Music Muscle Mindfulness Heartfulness Happiness Health Fitness Fashion Phytonutrients


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi favor invasive Echinops sphaerocephalus when grown in competition with native Inula conyzae

Posted on March 29, 2022 at 6:00 AM Comments comments (0)


In a globalized world, plant invasions are common challenges for native ecosystems. Although a considerable number of invasive plants form arbuscular mycorrhizae, interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and invasive and native plants are not well understood. In this study, we conducted a greenhouse experiment examining how AM fungi affect interactions of co-occurring plant species in the family Asteracea, invasive Echinops sphaerocephalus and native forb of central Europe Inula conyzae. The effects of initial soil disturbance, including the effect of intact or disturbed arbuscular mycorrhizal networks (CMNs), were examined. AM fungi supported the success of invasive E. sphaerocephalus in competition with native I. conyzae, regardless of the initial disturbance of CMNs. The presence of invasive E. sphaerocephalus decreased mycorrhizal colonization in I. conyzae, with a concomitant loss in mycorrhizal benefits. Our results confirm AM fungi represent one important mechanism of plant invasion for E. sphaerocephalus in semi-natural European grasslands........

Indexed for Nature Journal by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Can we make deforestation illegal? Exploring safe, effective, non-toxic, climate/eco-friendly building materials.

Posted on February 24, 2022 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Can we make deforestation illegal? Exploring safe, effective, non-toxic, climate/eco-friendly building materials.












Climate Homeostasis: Clean Fresh Air, Water & Soil. Nature Yogi Marco Andre joins American Forests in support of Trillion Trees Campaign.


America's Oldest Rock Art At Least 45,000 Year's Old, Challenging Clovis-first Theory

Posted on February 23, 2022 at 6:55 AM Comments comments (0)

America's Oldest Art 

In the rock shelters of northeastern Brazil exists some of the world's most intriguing ancient rock art. It has the potential to redraft the very story of how modern humans colonised America the model known as the Clovis First Theory.

Set within treacherously steep cliffs, and hidden away in the secluded valleys of northeast Brazil, is some of South America’s most significant and spectacular rock art. Most known art comes from the archaeologically-important National Park of the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piauí, and it is causing quite a controversy. The reason for the uproar? The rock art is being dated to around 25,000 years ago, while a small number of eminent rock art specialists are proposing an even earlier date - perhaps as far back as 36,000 years ago. If correct, this is set to challenge the widely held view that the Americas were first colonised from the north, via the Bering Straits at around 10,000 BC, only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter (a model known as the Clovis First Theory, after the 'Clovis-tradition' stone tools used by these settlers). So what is this contentious art and why is it being given
such an ancient date?

Archaeological research by Niède Guidon

The rock art of the Serra da Capivara National Park in the north east of Brazil, with research led by archaeologist Niède Guidon, helped establish it as a World Heritage Site in 1991.

The best known archaeological site of Serra da Capivara is Pedra Furada, a rock art shelter with over 1,150 images and thousands of artifacts. Her theories about the archaeology and the rock art are controversial, as she questions the putative dates for the relatively recent occupation of the Americas by anatomically modern humans, proposing a date in excess of 45,000 years ago, based on her archaeological research at the sites.....


Silver Nanoparticles as A Highly Viricidal Agent to Deter Plant-Infecting Viruses and Disrupt their Acquisition and Transmissibility

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are a potentially effective tool for deterring viral plant pathogens. This study was carried out
to evaluate the efficacy of AgNPs to defeat Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) on faba bean plants from the host, virus and
vector aphid tripartite interactions side. The antiviral capabilities were evaluated during a foliar protective and curative
scheme. Furthermore, the efficiency of AgNPs on virus acquisition and transmission by its vector aphid was investigated.
Results indicated that the AgNPs had greatly exhibited curative viricidal activities for inactivation BYMV when applied 48 h
post-virus inoculation. The disease occurrence was entirely inhibited with AgNPs rate as low as 100 mg.l
− 1
, while the
infectivity was completely arrested when plants were preventively exposed to 200 mg.l
− 1 24 h pre-virus inoculation. AgNPs
proved high bio-reactivity by binding to viral particles, suppressing their replication and accumulation within the plant
tissues. Moreover, it was noticeably showed to upregulate the pathogenesis-related gene (PR-1) and promote the defense-
related enzymes and protein profiles in treated plants irrespective of concentration. Exposure of aphids to AgNPs-treated
plants before virus acquisition excitingly reduced the BYMV acquisition and transmission efficiency by 40.65% up to 100 %
24 h post-application and the virus acquisition was affected for 10 days by 6.89 Up to 79.64 % depending on the AgNPs
rate. These results concluded that the AgNPs have a high curing viricidal activity by targeting the virus envelop, and more
excitingly it can affect the virus-vector combination, suggesting that it may contribute to alleviating the natural disease
occurrence and virus transmission under field conditions. Therefore, according to the available literature, this study provides
the first report on the deterring activity of nanomaterials against plant virus acquisition and transmission by its vector
1. Introduction
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important legume crops that is almost consumed daily in numerous
developing countries as a human diet of a cheap and high-quality protein source. It has been simultaneously ranked as the
third most important feed legume crop worldwide (1, 2). Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) a type member of potyviruses is
a devastating disease for many legume crops and other ornamental flowers, which poses a significant threat for global
faba bean and other legumes production (3, 4). In this respect, BYMV becomes one of the most biotic factors that steadily
reducing the faba bean production and their cultivated area in Egypt (5). The virus is naturally transmitted by over 20
species of aphids which can be effectively spread under field conditions, resulting in a high rate of viral infections for faba
bean and other host species (6).
In recent years, nanotechnology approaches have emerged as a new potential control means to deter a wide array of plant
diseases (7). However, using nanotechnology tools in plant protection management hasn’t yet widely introduced on a large
scale, which still under the research investigations and small scale of production and applications (8, 9). Nanoparticles,
ranged from 1 to 100 nm in size, prove superior chemical and physical features compare to their bulk materials due to their
large surface area to its volume ratio, which strongly offers them to be one of the most promising ways that may effectively
be used in many different sectors (10, 11). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal nanomaterials that have been
investigated to be used in many applications notably for the controlling of human and plant pathogenic microorganisms
(12, 13, 14, 15). Due to their unique features, AgNPs have been documented as an antimicrobial agent to control some
phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria (16, 17, 18, 19). Simultaneously, some previous reports have been proved the
effectiveness of nano-silver against some plant and human viruses by blocking the virus infectivity and its accumulation
within the host tissues (20, 21).
However, the little efforts that have been done to investigate the AgNPs as an antiviral agent, there is no documented
investigations to show the ability of AgNPs to control plant viruses from different tripartite interactions point of view (host,
virus and vector interactions), and since the BYMV, as well as more than 75% of other plant viruses, are naturally
transmitted by insects,.............

Silver Nanoparticles as A Highly Viricidal Agent to Deter

Plant-Infecting Viruses and Disrupt their Acquisition and

Transmissibility by Vector Aphid

Ahmed El Gamal ( ahmedvnp1@yahoo.com )

Agricultural Research Center https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7811-1195

Mohamed Reda Tohamy

Zagazig University Faculty of Agriculture

Mohamed Ibrahim Abou-Zaid

Zagazig University Faculty of Agriculture

Mahmoud Mohamed Atia

Zagazig University Faculty of Agriculture

Tarek El Sayed

Agricultural Research Center

Khaled Farroh

Agricultural Research Center

Research Article

Keywords: plant viruses, virus acquisition, antivirus, silver nanoparticles, PR-1 gene, faba bean

Posted Date: April 26th, 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-422790/v1

License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

When alien species invade and take over communities, they may not come alone -- many plant species are host to a whole suite of microorganisms

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 6:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Invasive species are among the world's greatest threats to native species and biodiversity. Once invasive plants become established, they can alter soil chemistry and shift nutrient cycling in an ecosystem. This can have important impacts not only on plant composition, diversity, and succession within a community, but also in the cycling of critical elements like carbon and nitrogen on a larger, potentially even global, scale. Clearly, both native and exotic plants form intimate relationships with bacteria in the soil that facilitate the extraction and conversion of elements to biologically usable forms. Yet an unanswered question with regard to plant invasions remains: could the changes in soil biogeochemistry be due to an advantage that invasive plants get from interacting with their microbiome?

When alien species invade and take over communities, they may not come alone -- many plant species are host to a whole suite of microorganisms that not only live in plant cells, but also in the soil surrounding the plants' roots. These microbes form close, often mutualistic, associations with their plant hosts. Some convert atmospheric nitrogen into bioavailable forms that are then exchanged for carbon from the plant. Bioavailable nitrogen is frequently limiting in soils, yet many invaded ecosystems have more carbon and nitrogen in plant tissues and soils compared with systems dominated by native plants. Since changes in the soil nitrogen cycle are driven by microbes, could bacteria associated with invasive species not only be responsible for the observed changes in soil nutrient concentrations, but also for enabling the continued growth and persistence of the invader species?


These were the kinds of questions that started percolating for Marnie Rout (University of North Texas Health Science Center) after she drove by a remnant tallgrass prairie in North Central Texas as a beginning graduate student. She was particularly struck by the obvious and drastic changes the native prairie was undergoing due to the invasion of an exotic grass.


"It literally looked like someone had drawn a line down the field," Rout explained. "On one side was the native prairie, the other side had this towering monoculture of invasive Sorghum. The plant looked like it was invading in a military fashion, forming this distinct line that was clearly visible."


Subsequent literature searches led to the discovery that sugar cane, an agriculturally important crop, is a nitrogen fixer that contains bacterial endophytes, and Rout became curious if the microbes she and her colleague Tom Chrzanowski (The University of Texas Arlington) discovered in invasive Sorghum might be providing similar benefits to this invasive plant.


Rout combined forces with colleagues from The University of Montana, The University of Texas Arlington, and University of Washington to investigate whether the differences in soil nutrient concentrations found in an invaded prairie could be due to metabolic processes of the bacterial microbiome associated with the invasive grass, and to determine whether these microbial agents facilitate the perpetuation and spread of this invasive grass. They published their findings in a Special Section in the American Journal of Botany on Rhizosphere Interactions: The Root Biome.




"Things attributed to plant-plant interactions like competition and facilitation are likely under more microbial regulation than we have been giving them credit," Rout commented. "Studying disruptions to ecosystems like those seen in plant invasions provides a window into something -- specifically the process of co-evolution -- that we normally don't get to observe in a single human lifetime."


Indeed, the alarming rate -- almost 0.5 meters a year -- at which the invasive grass Sorghum halepense has invaded the tallgrass prairie, formerly dominated by the native little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), over the last 25 years, and the complete dominance of that invasive was the ideal situation in which Rout could test her ideas.


Rout and colleagues first confirmed that the invaded soils of the prairie did indeed have higher levels of nitrogen, phosphorous, and iron-derived chemicals compared with the non-invaded prairie soils still dominated by native plants. They then tested whether the interactions between the dominant invasive grass and the soil biota could be responsible for the observed changes in the soil nutrient concentrations.


By isolating five bacterial strains of endophytes found inside S. halepense rhizomes (subterranean stems used for storage and vegetative reproduction) and growing them in the lab in different mixtures of substrates, the authors determined that these microbes were able to fix and mobilize nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. All three are important elements associated with plant growth; however, some were produced in excess of what would be needed for plant growth. Indeed, perhaps somewhat alarmingly, the amount of iron that was produced reached levels that are toxic to many crops -- and may even inhibit establishment of native species.


Furthermore, the authors were able to show that not only can this invasive plant acquire microbes from the environment, but that it is also capable of passing them on to the next generation via seeds. Using a sophisticated series of intricate experiments involving growing seedlings from surface sterilized seeds in nitrogen- deprived or nitrogen-augmented soils and slurries with different suites of soil microbes, Rout and colleagues showed that these microbes enabled the grass to produce 5-fold increases in rhizomes, a primary mechanism driving invasions of this species.......... https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130926131631.htm

These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 6:05 AM Comments comments (0)

 ISSN: 2641-3094

 Global Journal of Ecology

Open Access Peer-Reviewed

Soil abiotic and microbial legacies jointly contribute to growth of invasive Solidago canadensis


The invasion success of exotic plants strongly depends on soil properties of new ranges, however, little is known about the joint contribution of soil abiotic and biotic legacies to this success. To address the role of soil abiotic and microbial properties in plant invasions and associated mechanisms, we conducted two complementary experiments. In the first experiment, we grew invasive Solidago canadensis in regular soils from its different invasion stages and measured plant growth to address the joint contribution of soil abiotic and microbial properties. In a second experiment, we set up four sterilization × three sites treatments and measured plant growth to address the influence of different soil microbes on S. canadensis. The growth of S. canadensis was constrained by soil N and bacteria, and was positively correlated to its leaf area and root area, but not its leaf chlorophyll contents and root hydraulic conductivity. Bactericide had no effects on S. canadensis growth, and the decreased growth was greater in the presence of bactericide and fungicide together than in the presence of fungicide alone. The effects of microbial removal varied with microbial groups and sites. These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.


The successful invasion of exotic plants can be ascribed to multiple possible mechanisms [1,2]. Of all the mechanisms, the properties of soils alone (e.g. nutrient availability and enemies) and plant-soil interactions (e.g. positive or negative feedback) have been increasingly recognized as key mechanisms determining invasion success [2-7]. In other words, the initial regimes of soil abiotic and biotic properties and their changes induced by invader-soil interactions play a crucial role in plant invasions (see below). Accordingly, increasing attention focusing on plant invasions has been paid to soil legacy effects [8-10].

The importance of soil abiotic properties (i.e. soil abiotic legacy) in plant invasions at least encompasses two mechanisms: resources and conditions. For example, soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) determine the growth of invasive plants because they usually grow rapidly and thus need large quantities of soil N and P [1,2,11], soil pH, as a condition, influences soil nutrient availability and soil microbial composition and structure [12,13]. The importance of soil microbes (i.e. soil microbial legacy) in plant invasions also at least covers two mechanisms: beneficial and detrimental effects. For example, the releases of soil-borne enemies or enhanced mutualisms benefit invasive plants whereas accumulated pathogens harm native plants [3,4,6,14,15]. However, it should be noted that invasive plants commonly interact with their surrounding soils [16,17]. This interaction can dramatically alter soil abiotic and biotic legacies, thereby influencing the performance of invasive plants (Gaggini et al. 2017)..........

Indexed for Global Journal of Ecology 

Considerations for the Diagnosis of Chemical Sensitivity

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 4:25 AM Comments comments (0)


William J. Rea Alfred R. Johnson, Gerald H. Ross, Joel R. Butler, Ervin J. Fenyves, Bertie Griffiths, and John Laseter



The study of the effects of the environment upon the individual is now feasible due to new technology developed in the construction of environmental units.1,2,3. Our observations reveal that individual or multiple organs may be involved. The brain is the target organ in only a subset of chemically sensitive patients, and its involvement should not be confused with psychosomatic disease.


Over the last 16 years physicians and scientists at the Environmental Health Center in Dallas have had an opportunity to observe over 20,000 patients who had chemical sensitivity problems. These patients were studied under various degrees of environmental control. This experience is unique in the world and has resulted in numerous peer-reviewed scientific articles, chapters in books, and books on this subject.


Studies have resulted in over 32,000 challenge tests by inhalation, oral, or injection methods, of which 16,000 are double-blind. Blood chemical levels and fat biopsies for organic hydrocarbons number over 2,000, while the measurement of immune parameters are over 5,000 tests. Objective brain function tests have been accomplished in over 5,000 patients. Other objective tests, like computerized balance studies, depollutant enzyme levels, and autonomic nervous system changes as measured by the Iriscorder, number near 1,000.


We wish to share our findings with the participants of the National Academy of Sciences Committee for the study of chemical sensitivity.


Definition and Principles

Chemical sensitivity is defined as an adverse reaction to ambient doses of toxic chemicals in our air, food, and water at levels which are generally accepted as subtoxic. Manifestation of adverse reactions depend on: (1) the tissue or organ involved; (2) the chemical and pharmacologic nature of the toxin; (3) the individual susceptibility of the exposed person (genetic make-up, nutritional state, and total load at the time of exposure); (4) the length of time of the exposure; (5) mount and variety of other body stressors (total load) and synergism at the time of reaction. (6) the derangement of metabolism that may occur from the initial insults.


To demonstrate cause-and-effect proof of environmental influence on an individual's health, one must understand several important principles and facts. These principles involve those of total body load (burden), adaptation (masking, acute toxicological tolerance), bipolarity, biochemical individuality. Each principle will be discussed separately.........

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Full document at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234807/

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is currently included in the broader definition of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), which also includes electromagnetic fields.

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 4:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is currently included in the broader definition of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), which also includes physical risk factors such as electromagnetic fields.


Systematic bibliography analysis of about the last 17 years on multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) was carried out in order to detect new diagnostic and epidemiological evidence. The MCS is a complex syndrome that manifests as a result of exposure to a low level of various common contaminants. The etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are still debated among researchers.

Querying PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane library, both using some specific MESH terms combined with MESH subheadings and through free search, even by Google.

The studies were analyzed by verifying 1) the typology of study design; 2) criteria for case definition; 3) presence of attendances in the emergency departments and hospital admissions, and 4) analysis of the risk factors.

With this review, we give some general considerations and hypothesis for possible future research.

Learning Objectives

Become familiar with the history and current concepts of multiple chemical sensitivity

(MCS), including the recently proposed "evolutive framework."


Discuss the findings of the present review of recent research on MCS, including the types, characteristics, and findings of the studies identified.


Discuss the implications for patient evaluation and further research on MCS.


Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is currently included in the broader definition of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), which also includes physical risk factors such as electromagnetic fields. It is a complex disease, a multisystem disorder that manifests as a result of exposure to various environmental contaminants (solvents, hydrocarbons, organophosphates, heavy metals) at concentrations below the “Threshold Limit value” (TLV) that are considered toxic doses for the general population.1–4


At the beginning of the ’50, the allergist Theron G. Randolph5 was the first to note that some patients became sick after exposures to a wide range of substances, either job-related, either, broadly speaking, environmental, in concentrations below those considered toxic for most individuals. Dr. Randolph and his colleagues speculated the possibility of allergic reactions and maladjustment to explain the symptoms that are attributed to MCS. It is considered that chronic exposure to subtoxic doses, as well as any acute exposures, can, in some people with, perhaps, a particular metabolic and genetic predisposition, lead to a gradual process of substance sensitization.


However, because of the difficulty of finding unique and incontrovertible diagnostic markers, from the ‘60 to date, the syndrome was analyzed in its different aspects: metabolic, genetic, immunological, epidemiological, etiological, symptomatic, therapeutic, and the criteria for case definition were gradually revised. Currently, the Cullen criteria,6 with or without Lacour revision,7 and the year 1999 criteria of the consensus8 are the most accepted. To perform an initial screening, different questionnaires are used: “Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Intolerance” (EESI) or its short version “Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory” (QEESI),9–11 “Huppe questionnaire,”12 “Chemical sensitivity scale for sensory hyperreactivity” (CSS-SHR),13 German questionnaire on chemical and environmental sensitivity (CGES)..............

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


Multiple Chemical Sensitivity As A Result Of Exposure To Heterogeneous Air Pollutants

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 4:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity As A Result Of Exposure To Heterogeneous Air Pollutants



G. Latini, G. Passerini, R. Cocci Grifoni & M. M. Mariani




To understand the relationship between health and the environment, we must study a series of events that might begin with the release of pollutants into the environment and might end with the development of disease in an individual, or a population. Noticeably, many studies have demonstrated an association between environmental exposure and certain diseases or health problems. Amongst all pollutants, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Nickel and Lead are emitted from several industrial processes, energy production processes and most vehicles. Methyl-Mercury is a poisonous industrial derivative of Mercury, enters the food chain and is toxic to the nervous system. Cadmium, Arsenic, Nickel and Lead are considered carcinogenic. Lead also causes digestive problems and damage to the nervous systems, especially in children. Assessing the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and disease is complicated by the problem of multiple exposures to multiple pollutants. In fact, a controversial condition, known as Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), is thought to arise only through the combined effects of a number of chemicals in concentrations that might not be harmful on their own. In this first Italian pilot study, sufficiently large population groups have been considered to evaluate levels of toxic trace metals stored in the body by means of a hair analysis technique. For a majority of toxic trace metals the hair analysis technique has proved to be a well-suited biological marker of environmental exposure of general population to such toxic metals. The results suggest that there is an explicit correlation between exposure to air pollutants and high levels of toxic metals in the body with consequent development of diseases.

Indexed for WIT Press by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

Chemical pollution: A growing peril and potential catastrophic risk to humanity

Posted on January 19, 2022 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)




The global picture of chemical pollution in the environment is often fragmented.


This perspective highlights global picture of pollution regarding catastrophic risk.


Exposure related impact on fertility, cognition and food safety are discussed.


Prioritised strategies for curbing chemical dispersal are recommended.




Synthetic chemical pollution has the potential to pose one of the largest environmental threats to humanity, but global understanding of the issue remains fragmented. This article presents a comprehensive perspective of the threat of chemical pollution to humanity, emphasising male fertility, cognitive health and food security. There are serious gaps in our understanding of the scale of the threat and the risks posed by the dispersal, mixture and recombination of chemicals in the wider environment. Although some pollution control measures exist they are often not being adopted at the rate needed to avoid chronic and acute effects on human health now and in coming decades. There is an urgent need for enhanced global awareness and scientific scrutiny of the overall scale of risk posed by chemical usage, dispersal and disposal........

Indexed for Science Direct/Elsevier by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


Effects of yoga on functional capacity and well being

Posted on January 15, 2022 at 4:30 AM Comments comments (0)


Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled.

Can Thermogenix affect the body's metabolism?

Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on modified Borg's scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions.

RKC Certification

Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000), RPE (P value < 0.000), recovery time (P value < 0.000) and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000). Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults.

Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient's functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the patients to adhere to yogic practices.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


Music can improve immune function and alleviate the adverse effects caused by noise.

Posted on January 10, 2022 at 5:05 AM Comments comments (0)

The Immune System Can Hear Noise


As a stressor widely existing in daily life, noise can cause great alterations to the immune system and result in many physical and mental disorders, including noise-induced deafness, sleep disorders, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases and other problems. The immune system plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis by recognizing and removing harmful substances in the body. Many studies have shown that noise may play vital roles in the occurrence and development of some immune diseases. In humans, both innate immunity and specific immunity can be influenced by noise, and different exposure durations and intensities of noise may exert various effects on the immune system. Short-term or low-intensity noise can enhance immune function, while long-term or high-intensity noise suppresses it. Noise can lead to the occurrence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) through the production of autoantibodies such as anti-Hsp70 and anti-Hsp60 and exert adverse effects related to other immune-related diseases such as some autoimmune diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

From Yoga Meditation Soundscapes & Chill Beats to Dance EDM & Fitness Music, tune in to Marco's Clubhouse Podcast at  


The neuroendocrine system, mainly including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system, is involved in the mechanisms of immune-related diseases induced by noise and gut microbiota dysfunction. In addition, noise exposure during pregnancy may be harmful to the immune system of the fetus. On the other hand, some studies have shown that music can improve immune function and alleviate the adverse effects caused by noise.

Indexed for NIH / Frontiers In Immunology by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Atlanta creates the nation's largest free food forest with hopes of addressing food insecurity

Posted on January 2, 2022 at 11:35 AM Comments comments (0)

When a dormant pecan farm in the neighborhoods of south Atlanta closed, the land was soon rezoned and earmarked to become townhouses.

But when the townhouses never came to fruition and with the lot remaining in foreclosure, the Conservation Fund bought it in 2016 to develop an unexpected project: the nation's largest free food forest.
Thanks to a US Forest Service grant and a partnership between the city of Atlanta, the Conservation Fund, and Trees Atlanta, you'll find 7.1 acres of land ripe with 2,500 pesticide-free edible and medicinal plants only 10 minutes from Atlanta's airport, the world's busiest airport before the pandemic struck.
The forest is in the Browns Mill neighborhood of southeast Atlanta, where the closest grocery store is a 30-minute bus ride away........ 

Role of polyphenols in combating the SARS COVID-19 pandemic

Posted on December 25, 2021 at 2:30 AM Comments comments (0)

Role of polyphenols in combating the SARS COVID-19 pandemic

Potential therapies for SARS-CoV-2 can be categorized into two groups based on targets; drugs that target the virus and drugs that target the host and its immune system.83 The target proteins in SARS-CoV-2 are categorized as non-structural proteins (MPRO, PLPRO and RdRp) and spike protein (S protein) (Table 1). Resveratrol, a well-known phytoalexin, showed potent inhibitory action against MERS-CoV in an in vitro study. The same study also indicated that resveratrol could prolong the cellular survival after viral infection.84 Emodin, an anthraquinone polyphenol found in the roots of rhubarb, was found to inhibit the interaction of ACE2 and S protein (Table 1).85 Molecular docking studies have shown that polyphenols from Curcuma sp. (curcumin and its derivatives) and Citrus sp. (hesperetin, hesperidin, and tangeretin) have a stronger binding affinity for the S protein than the reference compound nafamostat.86

Naringenin was found to have more substantial binding energy to viral spike glycoprotein (PDB: 6VSB) than remdesivir,87 an anti-viral which was approved by the FDA for the therapy of COVID-19.88 Tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (TGG) and luteolin were found to bind with SARS-CoV surface protein and thus hinder the virus's entry into the host cell.89
The target for the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 is the ACE2, which is a transmembrane metallocarboxypeptidase.90 This receptor thus serves as a potential target for anti-viral drug discovery.

Eriodictyol, a flavanone found in Eriodictyon californicum, showed the highest affinity for ACE2 among 77 candidates.91 Although in silico studies can identify promising candidates, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to assess their actual impact on the pandemic. A study found that mice having inactivated or knocked-out ACE2 developed severe SARS-CoV infection, and they sustained lung injury worse than the wild type control group. The symptoms were alleviated upon administration of recombinant ACE2.92 A cell-based assay revealed that the entry of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 was blocked when soluble ACE2 was introduced, thus confirming that recombinant ACE2 can be used as a decoy target against viral S protein.93,94

Since ACE2 plays a vital role in human physiology, targeting it for anti-viral drug discovery should be done after careful assessment of its risks. Protease inhibitors are a class of compounds that have been extensively used in the management of viruses like HIV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.95,96 The structural and non-structural proteins essential for the life cycle of the coronavirus are proteolytically processed from the polyprotein by 3CLPRO (MPRO) and the PLPRO.97

Natural products like diarylheptanoids,98 terpenoids,99 flavonoids100 and coumarins100 are potent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV proteases. In silico and in vitro analyses have found that epigallocatechin gallate (IC50 = 73 μM), gallocatechin gallate (IC50 = 47 μM) and quercetin (IC50 = 73 μM) are potent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 MPRO.101,102

Flavonoids such as kaempferol and isoliquiritigenin synergistically inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 MPRO and PLPRO in vitro.103 Gentile et al. screened a library of Marine Natural Products (MNP Library) and identified potent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 MPRO via molecular docking analysis. The potent inhibitors of the viral MPRO were heptafuhalol A, phlorethopentafuhalol B, pseudopentafuhalol C, phlorethopentafuhalol A, hydroxypentafuhalol A and pentaphlorethol B, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene from Sargassum spinuligerum and 8,8′-bieckol, 6,6′-bieckol and dieckol from Ecklonia cava.104 Flavonoids from traditional Chinese medicines, like herbacetin, rhoifolin, and pectolinarin, were found to inhibit the MPRO of SARS-CoV.105 Jo et al. found that flavonoids like herbacetin, isobavachalcone and helichrysetin have an inhibitory effect on MERS-CoV MPRO.106

Wen et al. investigated over 200 plant extracts to find their inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV induced cytopathogenic effects were studied in Vero E6 cell lines and they have shown that herbal extracts from Gentianae radix, Dioscoreae rhizoma, Cassiae semen and Loranthi ramus and Rhizoma cibotii in the concentrations from 25 to 200 μg ml−1 proved to have a potential inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV.107

A recent in silico study on naturally derived compounds came up with 3 potential leads which can block the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 in the host cells by inhibiting the host target protein TMPRSS2. The same study also showed that the three compounds (glucogallin, mangiferin, and phlorizin) could also be used to restrict the virus's life cycle inside the host due to their inhibitory action on the viral MPRO.108 The possible anti COVID-19 mechanism of action of the above-mentioned compounds in this section are compiled in a column in Table 2.

Indexed for Royal Society Of Chemistry by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Beetroot as a functional food with huge health benefits: Antioxidant, antitumor, physical function, and chronic metabolomics activity

Posted on December 22, 2021 at 3:35 AM Comments comments (0)


Previously, beetroot is mainly consumed as a food additive. In recent years, the beetroot, especially the betalains (betanin) and nitrates it contains, now has received increasing attention for their effective biological activity.

Betalains have been proven to eliminate oxidative and nitrative stress by scavenging DPPH, preventing DNA damage, and reducing LDL. It also has been found to exert antitumor activity by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, inducing cell apoptosis, and autophagy.

In some chronic diseases, nitrate is the main component for lowing blood lipids, glucose, and pressure, while its role in treating hypertension and hyperglycemia has not been clearly stated. Moreover, the intake of nitrate-rich beetroot could enhance athletic performance and attenuate muscle soreness in certain types of exercise. The objective of this review is to provide sufficient evidence for the clarification of health benefits of beetroot / Beet Root Powder , especially in the aspect of biooxidation, neoplastic diseases, some chronic diseases, and energy supplementation.

Keywords: beetroot; betanin; biological activity; health benefits; nitrate.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed / National Library Of Medicine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

© 2021 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals LLC

Pathogenic viruses in drinking-water biofilms: a public health risk?

Posted on December 21, 2021 at 7:20 AM Comments comments (0)


Biofilms in drinking-water distribution systems may accumulate human pathogenic viruses. Viruses that attach to biofilm are removed from the water phase improving the water quality. However, if released in slough, it may still present a risk of infection. This review describes the available data on the presence of pathogenic viruses in drinking-water biofilms.

First, biofilms of distribution systems potentially contribute to viral contamination of tap water only if infectious viruses are present initially in the water, which has been shown in several recent studies. However, only one out of three field studies showed the presence of infectious enteroviruses in natural biofilms from drinking-water networks. The presence of pathogenic viruses in biofilms points to the ability of these viruses to attach to biofilms. This has also been shown in pilot-scale studies in which bacteriophages and vaccine poliovirus strains were spiked into water and could be eluted from artificial biofilms.

Drink Responsibly, Filter Water Now

Reported attachment rates vary greatly and may depend on many factors such as the biofilm characteristics, the virus strain and the efficiency of viral recovery from biofilms. One study reported biphasic viral inactivation in biofilms with rapid initial inactivation followed by slow inactivation, implying that some of the attached viruses are able to remain infectious for a longer time. In several laboratory experiments, virus attachment to biofilms has been reported under various conditions; however, although detachment of sloughs in distribution systems has been observed, the presence of viruses in these sloughs was not studied. Here, we discuss the possible presence of infectious pathogenic viruses in sloughs; the extent to which these will pose a health risk remains to be investigated.

Indexed for Cambridge University Press by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera

Posted on December 21, 2021 at 6:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes.

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

Anti-biofilm, anti-hemolysis, and anti-virulence activities of black pepper, cananga, myrrh oils, and nerolidol against Staphylococcus aureus

Posted on December 21, 2021 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)


The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, anti-virulence approaches target bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability, which may be less prone to develop drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that produces diverse virulence factors, such as α-toxin, which is hemolytic. Also, biofilm formation of S. aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. In this study, anti-biofilm screening of 83 essential oils showed that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and their common constituent cis-nerolidol at 0.01 % markedly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation. Furthermore, the three essential oils and cis-nerolidol at below 0.005 % almost abolished the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that black pepper oil down-regulated the expressions of the α-toxin gene (hla), the nuclease genes, and the regulatory genes. In addition, black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and cis-nerolidol attenuated S. aureus virulence in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This study is one of the most extensive on anti-virulence screening using diverse essential oils and provides comprehensive data on the subject. This finding implies other beneficial effects of essential oils and suggests that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential use as anti-virulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infections.

Similar articles

Stilbenes reduce Staphylococcus aureus hemolysis, biofilm formation, and virulence.
Lee K, et al. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014. PMID: 25007234

Red wines and flavonoids diminish Staphylococcus aureus virulence with anti-biofilm and anti-hemolytic activities.
Cho HS, et al. Biofouling. 2015. PMID: 25535776

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library