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urgent need to better understand the ecological role of sound and the consequences of acoustic pollution for plant as well as animal populations

Posted on December 19, 2022 at 5:55 AM Comments comments (0)


Tuned in: plant roots use sound to locate water


Abstract

Because water is essential to life, organisms have evolved a wide range of strategies to cope with water limitations, including actively searching for their preferred moisture levels to avoid dehydration. Plants use moisture gradients to direct their roots through the soil once a water source is detected, but how they first detect the source is unknown. We used the model plant Pisum sativum to investigate the mechanism by which roots sense and locate water. We found that roots were able to locate a water source by sensing the vibrations generated by water moving inside pipes, even in the absence of substrate moisture. When both moisture and acoustic cues were available, roots preferentially used moisture in the soil over acoustic vibrations, suggesting that acoustic gradients enable roots to broadly detect a water source at a distance, while moisture gradients help them to reach their target more accurately. Our results also showed that the presence of noise affected the abilities of roots to perceive and respond correctly to the surrounding soundscape. These findings highlight the urgent need to better understand the ecological role of sound and the consequences of acoustic pollution for plant as well as animal populations..........

 

Keywords: Bioacoustics; Directional root growth; Foraging behavior; Hydrotropism; Moisture sensing 


Indexed for NIH PubMed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28382479/


 




Turiya - The God State: Beyond Kundalini, Kriya Yoga & all Spirituality (Real Yoga)

Posted on November 24, 2022 at 7:20 AM Comments comments (0)


Turiya - The God State: Beyond Kundalini, Kriya Yoga & all Spirituality (Real Yoga)

Artificial Light At Night Can Raise Diabetes Risk, Says Study

Posted on November 23, 2022 at 8:25 AM Comments comments (0)

Increased exposure to artificial evening illumination has been linked to a higher risk of diabetes, according to a study published in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. The study finds that outdoor artificial light at night (LAN) is associated with impaired blood glucose control and an increased risk of diabetes, with more than 9 million cases of the disease in Chinese adults being attributed to LAN exposure. Dr. Yu Xu and his colleagues from China's two top universities carried out the study.
According to the Telegraph, "the research was based on almost 100,000 men and women in China who were exposed to artificial light while it was dark outside. Those exposed the most were 28 percent more likely to develop the metabolic condition because of the interference the light had on the body's production of melatonin - the hormone that helps regulate our circadian rhythms. Evidence is growing that 24/7 lifestyles are wreaking havoc with our health by interfering with the production of melatonin."

Chronic exposure to residential outdoor artificial light was linked to a rise in glucose levels, insulin resistance, and diabetes prevalence.

People who lived in areas of China with high light pollution at night were about 28% more likely to develop diabetes than people who lived in the least polluted areas, according to a study published Tuesday in the journal Diabetologia.

Ultimately, more than 9 million cases of diabetes in Chinese adults aged 18 and older may be due to outdoor light pollution at night, the authors said, adding the number is likely to increase as more people move to cities.

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The study suggests that "exposure to artificial LAN at night is a ubiquitous environmental risk factor in modern societies. The intensity of urban light pollution has increased to the point that it not only affects residents of big cities, but also those in distant areas such as suburbs and forest parks that may be hundreds of kilometers from the light source. The authors note: "Despite over 80% of the world's population being exposed to light pollution at night, this problem has gained limited attention from scientists until recent years."..........

Indexed for NDTV by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Air Pollution Exposure in Childhood Linked to Mental Health Concerns at Age 18

Posted on November 23, 2022 at 7:55 AM Comments comments (0)



Key Takeaways

A recent study indicates that young adults who were exposed to air pollution as children experience higher rates of mental health challenges at age 18 when compared to peers with less exposure.

Air pollution—due to smog, acid rain, motor vehicles, and other causes—negatively affects the central nervous system, which could lead to these mental health concerns.

Those who live near roadways or other areas where exposure to air pollutants is highest are most at risk for its negative impacts because of chronic exposure.

New research published in JAMA Network Open highlights the tangible impact of nitrogen oxide and particulate matter, two air pollutants that can impact the central nervous system and lead to both physical and mental health concerns.

 

These findings underline that children who were exposed to air pollution during development are at increased risk for mental health challenges when compared to their peers who had less exposure.

 

What Is Environmental Racism?

Understanding the Dangers of Air Pollution

Researchers followed a cohort of 2,039 children born in the United Kingdom during 1994 and 1995 throughout childhood and then interviewed them at age 18 to analyze psychological symptoms as they related to a variety of risk factors.

 

The research team isolated the risk factor of air pollutants to find that increased exposure to nitrogen oxide and particulate matter correlate with greater risk for mental health concerns.

 

Our findings showed that youth exposed to higher levels of outdoor air pollution, particularly nitrogen oxides, experienced greater mental health problems at the transition to adulthood.

— HELEN L. FISHER, PHD

Helen L. Fisher, PhD, reader in developmental psychopathology at King’s College London, explains that nitrogen oxide (NOx) should not be confused with nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, which is a different chemical compound.

 

Nitrogen oxide isn't used at the dentist. Instead, this chemical compound has a strong, harsh odor and comes with a familiar brownish haze that hovers over large cities or industrial zones.

 

Dr. Fisher says that nitrogen oxide is a regulated compound created by motor vehicles and industrial waste, noting that high concentrations are often found near busy roads. She says that these gaseous pollutants contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain.

 

Additionally, researchers measured levels of particulate matter or particle pollution, which are extremely small solid particles and liquid droplets also suspended in the air. Dr. Fisher explains, "It mainly comes from motor vehicles, wood burning heaters, and industry. During forest fires or dust storms, particle pollution can reach extremely high concentrations."

 

How Does Your Environment Affect Your Mental Health?

Exposure Could Lead to Mental Illness

Researchers found that higher rates of exposure to these air pollutants during childhood and adolescence was associated with greater overall mental health issues by age 18.

 

Dr. Fisher explains that these mental health issues included internally expressed conditions, such as depression and anxiety; externally expressed conditions, such as conduct disorder and substance abuse; and conditions related to distortions in thinking, such as seeing or hearing things that are not there.

 

These findings could not be explained by other risk factors, including children's previous mental health concerns, biological factors and family history of mental illness, or risks associated with poverty and neighborhood differences.

 

Air pollution may contribute significantly to the global burden of psychiatric disease, and interventions to improve air quality may result in improved mental health at the population level.

— HELEN L. FISHER, PHD

Dr. Fisher explains that air pollution is negatively impacting mental health, highlighting that exposure could be considered a risk factor for developing mental illness. Air pollution is already linked to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, strokes, and other diseases of the central nervous system.

 

Because of the correlation between early-life exposure and an increased risk of mental health symptoms, additional diagnoses—including mental illness—could be linked with exposure.

 

Major Link Found Between Air Pollution and Neurological Disorders

How Air Pollution Impacts the Brain

Experts know these toxins impact the brain, made clear by their link to diseases of the central nervous system. But Dr. Fisher explains that further study is needed to understand exactly how air pollution is reaching and harming the central nervous system, highlighting the specific need to continue measuring links between exposure and negative outcomes.

 

She says that air pollution reaches the brain directly by traveling along the nasal nervous system and can indirectly impact the brain through systemic inflammation. Air pollution is also known to enter the vascular system, which creates a pathway to possibly enter the brain through the blood-brain barrier, a semipermeable border that controls the flow of nutrients and helps to protect the brain from toxins.

 

Dr. Fisher explains that air pollution can interfere with the brain's ideal function—ultimately leading to the disruption and death of neurons, the cells which receive sensory input and send messages from the brain to other parts of the body. Neurotransmitters, which carry signals between neurons, play a strong role in mental health. Imbalance and disruption are known to lead to certain mental health conditions.

 

These effects are chronic and cumulative and might not cause tangible effects for many years.2 Dr. Fisher points out that this is a particular concern for children whose brains may not fully develop or may not function normally if they are impacted, possibly leading to mental health problems.

 

In addition to affecting mental health by negatively impacting the central nervous system, air pollution is often accompanied by adjacent stressors.

Dr. Fisher underlines that nitrogen oxide mainly comes from vehicle emissions and therefore comes with the problem of noisy traffic—which can disrupt sleep and lead to other mental health concerns.

 

Street Trees Near Your Home May Reduce Risk of Depression

Air Pollution, Global Warming, and Injustice Intersect........


Indexed for Very Well Mind by Dragonfly Kingdom Library




Bella + Canvas: A clothing company that seeks to put the earth and environment first.

Posted on November 20, 2022 at 9:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Bella + Canvas is a clothing company that seeks to put the earth and environment first while manufacturing quality clothes. Rather than just churning out T-shirt after T-shirt in a large factory, our mission includes giving the world clothing which feels great, looks great and has been.


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Nature Yogi Marco Andre Registers 4 Tracks With Soundscan

Posted on November 6, 2022 at 7:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Song recognition in millions of cars & electronics (via Gracenote)

Registration with SoundScan (used for Billboard charts)

Artist, track & album credits officially listed and linked in Jaxsta

Audio fingerprinting for rights protection with ACRCloud


I use distrokid to upload my music to Spotify, iTunes, and more. So should you! Here's a 7% discount:


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi favor invasive Echinops sphaerocephalus when grown in competition with native Inula conyzae

Posted on March 29, 2022 at 6:00 AM Comments comments (0)


Abstract


In a globalized world, plant invasions are common challenges for native ecosystems. Although a considerable number of invasive plants form arbuscular mycorrhizae, interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and invasive and native plants are not well understood. In this study, we conducted a greenhouse experiment examining how AM fungi affect interactions of co-occurring plant species in the family Asteracea, invasive Echinops sphaerocephalus and native forb of central Europe Inula conyzae. The effects of initial soil disturbance, including the effect of intact or disturbed arbuscular mycorrhizal networks (CMNs), were examined. AM fungi supported the success of invasive E. sphaerocephalus in competition with native I. conyzae, regardless of the initial disturbance of CMNs. The presence of invasive E. sphaerocephalus decreased mycorrhizal colonization in I. conyzae, with a concomitant loss in mycorrhizal benefits. Our results confirm AM fungi represent one important mechanism of plant invasion for E. sphaerocephalus in semi-natural European grasslands........


Indexed for Nature Journal by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-77030-0





Can we make deforestation illegal? Exploring safe, effective, non-toxic, climate/eco-friendly building materials.

Posted on February 24, 2022 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Can we make deforestation illegal? Exploring safe, effective, non-toxic, climate/eco-friendly building materials.



 

https://interiorarchitects.com/natures-way-antimicrobial-materials/


 

https://brightly.eco/cob-houses/


 

https://www.permaculturenews.org/2010/12/21/step-by-step-earthship-construction-in-normandy/


 

https://www.treehugger.com/how-to-build-an-earthship-step-by-step-slideshow-video-4857988

 

--------------

 

Climate Homeostasis: Clean Fresh Air, Water & Soil. Nature Yogi Marco Andre joins American Forests in support of Trillion Trees Campaign.

 


America's Oldest Rock Art At Least 45,000 Year's Old, Challenging Clovis-first Theory

Posted on February 23, 2022 at 6:55 AM Comments comments (0)





America's Oldest Art 





In the rock shelters of northeastern Brazil exists some of the world's most intriguing ancient rock art. It has the potential to redraft the very story of how modern humans colonised America the model known as the Clovis First Theory.


Set within treacherously steep cliffs, and hidden away in the secluded valleys of northeast Brazil, is some of South America’s most significant and spectacular rock art. Most known art comes from the archaeologically-important National Park of the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piauí, and it is causing quite a controversy. The reason for the uproar? The rock art is being dated to around 25,000 years ago, while a small number of eminent rock art specialists are proposing an even earlier date - perhaps as far back as 36,000 years ago. If correct, this is set to challenge the widely held view that the Americas were first colonised from the north, via the Bering Straits at around 10,000 BC, only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter (a model known as the Clovis First Theory, after the 'Clovis-tradition' stone tools used by these settlers). So what is this contentious art and why is it being given
such an ancient date?


Archaeological research by Niède Guidon

The rock art of the Serra da Capivara National Park in the north east of Brazil, with research led by archaeologist Niède Guidon, helped establish it as a World Heritage Site in 1991.

The best known archaeological site of Serra da Capivara is Pedra Furada, a rock art shelter with over 1,150 images and thousands of artifacts. Her theories about the archaeology and the rock art are controversial, as she questions the putative dates for the relatively recent occupation of the Americas by anatomically modern humans, proposing a date in excess of 45,000 years ago, based on her archaeological research at the sites.....



www.bradshawfoundation.com

Silver Nanoparticles as A Highly Viricidal Agent to Deter Plant-Infecting Viruses and Disrupt their Acquisition and Transmissibility

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a potentially effective tool for deterring viral plant pathogens. This study was carried out
to evaluate the efficacy of AgNPs to defeat Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) on faba bean plants from the host, virus and
vector aphid tripartite interactions side. The antiviral capabilities were evaluated during a foliar protective and curative
scheme. Furthermore, the efficiency of AgNPs on virus acquisition and transmission by its vector aphid was investigated.
Results indicated that the AgNPs had greatly exhibited curative viricidal activities for inactivation BYMV when applied 48 h
post-virus inoculation. The disease occurrence was entirely inhibited with AgNPs rate as low as 100 mg.l
− 1
, while the
infectivity was completely arrested when plants were preventively exposed to 200 mg.l
− 1 24 h pre-virus inoculation. AgNPs
proved high bio-reactivity by binding to viral particles, suppressing their replication and accumulation within the plant
tissues. Moreover, it was noticeably showed to upregulate the pathogenesis-related gene (PR-1) and promote the defense-
related enzymes and protein profiles in treated plants irrespective of concentration. Exposure of aphids to AgNPs-treated
plants before virus acquisition excitingly reduced the BYMV acquisition and transmission efficiency by 40.65% up to 100 %
24 h post-application and the virus acquisition was affected for 10 days by 6.89 Up to 79.64 % depending on the AgNPs
rate. These results concluded that the AgNPs have a high curing viricidal activity by targeting the virus envelop, and more
excitingly it can affect the virus-vector combination, suggesting that it may contribute to alleviating the natural disease
occurrence and virus transmission under field conditions. Therefore, according to the available literature, this study provides
the first report on the deterring activity of nanomaterials against plant virus acquisition and transmission by its vector
insects.
1. Introduction
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important legume crops that is almost consumed daily in numerous
developing countries as a human diet of a cheap and high-quality protein source. It has been simultaneously ranked as the
third most important feed legume crop worldwide (1, 2). Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) a type member of potyviruses is
a devastating disease for many legume crops and other ornamental flowers, which poses a significant threat for global
faba bean and other legumes production (3, 4). In this respect, BYMV becomes one of the most biotic factors that steadily
reducing the faba bean production and their cultivated area in Egypt (5). The virus is naturally transmitted by over 20
species of aphids which can be effectively spread under field conditions, resulting in a high rate of viral infections for faba
bean and other host species (6).
In recent years, nanotechnology approaches have emerged as a new potential control means to deter a wide array of plant
diseases (7). However, using nanotechnology tools in plant protection management hasn’t yet widely introduced on a large
scale, which still under the research investigations and small scale of production and applications (8, 9). Nanoparticles,
ranged from 1 to 100 nm in size, prove superior chemical and physical features compare to their bulk materials due to their
large surface area to its volume ratio, which strongly offers them to be one of the most promising ways that may effectively
be used in many different sectors (10, 11). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal nanomaterials that have been
investigated to be used in many applications notably for the controlling of human and plant pathogenic microorganisms
(12, 13, 14, 15). Due to their unique features, AgNPs have been documented as an antimicrobial agent to control some
phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria (16, 17, 18, 19). Simultaneously, some previous reports have been proved the
effectiveness of nano-silver against some plant and human viruses by blocking the virus infectivity and its accumulation
within the host tissues (20, 21).
However, the little efforts that have been done to investigate the AgNPs as an antiviral agent, there is no documented
investigations to show the ability of AgNPs to control plant viruses from different tripartite interactions point of view (host,
virus and vector interactions), and since the BYMV, as well as more than 75% of other plant viruses, are naturally
transmitted by insects,.............



Silver Nanoparticles as A Highly Viricidal Agent to Deter

Plant-Infecting Viruses and Disrupt their Acquisition and

Transmissibility by Vector Aphid

Ahmed El Gamal ( ahmedvnp1@yahoo.com )

Agricultural Research Center https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7811-1195

Mohamed Reda Tohamy

Zagazig University Faculty of Agriculture

Mohamed Ibrahim Abou-Zaid

Zagazig University Faculty of Agriculture

Mahmoud Mohamed Atia

Zagazig University Faculty of Agriculture

Tarek El Sayed

Agricultural Research Center

Khaled Farroh

Agricultural Research Center

Research Article

Keywords: plant viruses, virus acquisition, antivirus, silver nanoparticles, PR-1 gene, faba bean



Posted Date: April 26th, 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-422790/v1

License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


When alien species invade and take over communities, they may not come alone -- many plant species are host to a whole suite of microorganisms

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 6:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Invasive species are among the world's greatest threats to native species and biodiversity. Once invasive plants become established, they can alter soil chemistry and shift nutrient cycling in an ecosystem. This can have important impacts not only on plant composition, diversity, and succession within a community, but also in the cycling of critical elements like carbon and nitrogen on a larger, potentially even global, scale. Clearly, both native and exotic plants form intimate relationships with bacteria in the soil that facilitate the extraction and conversion of elements to biologically usable forms. Yet an unanswered question with regard to plant invasions remains: could the changes in soil biogeochemistry be due to an advantage that invasive plants get from interacting with their microbiome?



When alien species invade and take over communities, they may not come alone -- many plant species are host to a whole suite of microorganisms that not only live in plant cells, but also in the soil surrounding the plants' roots. These microbes form close, often mutualistic, associations with their plant hosts. Some convert atmospheric nitrogen into bioavailable forms that are then exchanged for carbon from the plant. Bioavailable nitrogen is frequently limiting in soils, yet many invaded ecosystems have more carbon and nitrogen in plant tissues and soils compared with systems dominated by native plants. Since changes in the soil nitrogen cycle are driven by microbes, could bacteria associated with invasive species not only be responsible for the observed changes in soil nutrient concentrations, but also for enabling the continued growth and persistence of the invader species?



 

These were the kinds of questions that started percolating for Marnie Rout (University of North Texas Health Science Center) after she drove by a remnant tallgrass prairie in North Central Texas as a beginning graduate student. She was particularly struck by the obvious and drastic changes the native prairie was undergoing due to the invasion of an exotic grass.

 

"It literally looked like someone had drawn a line down the field," Rout explained. "On one side was the native prairie, the other side had this towering monoculture of invasive Sorghum. The plant looked like it was invading in a military fashion, forming this distinct line that was clearly visible."


 

Subsequent literature searches led to the discovery that sugar cane, an agriculturally important crop, is a nitrogen fixer that contains bacterial endophytes, and Rout became curious if the microbes she and her colleague Tom Chrzanowski (The University of Texas Arlington) discovered in invasive Sorghum might be providing similar benefits to this invasive plant.

 

Rout combined forces with colleagues from The University of Montana, The University of Texas Arlington, and University of Washington to investigate whether the differences in soil nutrient concentrations found in an invaded prairie could be due to metabolic processes of the bacterial microbiome associated with the invasive grass, and to determine whether these microbial agents facilitate the perpetuation and spread of this invasive grass. They published their findings in a Special Section in the American Journal of Botany on Rhizosphere Interactions: The Root Biome.

 

 

 



"Things attributed to plant-plant interactions like competition and facilitation are likely under more microbial regulation than we have been giving them credit," Rout commented. "Studying disruptions to ecosystems like those seen in plant invasions provides a window into something -- specifically the process of co-evolution -- that we normally don't get to observe in a single human lifetime."

 

Indeed, the alarming rate -- almost 0.5 meters a year -- at which the invasive grass Sorghum halepense has invaded the tallgrass prairie, formerly dominated by the native little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), over the last 25 years, and the complete dominance of that invasive was the ideal situation in which Rout could test her ideas.


 

Rout and colleagues first confirmed that the invaded soils of the prairie did indeed have higher levels of nitrogen, phosphorous, and iron-derived chemicals compared with the non-invaded prairie soils still dominated by native plants. They then tested whether the interactions between the dominant invasive grass and the soil biota could be responsible for the observed changes in the soil nutrient concentrations.

 

By isolating five bacterial strains of endophytes found inside S. halepense rhizomes (subterranean stems used for storage and vegetative reproduction) and growing them in the lab in different mixtures of substrates, the authors determined that these microbes were able to fix and mobilize nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. All three are important elements associated with plant growth; however, some were produced in excess of what would be needed for plant growth. Indeed, perhaps somewhat alarmingly, the amount of iron that was produced reached levels that are toxic to many crops -- and may even inhibit establishment of native species.

 

Furthermore, the authors were able to show that not only can this invasive plant acquire microbes from the environment, but that it is also capable of passing them on to the next generation via seeds. Using a sophisticated series of intricate experiments involving growing seedlings from surface sterilized seeds in nitrogen- deprived or nitrogen-augmented soils and slurries with different suites of soil microbes, Rout and colleagues showed that these microbes enabled the grass to produce 5-fold increases in rhizomes, a primary mechanism driving invasions of this species.......... https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130926131631.htm


These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 6:05 AM Comments comments (0)

 ISSN: 2641-3094


 Global Journal of Ecology
 

Open Access Peer-Reviewed


Soil abiotic and microbial legacies jointly contribute to growth of invasive Solidago canadensis



 

Summary
The invasion success of exotic plants strongly depends on soil properties of new ranges, however, little is known about the joint contribution of soil abiotic and biotic legacies to this success. To address the role of soil abiotic and microbial properties in plant invasions and associated mechanisms, we conducted two complementary experiments. In the first experiment, we grew invasive Solidago canadensis in regular soils from its different invasion stages and measured plant growth to address the joint contribution of soil abiotic and microbial properties. In a second experiment, we set up four sterilization × three sites treatments and measured plant growth to address the influence of different soil microbes on S. canadensis. The growth of S. canadensis was constrained by soil N and bacteria, and was positively correlated to its leaf area and root area, but not its leaf chlorophyll contents and root hydraulic conductivity. Bactericide had no effects on S. canadensis growth, and the decreased growth was greater in the presence of bactericide and fungicide together than in the presence of fungicide alone. The effects of microbial removal varied with microbial groups and sites. These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.

 
Introduction

The successful invasion of exotic plants can be ascribed to multiple possible mechanisms [1,2]. Of all the mechanisms, the properties of soils alone (e.g. nutrient availability and enemies) and plant-soil interactions (e.g. positive or negative feedback) have been increasingly recognized as key mechanisms determining invasion success [2-7]. In other words, the initial regimes of soil abiotic and biotic properties and their changes induced by invader-soil interactions play a crucial role in plant invasions (see below). Accordingly, increasing attention focusing on plant invasions has been paid to soil legacy effects [8-10].


The importance of soil abiotic properties (i.e. soil abiotic legacy) in plant invasions at least encompasses two mechanisms: resources and conditions. For example, soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) determine the growth of invasive plants because they usually grow rapidly and thus need large quantities of soil N and P [1,2,11], soil pH, as a condition, influences soil nutrient availability and soil microbial composition and structure [12,13]. The importance of soil microbes (i.e. soil microbial legacy) in plant invasions also at least covers two mechanisms: beneficial and detrimental effects. For example, the releases of soil-borne enemies or enhanced mutualisms benefit invasive plants whereas accumulated pathogens harm native plants [3,4,6,14,15]. However, it should be noted that invasive plants commonly interact with their surrounding soils [16,17]. This interaction can dramatically alter soil abiotic and biotic legacies, thereby influencing the performance of invasive plants (Gaggini et al. 2017)..........

Indexed for Global Journal of Ecology 

Considerations for the Diagnosis of Chemical Sensitivity

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 4:25 AM Comments comments (0)


 

William J. Rea Alfred R. Johnson, Gerald H. Ross, Joel R. Butler, Ervin J. Fenyves, Bertie Griffiths, and John Laseter

 



Introduction


The study of the effects of the environment upon the individual is now feasible due to new technology developed in the construction of environmental units.1,2,3. Our observations reveal that individual or multiple organs may be involved. The brain is the target organ in only a subset of chemically sensitive patients, and its involvement should not be confused with psychosomatic disease.

 

Over the last 16 years physicians and scientists at the Environmental Health Center in Dallas have had an opportunity to observe over 20,000 patients who had chemical sensitivity problems. These patients were studied under various degrees of environmental control. This experience is unique in the world and has resulted in numerous peer-reviewed scientific articles, chapters in books, and books on this subject.

 

Studies have resulted in over 32,000 challenge tests by inhalation, oral, or injection methods, of which 16,000 are double-blind. Blood chemical levels and fat biopsies for organic hydrocarbons number over 2,000, while the measurement of immune parameters are over 5,000 tests. Objective brain function tests have been accomplished in over 5,000 patients. Other objective tests, like computerized balance studies, depollutant enzyme levels, and autonomic nervous system changes as measured by the Iriscorder, number near 1,000.

 

We wish to share our findings with the participants of the National Academy of Sciences Committee for the study of chemical sensitivity.



 

Definition and Principles


Chemical sensitivity is defined as an adverse reaction to ambient doses of toxic chemicals in our air, food, and water at levels which are generally accepted as subtoxic. Manifestation of adverse reactions depend on: (1) the tissue or organ involved; (2) the chemical and pharmacologic nature of the toxin; (3) the individual susceptibility of the exposed person (genetic make-up, nutritional state, and total load at the time of exposure); (4) the length of time of the exposure; (5) mount and variety of other body stressors (total load) and synergism at the time of reaction. (6) the derangement of metabolism that may occur from the initial insults.

 

To demonstrate cause-and-effect proof of environmental influence on an individual's health, one must understand several important principles and facts. These principles involve those of total body load (burden), adaptation (masking, acute toxicological tolerance), bipolarity, biochemical individuality. Each principle will be discussed separately.........


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Full document at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234807/


Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is currently included in the broader definition of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), which also includes electromagnetic fields.

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 4:15 AM Comments comments (0)


Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is currently included in the broader definition of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), which also includes physical risk factors such as electromagnetic fields.


Abstract

Objective:
Systematic bibliography analysis of about the last 17 years on multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) was carried out in order to detect new diagnostic and epidemiological evidence. The MCS is a complex syndrome that manifests as a result of exposure to a low level of various common contaminants. The etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are still debated among researchers.


Method:
Querying PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane library, both using some specific MESH terms combined with MESH subheadings and through free search, even by Google.

Results:
The studies were analyzed by verifying 1) the typology of study design; 2) criteria for case definition; 3) presence of attendances in the emergency departments and hospital admissions, and 4) analysis of the risk factors.

Outlook:
With this review, we give some general considerations and hypothesis for possible future research.

Learning Objectives


Become familiar with the history and current concepts of multiple chemical sensitivity

(MCS), including the recently proposed "evolutive framework."

 

Discuss the findings of the present review of recent research on MCS, including the types, characteristics, and findings of the studies identified.

 

Discuss the implications for patient evaluation and further research on MCS.



 

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is currently included in the broader definition of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), which also includes physical risk factors such as electromagnetic fields. It is a complex disease, a multisystem disorder that manifests as a result of exposure to various environmental contaminants (solvents, hydrocarbons, organophosphates, heavy metals) at concentrations below the “Threshold Limit value” (TLV) that are considered toxic doses for the general population.1–4

 

At the beginning of the ’50, the allergist Theron G. Randolph5 was the first to note that some patients became sick after exposures to a wide range of substances, either job-related, either, broadly speaking, environmental, in concentrations below those considered toxic for most individuals. Dr. Randolph and his colleagues speculated the possibility of allergic reactions and maladjustment to explain the symptoms that are attributed to MCS. It is considered that chronic exposure to subtoxic doses, as well as any acute exposures, can, in some people with, perhaps, a particular metabolic and genetic predisposition, lead to a gradual process of substance sensitization.

 

However, because of the difficulty of finding unique and incontrovertible diagnostic markers, from the ‘60 to date, the syndrome was analyzed in its different aspects: metabolic, genetic, immunological, epidemiological, etiological, symptomatic, therapeutic, and the criteria for case definition were gradually revised. Currently, the Cullen criteria,6 with or without Lacour revision,7 and the year 1999 criteria of the consensus8 are the most accepted. To perform an initial screening, different questionnaires are used: “Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Intolerance” (EESI) or its short version “Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory” (QEESI),9–11 “Huppe questionnaire,”12 “Chemical sensitivity scale for sensory hyperreactivity” (CSS-SHR),13 German questionnaire on chemical and environmental sensitivity (CGES)..............


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC5794238/


Multiple Chemical Sensitivity As A Result Of Exposure To Heterogeneous Air Pollutants

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 4:10 AM Comments comments (0)


Multiple Chemical Sensitivity As A Result Of Exposure To Heterogeneous Air Pollutants


Author(s)

 

G. Latini, G. Passerini, R. Cocci Grifoni & M. M. Mariani

 

Abstract

 

To understand the relationship between health and the environment, we must study a series of events that might begin with the release of pollutants into the environment and might end with the development of disease in an individual, or a population. Noticeably, many studies have demonstrated an association between environmental exposure and certain diseases or health problems. Amongst all pollutants, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Nickel and Lead are emitted from several industrial processes, energy production processes and most vehicles. Methyl-Mercury is a poisonous industrial derivative of Mercury, enters the food chain and is toxic to the nervous system. Cadmium, Arsenic, Nickel and Lead are considered carcinogenic. Lead also causes digestive problems and damage to the nervous systems, especially in children. Assessing the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and disease is complicated by the problem of multiple exposures to multiple pollutants. In fact, a controversial condition, known as Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), is thought to arise only through the combined effects of a number of chemicals in concentrations that might not be harmful on their own. In this first Italian pilot study, sufficiently large population groups have been considered to evaluate levels of toxic trace metals stored in the body by means of a hair analysis technique. For a majority of toxic trace metals the hair analysis technique has proved to be a well-suited biological marker of environmental exposure of general population to such toxic metals. The results suggest that there is an explicit correlation between exposure to air pollutants and high levels of toxic metals in the body with consequent development of diseases.



Indexed for WIT Press by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 



Chemical pollution: A growing peril and potential catastrophic risk to humanity

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106616

 




Highlights

The global picture of chemical pollution in the environment is often fragmented.

 

This perspective highlights global picture of pollution regarding catastrophic risk.

 

Exposure related impact on fertility, cognition and food safety are discussed.

 

Prioritised strategies for curbing chemical dispersal are recommended.



 

 

Abstract



Synthetic chemical pollution has the potential to pose one of the largest environmental threats to humanity, but global understanding of the issue remains fragmented. This article presents a comprehensive perspective of the threat of chemical pollution to humanity, emphasising male fertility, cognitive health and food security. There are serious gaps in our understanding of the scale of the threat and the risks posed by the dispersal, mixture and recombination of chemicals in the wider environment. Although some pollution control measures exist they are often not being adopted at the rate needed to avoid chronic and acute effects on human health now and in coming decades. There is an urgent need for enhanced global awareness and scientific scrutiny of the overall scale of risk posed by chemical usage, dispersal and disposal........


Indexed for Science Direct/Elsevier by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021002415


Effects of yoga on functional capacity and well being

Posted on January 15, 2022 at 4:30 AM Comments comments (0)



Abstract

Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled.


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Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on modified Borg's scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions.


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Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000), RPE (P value < 0.000), recovery time (P value < 0.000) and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000). Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults.



Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient's functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the patients to adhere to yogic practices.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23439856/


Music can improve immune function and alleviate the adverse effects caused by noise.

Posted on January 10, 2022 at 5:05 AM Comments comments (0)


The Immune System Can Hear Noise

Abstract

As a stressor widely existing in daily life, noise can cause great alterations to the immune system and result in many physical and mental disorders, including noise-induced deafness, sleep disorders, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases and other problems. The immune system plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis by recognizing and removing harmful substances in the body. Many studies have shown that noise may play vital roles in the occurrence and development of some immune diseases. In humans, both innate immunity and specific immunity can be influenced by noise, and different exposure durations and intensities of noise may exert various effects on the immune system. Short-term or low-intensity noise can enhance immune function, while long-term or high-intensity noise suppresses it. Noise can lead to the occurrence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) through the production of autoantibodies such as anti-Hsp70 and anti-Hsp60 and exert adverse effects related to other immune-related diseases such as some autoimmune diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.



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The neuroendocrine system, mainly including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system, is involved in the mechanisms of immune-related diseases induced by noise and gut microbiota dysfunction. In addition, noise exposure during pregnancy may be harmful to the immune system of the fetus. On the other hand, some studies have shown that music can improve immune function and alleviate the adverse effects caused by noise.

Indexed for NIH / Frontiers In Immunology by Dragonfly Kingdom Library