in past times. The word fossil refers not only to bones, teeth, shells, and other hard parts from an animal or plant which have been conserved, but also to any footprint or imprint left by an organism that existed in a remote epoch.

(7) Archeologists reject the possibility of the coexistence of man with prehistoric animals, on the basis of what they consider to be unchallengeable: that man appeared recently, only 250,000 years ago. However, when human remains were found in America with fossils of animals that lived millions of years ago, they arbitrarily stated that in America such animals became extinct very recently.

(8) Ephrain George Squier: PERU INCIDENTS OF TRAVEL AND EXPLORATIONS IN THE LANDS OF INCAS, Harper E Brother Publishers, New York, 1887.

(9) Squier, Ibid.

PREHISTORIC BIOLOGY IN THE ENGRAVED STONES

Paleontological discoveries have shown that the megacheiroptera was an animal of grand proportions, with membranous wings and a long tail. The only animal existing today that resembles it, though on a much reduced scale, is a type of bat that lives in the forests of Australia and Africa, the only species of bat with a tail. Bats are mammals and as such are born alive after a period of gestation in the womb. Given the likeness of this bat to the megacheiroptera, paleontologists infer that the latter was also a mammal. Nevertheless, study of a series of 48 stones beginning with a simple representation of an animal and ending with the animal in what I suppose to be its fully-developed state, reveals that creature to be the same megacheiroptera reconstructed by paleontologists. Clearly this series permits us to see each phase of the development of the animal. The artists carved a representation of an egg on its tail in each phase, which suggests symbolically that each carving portrayed the animals at the same point in the reproductive cycle. This in turn could only mean that the reproductive cycle was oviparian, like the cycle of a bird. I found myself, to my surprise, faced with a fact that contradicted paleontology on this point: the megacheiroptera was not live-born, like the bat, but hatched from an egg (see photographs: chart 1).

Paleontology also asserts that the dinosaur was the largest living thing ever to walk the earth. It was, according to scientists, oviparian: The females buried the eggs in the sand so that the sun could warm them and allow the eggs to hatch, much like reptiles today which, after incubation inside the eggs, are born fully-formed. These conclusions are based on skeletons and fossilized eggs, as well as fossilized marks left by skin fragments and footprints in mesozoic igneous rocks (volcanic rocks). But in one of my stones I found a succession of figures shown from all sides which concludes with the figures of two adult dinosaurs next to a very small one, which I identified as belonging to the species stegasaurus (10). Undoubtedly this was the male (6 in Fig. 11), the female (5 in Fig. 12) and their young (4 in Fig. 13). The figures in the other stones started out in a larval form that recalls the larvae or tadpole of the amphibians (1 in Fig. 14), continued with a similar figure except with two feet (2 in Fig. 15), and ended with a very small form of reptile with four feet (3 in Fig. 16). This succession of figures illustrates a well-known biological phenomenon: metamorphosis. The discovery is startling because paleontologists have assumed that dinosaurs reproduced just like present-day reptiles - in other words, they were hatched from the egg completely formed. Metamorphosis is characteristic of amphibians, which, unlike reptiles, do not emerge fully formed from the egg, but instead have to go through a series of organic changes (metamorphosis) that begin with the larval state and when the animal reaches the stage at which all that remains is to grow into an adult. Identifying the process of metamorphosis in the engravings allowed me to distinguish the male from the female adult dinosaurs: the larval stage of growth was pictured over the spine of one of the adults, while over the other we see a later stage of development (the larvae with two feet), the first I infer to identify the dinosaur to which the creature was born in other words the female. This inference was supported by the fact that, as in many species, the male was larger than the female (see Chart 2).

As regards the agnata, I had 203 stones that illustrated its reproductive cycle. After careful study, I found it to be metamorphic as well. With extraordinary attention to detail, the artist who carved these stones had portrayed in each stone one aspect of the metamorphosis of this ancient fish. His obviously close study of his subject matter has been ignored by paleontologists, who at best have the barest notions of the physical outlines of the creature, determined by fossilized specimens found in Paleozoic layers 405 million years old.

In sum, these findings revealed that a) man's existence on earth dates at least from the time when the agnata lived, in the oldest geological era, the Paleozoic; b) that man also lived in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic era, to judge from his coexistence as seen in the stones with the dinosaur and the megacheiroptera, respectively; and c) that the man who lived in these eras was intellectually highly evolved, given his understanding of complex biological functions like the reproductive cycle. The revelations provided by the stones were so different from the principles of biology and anthropology I myself taught as a professor at the Universidad Nacional de "San Luis Gonzaga" de Ica, that I must confess I felt obliged to reflect deeply on the need to confirm the authenticity of the stories. I decided to reexamine the traditional scheme of the evolution of man and the animals.

Footnotes:

(10) At the time I made this discovery I also possessed stones the engravings of which show the embryological cycles of other species of dinosaurs, such as Tyrannosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Lambeosaurus, Brontosaurus, Triceratops. I am gathering together in a book (which I will publish when ready) my investigations of everything referring to the knowledge engraved about different species of dinosaurs.

According to the theory of evolution, higher animal forms are the result of a slow process that began with the first living forms (microorganisms) that arose from the primitive seas of our planet. This process has taken millions of years. Studying the strata that form the surface of the earth, geologists have identified five main geological levels, each of which conforms to one of the stages of this slow process, and in each of which have been found long-extinct animal and vegetable remains. The antiquity of the layers has dated the organisms found in them. Each one of these five geological eras has been subdivided into smaller time frames called periods (see chart). The oldest geological era is the Archeozoic. This era does not begin with the origin of the earth (which is calculated to have occurred about 5,000 million years ago), but with the formation of the earth's crust, when there already existed seas, rocks, and mountains. This era began 3,500 million years ago and lasted 2,000 million years. It is believed that during this period there was a great deal of volcanic activity and shattering cataclysms that culminated in the formation of mountain chains. Since organic material is transformed into carbon under certain conditions of temperature, pressure, and time, the abundance of carbon found in the rocks of the Archeozoic era leads one to the conclusion that there was considerable animal and vegetable life during this period. The next era, the Proterozoic, began 1,500 million years ago lasted 900 million years. This, it is believed, was a period of glaciers. In Proterozoic rock spicules of sponges, aguas vivas (evidence of waters in which organisms can live), and remains of mushrooms, algae, mollusks, arthropods, and worms have been found. All this demonstrates that in this era life not only existed, but the process of evolution had advanced notably.

At the beginning of the next era, the Paleozoic, all vegetable and animal life still lived in the seas. We find primitive crustaceans and organisms similar to arachnids. At that time most of what is now land was covered with shallow sea. Fish with hard, shell-like coverings, without fins or mandibles, next emerged, one of which was the agnata. Later terrestrial plants developed. The mandible-less fish evolved into a grater variety of fish, a fact which has led to this era being called the Age of the Fish. Ancestors of osseous (bony) fish appeared, which evolved into forms with lobular fins and even radiated fins. One type of fish with lobular fins, the celacanth, was believed to be extinct, but in 1939 and 1952 fishermen caught live specimens 2 meters long in the waters around Madagascar. The first amphibians appeared, similar to the fish with lobular fins, but with feet instead of fins. The extensive marshy forests that eventually created the earliest carbon deposits arose. At the end of the Paleozoic era primitive reptiles appeared, among them the seymuria, the oldest reptile known, about which it is difficult to say whether it was an amphibian about to become a reptile or a reptile scarcely differentiate from an amphibian. Also at the end of this era important climactic and tectonic changes occurred. The continents emerged from the seas. In North America the Appalachian mountain range was formed. In Europe other mountain ranges appeared. There was a period of glaciation from the Antarctic that covered most of the southern hemisphere. This era began 600 million years ago and lasted 370 million.

The most distinctive feature of the era that followed, the Mesozoic - which began 230 million years ago and lasted 167 million - was the origin, differentiation, and finally the extinction of an enormous variety of reptiles, for which the period is also known as the Age of the Reptiles. Moreover, many species of reptiles achieved enormous size, among them certain species of dinosaurs. Some giant dinosaurs walked on two feet, like the tyranosaurus, the iguanodon, the lambeosaurus, the coritosaurus, and the parasaurolopus. Others walked on four feet: The brontosaurus, the diplodocus, the brachiosaurus, the stegosaurus, the anchilosaurus, the triceratops, and the tirocosaurus. There were also huge marine dinosaurs with fins, like the ichthyosaur, plesiosaur, elasmosaurus, etc. Related to the dinosaurs were flying reptiles with membranous wings and stumpy legs; some had a long tail that served as a sort of rudder, and others had a short tail; the feet of the flying reptiles were not capable of supporting the weight of the animal and these creatures, like the bats, rested by hanging from their feet. Warm-blooded mammals began to appear, as well as the oldest species of birds known to us, one of which, the archeoterix, was about the size of a crow, covered with feathers. It had undeveloped wings, jaws with teeth and the long tail of a bird. At the end of this era was a cataclysmic event known as the Revolution of the Rocky Mountains, much like that which had ended the previous era. This new cataclysm gave rise to the Rockies, the Alps, the Himalayas, and the Andes.

The next era was the Cenozoic, which began 63 million years ago, and saw among many other things the separation of North and South America. It has been divided into two periods: The Terciary (which lasted 62 million years) and the Quaternary (which lasted 1 million). At the beginning of the Cenozoic era certain winged mammals and mammals with tails became extinct, among them the megacheiroptera. However, this era is noted for the evolution of the birds, insects, plants and especially the mammals, for which it is known as the Age of the Mammals. During this era we find thirty main groups of mammals. Some primitive species have managed to survive in Australia, where there was little competition from more advanced species, since this continent was separated from the others since the end of the Mesozoic era. Two examples are the ornitorrinco and the echidna. Unlike other mammals whose young are born live, both are oviparian, which suggests their link to the reptiles. Also during this era we have the mastodon, the mammoth (both now extinct), and their descendants the elephants. The evolution of the horse begins at the start of this era, with a species of small horse with toes instead of hooves. Llamas and camels date from the Cenozoic - the alticamellus with its several toes is an example - as do huge armadillos, megatheres, etc. The most, advanced of these in terms of brain size were, of course, the primates. Primates appeared approximately 70 million years ago (at the end of the Cretacic period, Mesozoic era), evolved from their mammalian ancestors.

Based on evidence from living primates, the theory of evolution has established the following order of appearance: tupaids, lemurs, loris, tarsiers, monkeys, and anthropoids. Anthropoids are different from their immediate ancestors - the monkeys - in the absence of a tail. Gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees are living anthropoids (Fig. 17). The theory of evolution holds that there must have been a branch of anthropoids, unknown to us, which divided, producing one branch which was the origin of present day anthropoids and another which was the origin of man. Fossils of anthropoids have been found dating back 25 million years.

In 1967, the anthropologist Luis Leakey found in Kenya the remains of an anthropoid more fully developed than those I have just mentioned; his age has been established at 20 million years (kenyapithecene Africanus). Earlier in 1962, and also in Kenya, the same anthropologist and discovered the retrains of another anthropoid, the Kenyapithecene Wiquerii, next to a rudimentary stone hammer. His age has been estimated to be 12 million years. Leakey considers these two anthropoids to be more akin to man than to anthropoids; in short, he believes they are hominids. Fossilized remains of more advanced hominids have also been found in Africa. The 1.7 million year old zinjanthropus - a much more advanced hominid than the others - is believed to have provided the common trunk from which each of the human races as we know them developed: the australoid, the mongoloid, the caucausian, and the negroid (see chart 4 on human evolution). In each of these branches fossilized remains of humanoid forms between the zinjanthropus and the human have been discovered, usually jawbones, teeth, femurs, humeri, skull fragments, and in a few cases, complete skeletons and/or skulls: the Australopithecene, 1 million years old, found in calcareous rocks in the austral zone of Africa; and the Neanderthal, 250,000 years old, found for the first time in Germany.

Within this evolutionary process, the Neanderthal man is considered to be human, because he used tools and fire and buried his dead in ritualistic fashion, to judge from the bones and utensils that have been found. Cro-Magnon man (40,000 years old), found in many parts of the world, was not unlike modern man, not only because he used tools and fire, lived in society, and practiced funeral rituals, but also because he left artistic testimonials to his high intelligence compared to those who came before him: the drawings that decorate the caves where he lived. Good examples are the caves of Altamira, in Spain, and Lescaux, in France.

What this classical theory of evolution tells us is that the man that illustrated the reproductive cycles of the megacheiroptera, the dinosaur, and the agnata on the stones of Ica could not be any of the humanoids that existed between the zinjanthropus and the Neanderthal, since these humanoids appeared much, much later than the animals depicted, and also because even had they coexisted, and even had they been able to guess at the reproductive processes of the beasts around them, their brains were simply not developed enough to have executed the drawings.

For Cro-Magnon man, whose brain development was complete, one must raise similar objections. Although he may have carved animal figures (bisons, goats, giraffes, pigs, bears, horses, etc.), with an accuracy that suggests high intelligence (Fig. 18), he was even farther removed chronologically from the prehistoric animals depicted in the Ica stones, and moreover, his high intelligence notwithstanding, Cro-Magnon man clearly had not achieved the intimate understanding of biology - as great as that of modern man - that the artists of the Ica stones possessed.

At this point in my investigations I must confess I was surprising myself at every turn. The engraved stones of Ica were revolutionizing paleontology and radically changing the date of the appearance of culture and intelligent man on earth. One question remained: Was it possible that the engraved stones of Ica were somehow being manufactured by modern man? I remembered the assertion made by the Director of the Museo Regional of Ica that the peasants of Ocucaje were making them. The assertion strained credulity, since these are simple people who totally lack the specialized understanding of science that can be seen in the stones. Possibly the stones were not manufactured by peasants but by one or two men who did possess such understanding and who had the stones carved with the intention of selling them. Despite the fact that I knew from Herman Buse's account that these stones had been sold since 1961 for very little (11), amounts that would not even come close to compensating the enormous trouble they cost, I decided that I must have laboratory confirmation of the age of the stones.

THE LABORATORY CONFIRMS THE STONES' ANTIQUITY

It was in the month of May, l967, and one day I selected from my collection 33 stones, among them a few that showed the reproductive cycle of long-extinct animals, which I knew would be controversial if their authenticity could not be established.

I went to my friend Luis Hochshild, a learned mining engineer and Vice-President of the Mauricio Hochshild Mining Co., based in Lima. I asked if his laboratories could perform an analysis that would determine the nature of the stone and the antiquity of the engravings. At the beginning of June I received a report from the laboratory, in a document signed by the geologist Eric Wolf which stated:

This is unquestionably natural stone shaped by fluvial transport (river rock). Petrologically I would classify them as andesites. Andesites are rocks whose components have been subjected mechanically to great pressure which causes chemical changes to take place. In this case the effects of intense sericitation (transformation of feldspar into sericite) are obvious. This process has increased the compactness and specific weight, also creating the smooth surface that ancient artists preferred for carving. I will try to confirm this preliminary opinion by means of a more detailed test in the laboratories of the Engineering School and of the University of Bonn, West Germany. The stones are covered with a fine patina of natural oxidation which also covers the engravings by which their age should be able to be deduced. I have not been able to find any notable or irregular wear on the edges of the incisions which leads me to suspect that these incisions or etchings were executed not long before being deposited in the graves or other places where they were discovered. -- Lima, 8 June 1967; Eric Wolf

This analysis revealed three important facts: a) The engraved stones have a highier specific gravity than common river rocks found in riverbeds and beaches, which I had guessed as soon as I first held one in my hand; b) The engravings are old, to judge by the coating of natural oxidation that covers the incisions as well as the stones themselves; and c) The stones were engraved not long before being deposited in the spots where they were found, to judge by the absence of wear on the edges of the incisions, which means that the stones were not engraved for utilitarian or even artistic purposes, but rather to be deposited in a safe place - for some unknown reason.

One year before, Santiago Agurto Calvo had published the results of a petrological analysis of the engraved stones in his collection. These results were part of the newspaper article mentioned earlier, in which he discussed the discovery of engraved stones in the Ocucaje zone (12). Specifically, the article dealt with some specimens that he had purchased in 1962 from huaqueros which, according to him, contained "unidentifiable things, insects, fish, birds, cats, fabulous creatures and human beings, sometimes apart and other times shown together in elaborate and fantastic compositions". He had entrusted the analysis to the mining Faculty of the Universidad Nacional de Ingeneira and it had been performed by two engineers, Fernando de las Casas and Cesar Sotillo. Since the analysis I had commissioned promised that the preliminary study would be followed up by a closer examination in the laboratories of the Universidad Nacional de Ingeneira de Peru and the University of Bonn, I decided to compare the analysis of my stones with that of the stones of Agurto. The analysis of Agurto's stones read:

All the stones are highly carbonized andesites, despite their coloration and texture, which suggest a different nature. The stones come from lava flows dating from the Mesozoic era, characteristic of the zone where they were found. The surface has weathered, and feldspar has been turned into clay, weakening the surface and forming a kind of shell around the interior of the stones. This shell measures an average of grade 3 on the Mohs scale (which measures the comparative capacity of a substance to scratch another or be scratched by another) and up to 4 1/2 in the part not so affected by weathering. The stones can be worked with any hard material such as bone, shell, obsidian, etc., and naturally, by any prehispanic metal implement.

As he says in his article, Agurto Calvo specified in his instructions to the laboratory that he wished to know the hardness of the stones. He thought that if they were very hard it would have been impossible for them to have been carved by prehispanic man (Incas and Pre-Incas), since these people did not have hard metal inplements. If the laboratory confirmed that the stones could have been carved with the tools known to prehispanic man, which it did, Agurto was prepared to conclude that they were indeed of prehispanic origin.

Agurto, following in the traditional path of Peruvian archeology, which does not admit the possibility of an advanced culture earlier than the well known prehispanic cultures, assumed that Peruvian prehistory extends only as far back as the Incas and the Pre-Incas. This explains why he ignored various clues he had to hand that could have led him to suspect the existence of a more distant cultural horizon in Peru. I refer to the laboratory tests he solicited, which show that the stones come from lava flows pertaining to the Mesozoic era, characteristic of Ocucaje, where the stones were found. We know that Mesozoic rocks date from 230 million years ago. And although this date is far removed from the accepted date of the appearance of man on earth (250,000 years ago), it is not scientific to dismiss the possibility that the engraved stones are evidence of the existence of man in a previous, unknown past. He was also led to ignore the implications of the "unidentifiable things"... engraved on the stones and mentioned in his own article. Scientific dogma regarding the living things which inhabited the earth in the different geological eras should have alerted Agurto that such "fabulous figures and human beings... shown together in elaborate and fantastic compositions", were not products of the imagination of the men who carved them, but represented real animals that long ago lived on the earth.

Both sets of laboratory results fit in with my own observations everything pointed to the possibility that man coexisted with prehistoric animals. At the very least, it seemed clear that the stones had unusual archeological significance. I was convinced that this significance could most rapidly be appreciated with the collaboration of Peruvian archeologists, so I decided to publish the results of my investigations to awaken their interest and to set in motion a plan to preserve the Ocucaje zone and stop the illegal removal of the stones from the region, a commerce in which had been carried on since 1961 under the noses of unconcerned local authoriti

Earth's energy budget explains that if the incoming and outgoing radiation are equal, then the climate is in equilibrium

Posted on October 4, 2020 at 12:50 AM Comments comments (0)

Earth's energy flow

The weather and climate on Earth are dictated by the amount of incoming energy from the Sun. Earth's energy budget explains that if the incoming and outgoing radiation are equal, then the climate is in equilibrium. This balance is achieved or not achieved depending on how this incoming energy interacts with the Earth and objects on it through phenomena such as scattering, reflection, absorption, and energy transformations. Energy can be converted, transported and stored in a variety of forms. Overall, how energy acts once it has reached the Earth plays a significant role in Earth's climate. Energy flows are the energy transformations and movement that occur once energy has reached the Earth. These flows describe how energy is distributed and how it interacts with objects, determining certain climate properties.


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Spiritual Recovery: Gemstones of the Bible

Posted on August 7, 2019 at 8:35 PM Comments comments (4)

King James Bible

Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.

Christian Standard Bible

You were in Eden, the garden of God. Every kind of precious stone covered you: carnelian, topaz, and diamond, beryl, onyx, and jasper, lapis lazuli, turquoise and emerald. Your mountings and settings were crafted in gold; they were prepared on the day you were created.

Contemporary English Version

You lived in the garden of Eden and wore jewelry made of brightly colored gems and precious stones. They were all set in gold and were ready for you on the day you were born....

https://www.biblehub.com/ezekiel/28-13.htm

Living God School - How To Raise Your Frequency, Upgrade/Change Timelines, Thyme, & Activate Powers ;- The Sunlight Shaman, Magenta Mage

Posted on August 17, 2017 at 8:15 PM Comments comments (1)
Living God School - How To Raise Your Frequency, Upgrade/Change Timelines, Thyme, & Activate Powers
;- The Sunlight Shaman, Magenta Mage