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Antioxidant/restorative effects of calcined gold preparations used in Indian systems of medicine against global and focal models of ischaemia

Posted on October 14, 2021 at 6:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Stroke, or ischaemic brain damage, is of great geriatric importance being the third most common cause of death after cancer and heart diseases in developed countries. Despite such high frequency, its management has received inadequate attention. Many studies have shown the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of ischaemic brain damage. Search for safe and effective antioxidant and free radial scavenger agents, therefore, appear to be a promising approach for stroke therapy. Gold, widely used in modern medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is highly valued for various medicinal uses in Indian systems of medicine. Traditional gold preparations are attributed with tonic/rejuvenating and antioxidant properties. Our earlier studies revealed interesting analgesic, immunostimulant, adaptogenic and glycogen sparing properties in these preparations, but their effects in cerebral ischaemia have not been investigated. This prompted us to initiate the present study using global and focal models of ischaemia in albino rats. Enzymatic parameters (lipid peroxidase, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were employed to assess ischaemic brain damage and its modulation. Significant restoration of altered values to near normal levels by Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (25 mg/kg, orally for 10 days), suggest potentials for gold preparations in cerebrovascular diseases. The preparations deserve more scientific attention for possible therapeutic 


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12076306/



Attenuation of stress-elicited brain catecholamines, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels by calcined gold preparations used in Indian system of medicine

Posted on October 14, 2021 at 6:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Attenuation of stress-elicited brain catecholamines, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels by calcined gold preparations used in Indian system of medicine



Zahoor Ahmad Shah et al. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jun.



 

Abstract

Problems associated with mental health have increased tremendously in modern times. The search for effective and safe alternatives should, therefore, be pursued vigorously. Forced immobilization is one of the best explored models of stress in rats and the role of corticosterone, serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamines, i.e. norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine is well documented. We investigated the therapeutic potential of two gold preparations (Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan) in restraint induced stress at different time points of 1 hr, 2 hr and 4 hr. We pretreated rats with two gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (25 mg/kg, orally for 10 days) prior to restraint stress. Brain catecholamine, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels were determined following 1, 2 and 4 hr restraint stress, using HPLC and also plasma corticosterone using luminescence spectrophotometry. Gold preparations restored restraint stress-induced elevation in levels of brain catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopmine), 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to near normal levels. Gold, widely used in modern medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is highly valued for various medicinal uses in Indian systems of medicine. Traditional gold preparations are attributed with tonic/rejuvenating and antioxidant properties. Our earlier studies revealed interesting analgesic, immunostimulant, adaptogenic and glycogen sparing properties in these preparations, but their effects in stress and depression have not been investigated yet. Significant restoration of altered values to near normal levels suggest potentials for gold preparations in stress and depression


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15910411/

Ayurvedic Bhasma metal nanoparticles could be novel antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library Bright Star Apothecary at Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency

Posted on October 14, 2021 at 5:30 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Purpose of review: The pandemic COVID-19 has affected more than seventy million people globally. The whole world is eagerly waiting for an effective antiviral therapy to combat COVID-19, but it is yet to get. The emergence of COVID-19 makes imperative the need for safe and potent antiviral drugs. Many metal nanoparticles exhibit significant antiviral potential against many viral diseases. The Ayurvedic system of medicine is the treasure of many metal nanoparticulate drugs termed as Bhasma.

 

Recent findings: Gold, silver, copper, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles are effective against coronavirus. A possible mechanism of action of the metal nanoparticles against coronavirus is a disruption of outer layers of coronavirus. Swarna Bhasma, Rajata Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma and Yashada Bhasma are recommended for COVID-19 treatment due to the ability to reduce the plasma interleukins, interferons and TNFα levels.

 

Summary: The Ayurvedic Bhasma preparations are unique metal nanoparticles. These metal nanoparticles are safe, stable in solid state and are having excellent biological activities. Ayurvedic metal nanoparticles, Swarna Bhasma, Rajata Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma and Yashada Bhasma could be proved as novel antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 for their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antiviral and adjuvant activities.

 

Keywords: Ayurveda; Bhasma; COVID-19; Metal; Nanoparticles; SARS-CoV-2.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33425283/

Plant Based Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All Cause Mortality. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 6:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Background


Previous studies have documented the cardiometabolic health benefits of plant‐based diets; however, these studies were conducted in selected study populations that had narrow generalizability.


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Methods and Results

We used data from a community‐based cohort of middle‐aged adults (n=12 168) in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study who were followed up from 1987 through 2016. Participants’ diet was classified using 4 diet indexes. In the overall plant‐based diet index and provegetarian diet index, higher intakes of all or selected plant foods received higher scores; in the healthy plant‐based diet index, higher intakes of only the healthy plant foods received higher scores; in the less healthy plant‐based diet index, higher intakes of only the less healthy plant foods received higher scores. In all indexes, higher intakes of animal foods received lower scores. Results from Cox proportional hazards models showed that participants in the highest versus lowest quintile for adherence to overall plant‐based diet index or provegetarian diet had a 16%, 31% to 32%, and 18% to 25% lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality, respectively, after adjusting for important confounders (all P<0.05 for trend).


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Higher adherence to a healthy plant‐based diet index was associated with a 19% and 11% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality, respectively, but not incident cardiovascular disease (P<0.05 for trend). No associations were observed between the less healthy plant‐based diet index and the outcomes.



 

Conclusions

Diets higher in plant foods and lower in animal foods were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a general population.


 

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Clinical Perspective

What Is New?

Plant‐based diets, diets that emphasize higher intakes of plant foods and lower intakes of animal foods, are associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality in a general US adult population.

 

Healthful plant‐based diets, diets higher in nutrient‐dense plant foods and lower in refined carbohydrates and animal foods, are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality, but not incident cardiovascular disease.


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What Are the Clinical Implications?

Our results suggest that dietary patterns that are relatively higher in plant foods and relatively lower in animal foods may confer benefits for cardiovascular health.

 

Future research examining whether the quality of plant foods (healthful versus less healthful) within the framework of an overall plant‐based diet is associated with cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality is warranted.


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Introduction

Plant‐based diets are dietary patterns that emphasize higher intakes of plant foods and are low in animal foods. Vegetarian diets, a type of plant‐based diet, with a focus on restriction of different types of animal foods (meat, poultry, or fish), have been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease.1, 2, 3 However, prospective cohort studies have shown mixed results on the associations with cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality.4, 5, 6 These previous studies were conducted in selected study populations that were mostly composed of Seventh‐Day Adventists, vegetarians, or health‐conscious individuals; thus, they had relatively narrow generalizability.4, 5, 7, 8, 9


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Although prior studies have characterized participants’ diets using a relatively simple classification method based on frequency of animal food consumption,4, 5, 6 there have since been more comprehensive attempts to assess an individual's diet using plant‐based diet indexes.10, 11, 12, 13 These indexes give higher scores for higher consumption of plant foods and lower consumption of animal foods, allowing researchers to examine whether the degree of adherence to an overall plant‐based diet is associated with health outcomes. Studies that used such indexes (ie, an overall plant‐based diet index [PDI] or a provegetarian diet index) found that greater adherence to these diets was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and all‐cause mortality.10, 11, 12 In addition, some plant‐based indexes separately scored healthful (whole grains, vegetables, and plant proteins) and unhealthful (refined carbohydrates and sugar) plant sources of food.


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Healthful plant‐based diets, which scored higher intakes of only healthful plant foods higher, were more strongly inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease than the overall plant‐based diets.11, 12 In contrast, greater adherence to less healthful (unhealthful) plant‐based diets, which scored higher intakes of only less healthful plant foods higher, were associated with a higher risk of these conditions.11, 12


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Given the limited evidence on plant‐based diets in the general population and recent developments in plant‐based diet scores, the objectives of the present study were as follows: (1) to evaluate whether overall plant‐based diets are associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality in a general US population; and (2) to assess if the association differed by adherence to healthful and less healthful plant‐based diets using 4 a priori defined plant‐based diet scores (overall plant‐based diet, healthy plant‐based diet, less healthy plant‐based diet, and provegetarian diet indexes).


Indexed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library for 



https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.119.012865

Well planned vegetarian diets provide benefits in preventing and reversing atherosclerosis and in decreasing Cardiovascular Disease risk factors and should be promoted. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 6:10 AM Comments comments (0)

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2018.05.002

 


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Abstract

Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of mortality, being responsible for 46% of non-communicable disease deaths. It has been estimated that about 85.6 million Americans are living with some form of CVD, which continues to rise. Healthy lifestyle choices may reduce the risk of myocardial infarction by >80%, with nutrition playing a key role. Vegetarian dietary patterns reduce CVD mortality and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by 40%. Plant-based diets are the only dietary pattern to have shown reversal of CHD.


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Additionally, evidence suggests benefits of vegetarian dietary patterns in both the prevention and the treatment of heart failure and cerebrovascular disease. Plant-based diets are associated with lower blood pressure, lower blood lipids, and reduced platelet aggregation than non-vegetarian diets and are beneficial in weight management, reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. They have also been shown an effective treatment method in diabetes management. Well planned vegetarian diets provide benefits in preventing and reversing atherosclerosis and in decreasing CVD risk factors and should be promoted through dietary guidelines and recommendations.


Indexed for Science Direct Elsevier by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0033062018300872

Groundbreaking research shows that a plant-based diet doesn't just prevent heart disease but that it can manage and sometimes even reverse it.

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 5:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and around the world. Eating habits and other lifestyle factors play a key role in determining the risk of heart disease.

 

Pioneering studies by Dean Ornish, MD, Caldwell Esselstyn Jr., MD, and others have shown that a low-fat, plant-based diet, combined with regular exercise and a healthy overall lifestyle, can prevent, delay, and even reverse heart disease and other cardiovascular events.

 


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Dr. Ornish’s landmark study tested the effects of a plant-based diet on participants with moderate to severe heart disease. There were no surgeries or stents—just simple diet and lifestyle changes. Within weeks, 90 percent of chest pain diminished. After just one month, blood flow to the heart improved. After a year, even severely blocked arteries had reopened. At the Cleveland Clinic, Dr. Esselstyn tested the same approach on patients with severe heart disease and published similar results. Thirty years later, all of the compliant patients are still thriving.

 


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Plant-based diets benefit heart health because they contain no dietary cholesterol, very little saturated fat, and abundant fiber. Meat, cheese, and eggs, on the other hand, are packed with cholesterol and saturated fat, which cause plaque buildup in the arteries, eventually leading to heart disease.

 

It is important to continue to work closely with your health care provider to monitor your health and manage medications, even as you make dietary changes.


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A plant-based diet can also help improve several risk factors for heart disease:

High Blood Pressure: A plant-based diet, rich in potassium, improves blood pressure.

High Cholesterol: Aim for high-fiber foods, which can help lower cholesterol.

Atherosclerosis: Diets rich in saturated fat and cholesterol cause plaque buildup in the arteries, restricting blood flow.

Inflammation: Plant-based diets help reduce inflammation, which can lead to heart disease and other conditions........




Indexed for PCRM by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Full article at https://www.pcrm.org/health-topics/heart-disease

Plant-based diet & coronary artery disease: a mandate for effective therapy: In overlooking disease causation, we implement therapies with high morbidity & mortality

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 5:35 AM Comments comments (0)

1. Background

A 1999 autopsy study of young adults in the US between the ages of 17 and 34 years of who died from accidents, suicides, and homicides confirmed that coronary artery disease (CAD) is ubiquitous in this age group. The disease process at this stage is too early to cause coronary events but heralds their onset in the decades to follow.[1] These data are similar to those reported in an earlier postmortem analysis of US combat casualties during the Korean conflict, which found early CAD in nearly 80% of soldiers at an average age of 20 years.[2] From these reports, which are 17 and 63 years old, respectively, it is clear that the foundation of CAD is established by the end of high school. Yet, medicine and public health leaders have not taken any steps to forestall or eliminate the early onset of this epidemic. Smoking cessation, a diet with lean meat and low-fat dairy, and exercise are generally advised, but cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the number one killer of women and men in the US. The question is, why?


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Unfortunately, such dietary gestures do not treat the primary cause of CVD. The same can be said of commonly prescribed cardiovascular medications such as beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, anticoagulants, aspirin, and cholesterol lowering drugs and medical interventions such as bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, and coronary artery bypass surgery.

 

It is increasingly a shameful national embarrassment for the United States to have constructed a billion-dollar cardiac healthcare industry surrounding an illness that does not even exist in more than half of the planet. If you, as a cardiologist or a cardiac surgeon, decided to hang your shingle in Okinawa,[3] the Papua Highlands of New Guinea,[4] rural China,[5] Central Africa,[6] or with the Tarahumara Indians of Northern Mexico,[7] you better plan on a different profession because these countries do not have cardiovascular disease. The common thread is that they all thrive on whole food, plant-based nutrition (WFPBN) with minimal intake of animal products.

 




By way of contrast, in the United States, we ignore CVD inception initiated by progressive endothelial injury, inflammatory oxidative stress, decreased nitric oxide production, foam cell formation, diminished endothelial progenitor cell production and development of plaque that may rupture and cause myocardial infarction or stroke.[8] This series of events is primarily set in motion, and worsened, by the Western diet, which consists of added oils, dairy, meat, fish, fowl, and sugary foods and drinks—all of which injure endothelial function after ingestion, making food a major, if not the major cause of CAD.[9]

 

In overlooking disease causation, we implement therapies that have high morbidity and mortality. The side effects of a plethora of cardiovascular drugs include the risk of diabetes, neuromuscular pain, brain fog, liver injury, chronic cough, fatigue, hemorrhage, and erectile dysfunction. Surgical interventions are fatal for tens of thousands of patients annually. Each year approximately 1.2 million stents are placed with a 1% mortality rate, causing 12,000 deaths, and 500,000 bypass surgeries are performed with a 3% mortality rate, resulting in another 15,000 deaths. In total, 27,000 patients die annually from these two procedures.[10] It is as though in ignoring this dairy, oil, and animal-based illness, we are wedded to providing futile attempts at temporary symptomatic relief with drugs and interventional therapy, which employs an unsuccessful mechanical approach to a biological illness with no hope for cure. Patients continue to consume the very foods that are destroying them. This disastrous illness and ineffective treatments need never happen if we follow the lessons of plant-based cultures where CVD is virtually nonexistent........


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466936/

Several studies have linked red meat consumption to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and early death. - Underground Intelligence Muscle & Fitness at Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 5:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Along with fats and carbohydrates, protein is one of the macronutrients we need to live.

 

Our bodies use proteins from food to build and repair tissues, as well as make hormones, enzymes, and other things that are vital to our health.

 

Read: Q&A: Vitamins and Supplements

 


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Traditionally, meat has been thought of as our main source of protein, but there are plenty of diverse protein sources out there.

 

We talked to nutritionist Stephanie Cramer, administrative dietitian at Cedars-Sinai Clinical Nutrition Services, to help us understand the differences in protein sources.



 

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Animal protein

Found in: meat, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish

Cramer: The human body needs 20 different amino acids. Our bodies create 11 of them (these are called "non-essential amino acids"), but we must get the other 9 from food (essential amino acids).

Animal proteins, such as meat, eggs, and milk, are complete proteins, meaning they provide all of the essential amino acids our body needs. Animal products provide the highest-quality protein sources.

On the flip side, several studies have linked red meat consumption to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and early death.

Further studies have shown that eating more processed red meat may actually increase the risk of dying from heart disease. Processed meats include smoked meat, sausage, hot dogs, salami, bacon, and canned meat.

Read: Healthy Grilling: Reducing the Risk of Cancer

 




Plant protein

Found in: beans, legumes, nuts, seeds, quinoa, leafy greens such as broccoli and kale, whole grains

 

Cramer: Certain plants can be excellent sources of protein, often with fewer calories and fewer potentially harmful effects than animal products.

Some plant proteins, such as quinoa, are complete proteins—which means they contain all 9 essential amino acids that we need. Others are missing some amino acids, so it is important to eat a variety of foods to get all 9.

Studies show that people on vegetarian or vegan diets (which often rely on plant protein) are at a lower risk of certain diseases including cancers, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and ischemic heart disease.



Whey protein

Found in: dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt, whey protein supplements, hydrolyzed-whey infant formula

 

Cramer: Whey protein is a popular dietary protein supplement and one of the main proteins found in dairy products; it's a byproduct of cheese manufacturing.

Its biological components have been shown to demonstrate a range of immune-enhancing properties. Whey can also work as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antiviral, and antibacterial agent.

Whey is also used in some infant formulas to help reduce colic and in supplements because it is believed to benefit exercise performance........


Indexed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library for 


https://www.cedars-sinai.org/blog/best-protein.html

Encouraging obese individuals in behavioral treatment to adhere to a 1,000 calorie diet for weight loss. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 4:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract


Objective

Controversy exists regarding the optimal energy prescription to promote successful long-term behavioral management of obesity. Prescribing intake of 1,000 (vs. 1,500) kcal/day may produce larger initial weight reduction, but long-term advantage remains unclear. The effects of prescribing 1,000 versus 1,500 kcal/day on 6- and 12-month weight changes within behavioral treatment of obesity were examined.

 


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Design and Methods

Participants were 125 obese women (mean ± SD; BMI ¼ 37.84 ± 3.94 kg/m2) randomly assigned goals of 1,000 or 1,500 kcal/day.


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Results

From months 0 to 6, participants prescribed 1,000 kcal/day lost more weight than those prescribed 1,500 kcal/day (mean ± SE = −10.03 ± 0.92g vs. −6.23 ± 0.94 kg, P = 0.045); however, from months 7 through 12, only the 1,000 kcal/day condition experienced a significant weight regain (1.51 ± 0.77 kg, P ¼ 0.025). Baseline caloric consumption moderated the effect of treatment on regain; participants with baseline intakes ≥2,000 kcal/day who were assigned 1,000 kcal/day were significantly more susceptible to weight regain than those assigned 1,500 kcal/day (P = 0.049). At month 12, a significantly greater percentage of 1,000 kcal/day participants achieved weight reductions of 5% or more than those prescribed 1,500 kcal/day.

 


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Conclusion

Encouraging obese individuals in behavioral treatment to adhere to a 1,000 kcal/day intake may increase their likelihood of achieving clinically meaningful weight loss.........


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5771240/

Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 4:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract


Background: A dietary protein intake higher than the Recommended Dietary Allowance during an energy deficit helps to preserve lean body mass (LBM), particularly when combined with exercise.

 


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Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a proof-of-principle trial to test whether manipulation of dietary protein intake during a marked energy deficit in addition to intense exercise training would affect changes in body composition.

 


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Design: We used a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. During a 4-wk period, we provided hypoenergetic (~40% reduction compared with requirements) diets providing 33 ± 1 kcal/kg LBM to young men who were randomly assigned (n = 20/group) to consume either a lower-protein (1.2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) control diet (CON) or a higher-protein (2.4 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) diet (PRO). All subjects performed resistance exercise training combined with high-intensity interval training for 6 d/wk. A 4-compartment model assessment of body composition was made pre- and postintervention.

 


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Results: As a result of the intervention, LBM increased (P < 0.05) in the PRO group (1.2 ± 1.0 kg) and to a greater extent (P < 0.05) compared with the CON group (0.1 ± 1.0 kg). The PRO group had a greater loss of fat mass than did the CON group (PRO: -4.8 ± 1.6 kg; CON: -3.5 ± 1.4kg; P < 0.05). All measures of exercise performance improved similarly in the PRO and CON groups as a result of the intervention with no effect of protein supplementation. Changes in serum cortisol during the intervention were associated with changes in body fat (r = 0.39, P = 0.01) and LBM (r = -0.34, P = 0.03).

 


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Conclusions: Our results showed that, during a marked energy deficit, consumption of a diet containing 2.4 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) was more effective than consumption of a diet containing 1.2 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) in promoting increases in LBM and losses of fat mass when combined with a high volume of resistance and anaerobic exercise. Changes in serum cortisol were associated with changes in body fat and LBM, but did not explain much variance in either measure. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01776359.

 

Keywords: athlete; dietary protein; high-intensity interval training; leucine; resistance exercise; skeletal muscle 



Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26817506/




Yoga can be useful for enhancing immunity, stress reduction and may prevent exaggerated immune response to COVID-19 cytokine storm. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 30, 2021 at 7:00 AM Comments comments (0)

The pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has emerged as the most threatening public health challenge. The clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic and mild clinical symptoms to acute respiratory-distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Apart from the respiratory system, other organ systems like cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal systems are also involved. Cytokine storm is a condition of systemic inflammatory cytokine rampage through the bloodstream leading to lifethreatening complications. There is an urgent need for the prevention of infection and effective management. Yoga is a profound science with both immunity-boosting and immune-modulating capacity. We propose that yoga-based intervention may aid in improving health with its immunity-boosting potential and preventing the exuberant inflammatory cytokine storm, thus reducing the severity of the disease. It can also reduce stress, anxiety, and co-morbid depression by promoting neuroplasticity and prevents persistent activation of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and thus may reduce disease severity. It may also enhance the immunity of caretakers and make them more emotionally resilient. Thus, yoga can be useful for enhancing immunity, stress reduction and may prevent the exaggerated immune response to the cytokine storm.


Indexed for Eureka Select by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://www.eurekaselect.com/185918/article

Natural Vitamin E complexes with several forms of natural tocopherols are far better than just one kind of Vitamin E.

Posted on September 26, 2021 at 7:05 AM Comments comments (0)

The truth about Vitamin E - Vitamin E is safer than implied

An article published in January in the medical journal Annals of

Internal Medicine claimed that Vitamin E may have increased the number of

deaths in some studies. Researchers at Johns Hopkins subjected only a

small number of Vitamin E studies to a meta-analysis, which is where

previously published studies are re-examined and compared in order to try

to mine more information out of them. These meta-analyses may be highly

speculative because the protocol for each study is different enough that

it often becomes a stretch to link the results and imply a common thread

runs through them, despite possibly increasing the number of variables.

 

For example, the supplement tested may be given in different forms or

doses, the patient group may have significant differences in age, health

or even compliance, the length of time people were taking the supplement

may vary considerably (or may even include previous users and new users),

etc. There are also differences between natural and synthetic Vitamin E,

with most studies using only the synthetic forms, which are composed of

different-shaped molecules only half as effective as natural Vitamin E.

 

Natural Vitamin E is called d-alpha tocopherol and synthetic Vitamin E is

called dl-alpha tocopherol. The main study in this analysis apparently

used the synthetic form, making it unclear whether the results could be

duplicated if testing the natural form. It is also known that alpha

tocopherol can block absorption of gamma tocopherol, an important

antioxidant. Vitamin E complexes with several forms of natural tocopherols

are far better than just one kind of Vitamin E.

 

Official U.S. dietary guidelines set an upper tolerable intake limit

of 1,500 IU per day for natural Vitamin E versus only 1,000 IU for the

synthetic form, based on the total scientific record. The national

Institute of Medicine (the same body that sets our RDAs and Daily Values

for vitamins) looked at hundreds of Vitamin E studies, including ones that

were reviewed by the Johns Hopkins team.

 

Eighteen of the studies reviewed in this meta-analysis have

insignificant death rate variations and the nineteenth had patients taking

more than one potency of Vitamin E, so it is impossible to accurately

determine a relationship between dose and death. Additionally, 10 of the

19 studies did not isolate Vitamin E use; participants also used other

dietary supplements. In my opinion, that team skewed the results by

excluding other, perhaps more valid studies, because they used only

studies where at least ten people died during the course of the studies

from all causes (not necessarily from Vitamin E). These studies were not

even originally designed to look at deaths, but the length of the studies

and the poor health of the participants made some deaths inevitable. Even

so, they only got about a half percent increase in the death rate

projected over decades. This is statistically questionable, and several

statisticians have commented on this in the responses to the Annals

article. The original studies alone did not generate any increased deaths

among Vitamin E users, so this group of studies would not be expected to

yield additional deaths unless the protocol somehow magnified

insignificant differences. The problematic selection of studies reviewed,

the inability to adequately control variables in this analysis and the

pooling of studies using different dosages and forms to generate a

slightly negative result generates much heat but no light on the truth of

Vitamin E safety. Vitamin E prevents cellular damage and does not cause

more deaths when all studies are correctly reviewed, as the Institute of

Medicine has done.

 

While these meta-analyses may be academically useful to point to

potential new problems or solutions, by no means are they necessarily

proof of anything, due to the lack of uniform protocols and patient

groups. These doctors and researchers may be well-meaning, but results of

this kind of preliminary study can be publicized and take on a life of

their own, with a new role as “proof” of the dangers of taking vitamins.

 

One thing that many of the patients in this analysis of previous

studies had in common was being elderly and sick. So the first caution

issued by the report’s own authors is that their speculative findings do

not apply to healthy or younger people. That’s one BIG argument against

using this analysis to set general restrictions on Vitamin E dosages. We

already have some evidence that taking one antioxidant, rather than

antioxidant formulas or multiple vitamins, may increase cancer risks for

aged smokers. This may be because antioxidants need to recharge and

support each other or else (in large doses) some can actually transform

into pro-oxidants that can increase cellular damage.

 

I always caution against taking mega-doses of one nutrient without

considering potential side effects. Taking only one antioxidant may

effectively deplete others because of the way they interact, with one

antioxidant chemically supporting the others. A surplus of one nutrient

may increase a person's need for one or more other nutrients, creating an

apparent functional deficiency.

 

There is a recent example that illustrates my point. Some years ago

an antioxidant study in Finland was halted early, with a widely reported

increase in cancer rates among male smokers taking beta-carotene.

Headlines associated this vitamin with greater cancer risks. Despite

objections that the study was flawed, beta-carotene use dropped.

 

Fast-forward to 2004. A new analysis published in July took another

look at that same Finnish smokers' study, but now takes into account their

total antioxidant intake, and this clears up that whole controversy. Their

risk of getting lung cancer was closely associated with total antioxidants

in the diet, with more antioxidants meaning less cancer.

 

A composite antioxidant index was generated for each of the 27,000

men over 14 years. The calculated amounts of carotenoids, flavonoids,

Vitamin E, selenium and Vitamin C were compared to actual lung cancer

rates, with a clear result: a combination of antioxidants lowers lung

cancer risk in male smokers.

 

What does this all mean? I think we are in for another round of

attacks on vitamins based on this crude analysis of Vitamin E, with some

medical advocates calling for sharp restrictions on vitamin potency. That

would be a mistake legally, scientifically and from a public health

viewpoint. The message should be that people shouldn’t try to take a high

dose of one supplement without considering that it may increase our need

for other nutrients, and that natural molecules are safer than other

forms. Elderly, sick people need a more holistic approach rather than

using a single nutrient in high doses, as if it were a drug. Nutrients

just don’t work well in isolation from each other. Vitamins are essential

to health and life, but the average American gets only 1/3 of the

recommended daily intake of Vitamin E, the amount that the Institute of

Medicine determined to be needed to prevent serious illnesses. Most people

would benefit from taking a multiple vitamin and a Vitamin E supplement,

and it would be safer than just the Vitamin E alone. People with serious

heart diseases are more likely to take a Vitamin E supplement than the

general population, but the supplement may not work very quickly or

effectively on these seriously ill people, making them more likely to die

during a lengthy study...from their pre-existing disease, not from taking

a vitamin!

 

Antioxidant vitamins are useful to prevent aging and chronic

diseases, which was actually demonstrated by some of the same studies that

these scientists “re-examined” to find fault with. For example, clinical

studies show that supplemental antioxidants and lutein, a plant pigment,

are the only tested effective method of preventing and safely reversing

macular degeneration, a major cause of blindness. Oxidized cholesterol and

oxidized forms of estrogen and testosterone are the most dangerous forms

in cardiovascular and hormonal health. And researchers at the Lewin Group

estimate that if all seniors were to take vitamins that their health care

costs would decline by some $3 billion per year. But the authors of the

Annals meta-analysis ignored these positive effects.

 

Vitamin E can reduce symptoms of hay fever, prevents oxidation of LDL

(“bad”) cholesterol that leads to blocked arteries, is linked to lower

rates of prostate and breast cancer, is associated with less risk of

getting cataracts in the eyes, less risk of getting a second heart attack,

dramatically lowers the risk of cardiovascular problems in diabetics,

helps to lower blood pressure, decreases dementia in older people and

supports both the lungs and immune system. This research is stronger for

the complete family of 8 natural isomers than for isolated alpha

tocopherol........



Indexed for BMJ by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.bmj.com/content/330/7490/0.7/rapid-responses

Protective effect of vitamin C against the ethanol mediated toxic effects on human brain glial cells. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 14, 2021 at 9:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

It is now known that chronic consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol is a major source of social and medical problems. Ethanol-mediated glial cell activation may lead to neuron damage in many ways, including the formation of free radicals and production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Vitamin C (vit-C) is an essential dietary nutrient required as a co-factor for many enzymes and a very efficient antioxidant, protecting cells against free radical-mediated damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of vit-C on glial cell activation and viability against ethanol-mediated toxicity. Human brain astrocyte cells (HA) were exposed to ethanol (0, 50, and 350 mmol/L) for 24 h. We found that glial cells incubated with different concentrations of vit-C increase their vit-C in a dose-dependent manner. HA incubated with 0, 50 or 350 mmol/L of ethanol for up to 24 h showed toxic effects that were proportional to the levels of ethanol in the medium, HA showed increased levels of heat shock protein (Hsp70). However, cells enriched with vit-C before being exposed to ethanol, were better protected against the alcohol-mediated toxicity than non-supplemented cells, and showed significantly lower concentrations of Hsp70. Ethanol also caused increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which were reduced by vit-C. In summary, HA supplemented with vit-C were significantly more resistant to the ethanol-mediated toxic effects.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14559112/

Protective effects of silymarin, a milk thistle (Silybium marianum) derivative on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 14, 2021 at 9:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to be a major factor in oxidative cell injury. The antioxidant activity or the inhibition of the generation of free radicals is important in providing protection against such hepatic damage. Silymarin, derived from the milk thistle plant, Silybium marianum, has been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. In the present study, the effect of hepatoprotective drug silymarin on body weight and biochemical parameters, particularly, antioxidant status of ethanol-exposed rats was studied and its efficacy was compared with the potent antioxidant, ascorbic acid as well as capacity of hepatic regeneration during abstention. Ethanol, at a dose of 1.6 g/kg body wt/day for 4 wks affected body weight in 16-18 week-old male albino rats (Wistar strain weighing 200-220 g). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased, whereas GSH content, and catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly reduced, on ethanol exposure. These changes were reversed by silybin and ascorbic acid treatment. It was also observed that abstinence from ethanol might help in hepatic regeneration. Silybin showed a significant hepatoprotective activity, but activity was less than that of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, preventive measures were more effective than curative treatment.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17133738/


Butterbur root extract and music therapy in the prevention of childhood migraine. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Background: Migraine is very common in school-aged children, but despite a number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological options for prophylaxis, randomized controlled evidence in children is small. Evidence-based prophylactic drugs may have considerable side effects.

 

Objective: This study was to assess efficacy of a butterbur root extract (Petadolex) and music therapy in primary school children with migraine.

 

Design: Prospective, randomized, partly double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

 

Methods: Following a 8-week baseline patients were randomized and received either butterbur root extract (n=19), music therapy (n=20) or placebo (n=19) over 12 weeks. All participants received additionally headache education ("treatment as usual") from the baseline onwards. Reduction of headache frequency after treatment (8-week post-treatment) as well as 6 months later (8-week follow-up) was the efficacy variable.

 

Results: Data analysis of subjects completing the respective study phase showed that during post-treatment, only music therapy was superior to placebo (p=0.005), whereas in the follow-up period both music therapy and butterbur root extract were superior to placebo (p=0.018 and p=0.044, respectively). All groups showed a substantial reduction of attack frequency already during baseline.

 

Conclusion: Butterbur root extract and music therapy might be superior to placebo and may represent promising treatment approaches in the prophylaxis of paediatric migraine.....


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17659990/

Anti-Inflammatory Diet in Clinical Practice: A Review. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 9:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Recently, there has been an increase in the research regarding the impact of acute and chronic inflammation on health and disease. Specific foods are now known to exert strong effects on inflammatory pathways within the body. Carefully selecting foods that are anti-inflammatory in nature while avoiding foods that are proinflammatory is central to an anti-inflammatory diet plan. Ultimately, the plan models a pattern of eating that (1) focuses on eating whole, plant-based foods that are rich in healthy fats and phytonutrients and (2) maintains a stable glycemic response.



 

Keywords: Mediterranean diet; anti-inflammatory diet; fatty acids; glycemic index; nutrition therapy 



Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28350517/





Plant-based and/or pescatarian diet are significantly less likely to develop a moderate to severe COVID-19 infection

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)


Looking for another reason to carve out meat from your dinners? A new study has suggested those who eat a plant-based and/or pescatarian diet are significantly less likely to develop a moderate to severe COVID-19 infection.



Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Background: Obesity and chronic pain are prevalent concerns. Pain is frequently experienced in weight-bearing joints, but is common in other areas of the body as well, suggesting other factors. Poor diet often contributes to obesity and can directly influence the immune system. We have shown that poor diet prolongs recovery from inflammatory injury. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether poor-quality diet-induced consequences could be prevented or reversed by an anti-inflammatory diet (AID).

 

Methods: A Standard American Diet (SAD) was developed to investigate the effects of poor diet on pain. The SAD includes amounts of refined sugar, carbohydrates and fats that better model the typical American diet, as compared to high-fat diets. We developed an AID to explore whether the effects of the SAD could reverse or whether the AID would enhance recovery prophylactically. The AID was developed using ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, sulforaphane, resveratrol, curcumin and ginseng) with known anti-inflammatory properties. Following 15 weeks of diet [SAD, AID or regular (REG)] exposure, male and female mice underwent inflammatory injury, at which point some animals had their diets switched for the remainder of the study.

 

Results: Animals who consumed the SAD showed longer recovery compared to the AID- and REG-fed animals. Animals switched off the SAD had faster recovery times, with AID-fed animals recovering as fast as REG-fed animals.

 

Conclusions: Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. Substitution of SAD with AID or REG promoted faster recovery. These findings suggest diet can be used as a non-pharmacological intervention following injury.

 

Significance: Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. This study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e. prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e. following an injury).


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29436058/