|Posted on July 28, 2021 at 12:20 AM||comments ()|
|Posted on July 27, 2021 at 1:00 PM||comments ()|
Songs and singing games are a healthy part of young children's social, emotional and cognitive development. Such shared music making can facilitate and strengthen relationships between parents and children. Family health workers can encourage carers' informal uses of music with their children. In cases of developmental delay, disability, severe illness or family stress, music can continue to have a significant role in supporting children and parents. In some cases referral to specialist music therapy services may be appropriate for assessment and/or treatment.
or choose your favorite music streaming platform at https://songwhip.com/natureyogimarcoandre
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on July 26, 2021 at 8:30 AM||comments ()|
A new theory has emerged as a possible explanation for climate change. Human generated electromagnetic radiation may contribute to global warming by diverting a natural energy force termed KELEA (kinetic energy limiting electrostatic attraction) from its presumed association with cosmic rays. This theory states that cosmic ray delivered KELEA normally participates in the formation of clouds, by transforming electrostatically inert particles into electrostatic aerosols capable of acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). These clouds then act as a reflective barrier to some of the infrared radiation from the sun, thereby, reducing the earth’s heat.
KELEA theory also suggests that the increase in electromagnetic activity and shifting electrical fields due to the popularization of wireless technology have been competitively withdrawing some of the KELEA from the incoming cosmic rays and from its natural function of cloud formation and climate stability.
With further KELEA studies, researchers hope to understand its principles and involvement in the activation of water and other fluids. At a sufficient level of activation, separated electrical charges on water molecules can directly absorb KELEA, leading to further activation. This kind of fluid activation could provide additional means of managing climate change, and could offer other industrial applications, not only for water but also as applied to gasoline, diesel, and gases. Activated gasoline burns more completely, with less hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission and at a reduced temperature. Further testing of this theory could have profound effects on our environment and our shared future.
|Posted on July 26, 2021 at 8:30 AM||comments ()|
A Meta-Integrative Qualitative Study on the Hidden Threats of
Smart Buildings/Cities and Their Associated Impacts on
Humans and the Environment
Reshna Raveendran and Kheira Anissa Tabet Aoul *
Citation: Raveendran, R.; Tabet Aoul,
K.A. A Meta-Integrative Qualitative
Study on the Hidden Threats of Smart
Buildings/Cities and Their
Associated Impacts on Humans and
the Environment. Buildings 2021, 11,
Received: 19 April 2021
Accepted: 7 June 2021
Published: 10 June 2021
Copyright: © 2021 by the authors.
Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article
distributed under the terms and
conditions of the Creative Commons
Attribution (CC BY) license (https://
Architectural Engineering Department, United Arab Emirates University,
Al Ain P.O. Box 15551, United Arab Emirates; firstname.lastname@example.org
* Correspondence: Kheira.Anissa@uaeu.ac.ae
Abstract: Smart buildings deploying 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) are viewed as the next
sustainable solution that can be seamlessly integrated in all sectors of the built environment. The
benefits are well advertised and range from inducing wellness and monitoring health, amplifying
productivity, to energy savings. Comparatively, potential negative risks are less known and mostly
relate to cyber-security threats and radiation effects. This meta-integrative qualitative synthesis
research sought to determine the possible underlying demerits from developing smart buildings,
and whether they outweigh the possible benefits. The study identified five master themes as threats
of smart buildings: a surfeit of data centers, the proliferation of undersea cables, the consternation
of cyber-security threats, electromagnetic pollution, and E-waste accumulation. Further, the paper
discusses the rebound impacts on humans and the environment as smart buildings’ actualization
becomes a reality. The study reveals that, although some aspects of smart buildings do have their
tangible benefits, the potential repercussions from these not-so-discussed threats could undermine
the former when all perspectives and interactions are analyzed collectively rather than in isolation.
Keywords: smart buildings; 5G; internet of things; IoTs; sustainability; climate change; humans;
cyber security; electromagnetic radiation; undersea internet cables; datacenters; E-waste
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 6:15 AM||comments ()|
The ongoing coronavirus pandemic is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2) and unique in various facets. The earlier experience from the past severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemics seem to be insufficient and there is need for better strategies in public health and medical care. Ayurved & Yog are well known for their preventive and therapeutic aspect, but not getting utilized properly for prevention of Covid 19 crisis which may also be helpful as supportive therapy along with current line of management.
This paper is aimed at unrevealing the role of Ayurved and Yoga guidelines established by Department of AYUSH for prevention from SARS-CoV-2 by providing help to improving the quality of supportive/prophylactic therapy in relation with their immunity.
Keywords: AYUSH; COVID-19; Rasayana; immuno-modulator; mental health
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 6:00 AM||comments ()|
We report a high-risk case of a coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-positive patient with comorbidities including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), hypothyroidism and chronic kidney disease (CKD), treated successfully using an integrative therapy plan based on Ayurveda and Yoga, along with government-mandated compulsory modern western medicine (MWM) treatment. Recently, some evidence has been emerging on the use of Ayurveda for treatment of COVID-19. The classical texts of Ayurvedic medicine such as Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita contain descriptions of pandemics of similar proportions and describe them as Janapadoddhvansa, meaning the destruction of communities, along with their causes and treatment.
The case reported herein is a 55-year-old man from Delhi, India, with confirmed (tested) COVID-19, who first took MWM for 7 days before seeking integrative therapy. The patient has comorbidities including DM, HTN, hypothyroidism and CKD and had developed symptoms including fever (which was resolved by the time integrative therapy was started), sore throat, dry cough, body aches, weakness, bad taste and smell, and heaviness in the abdomen. Based on the patient’s symptoms and comorbidities, a treatment plan including Ayurvedic medicines, Yoga protocol, dietary recommendations and lifestyle modifications was prescribed by a registered Ayurveda doctor and a Yoga consultant.
The patient started experiencing improvement in all the symptoms within 2 days after starting the treatment; he reported approximately 75% relief from the symptoms after 5 days, and almost complete relief within 9 days. Also, the blood sugar levels (both fasting blood sugar [FBS] and postprandial blood sugar [PPBS]) exhibited significant improvement after 5 days, and decreased to within the normal range within 12 days. Besides relief in symptoms, the patient’s real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test done on the 19th day returned negative results.
Integrative therapy was found to be effective in mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19 in this patient with multiple comorbidities. Moreover, a significant improvement in blood sugar levels (not under control with modern medicine) was also achieved. Integrative therapy based on the classical texts of Ayurveda and Yoga may offer a promising and scalable treatment option for COVID-19 patients. A case series or a suitably designed randomized controlled trial is needed to assess its efficacy.
Indexed for Biomed Central by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 5:45 AM||comments ()|
To compare hospitalisation rates, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality for patients with COVID-19 who were consistently inactive, doing some activity or consistently meeting physical activity guidelines.
We identified 48 440 adult patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis from 1 January 2020 to 21 October 2020, with at least three exercise vital sign measurements from 19 March 2018 to 18 March 2020. We linked each patient’s self-reported physical activity category (consistently inactive=0–10 min/week, some activity=11–149 min/week, consistently meeting guidelines=150+ min/week) to the risk of hospitalisation, ICU admission and death after COVID-19 diagnosis. We conducted multivariable logistic regression controlling for demographics and known risk factors to assess whether inactivity was associated with COVID-19 outcomes.
Patients with COVID-19 who were consistently inactive had a greater risk of hospitalisation (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.81 to 2.83), admission to the ICU (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.18 to 2.55) and death (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.33 to 4.67) due to COVID-19 than patients who were consistently meeting physical activity guidelines. Patients who were consistently inactive also had a greater risk of hospitalisation (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.32), admission to the ICU (OR 1.10; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.29) and death (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.60) due to COVID-19 than patients who were doing some physical activity.
Consistently meeting physical activity guidelines was strongly associated with a reduced risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes among infected adults. We recommend efforts to promote physical activity be prioritised by public health agencies and incorporated into routine medical care.
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 5:40 AM||comments ()|
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 5:30 AM||comments ()|
Regular physical activity may substantially reduce the risk of COVID-19–related hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death, suggests an observational study of nearly 50,000 people published yesterday in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Kaiser Permanente Southern California researchers led the retrospective study, which involved linking the self-reported physical activity levels of 48,440 adult patients who had at least three exercise vital sign measurements in the 2 years preceding the pandemic to their risk of severe coronavirus outcomes.
Used at every outpatient visit at Kaiser Permanente since 2009, exercise vital sign measurements include average number of days a week of moderate to strenuous exercise and duration of that exercise.
The patients, who were diagnosed as having COVID-19 from Jan 1 to Oct 21, 2020, reported their physical activity as consistently inactive (0 to 10 minutes a week), some activity (11 to 149 minutes), or consistently meeting guidelines (more than 150 minutes).
More important than other modifiable risk factors
The researchers found that, compared with COVID-19 patients who consistently met exercise guidelines, those who were consistently inactive were at 2.26 times the risk of hospitalization, 1.73 times the risk of ICU admission, and 2.49 times the risk of death from their infections.
Similarly, compared with COVID-19 patients who reported some physical activity, those who were consistently inactive were 1.20 more likely to be hospitalized, 1.10 times more likely to be admitted to the ICU, and 1.32 times more likely to die.
Consistent inactivity was the third most important risk factor for COVID-19 death, behind only age older than 60 years and previous organ transplant. It was more important than even smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
Even inconsistently inactive patients were at lower risk for severe coronavirus illness than those who were consistently inactive. Among all patients, 8.6% were hospitalized, 2.4% received ICU care, and 1.6% died.
Of all patients, 6.4% said they were consistently active, and 14.4% were consistently inactive, while the rest reported some physical activity. White patients were more likely to report consistently meeting physical activity guidelines (10%) than Asian (7%), Hispanic (6%), and Black (5%) patients.
Roughly half of the patients had no underlying medical conditions, while 18% had one such condition, and 32% had at least two. Patients who had chronic diseases or who smoked were less likely than others to report consistent or some activity. Average body mass index was 31 kg/m2, which is classified as obese. Median age of the racially diverse patients was 47 years, and 61.9% were women.
'A medicine that everyone should take'
The authors noted that education about the benefits of physical activity has largely been absent amid the pandemic and that public health mitigation measures likely reduced exercise levels even more as people were asked to stay home.
"Consistently meeting physical activity guidelines was strongly associated with a reduced risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes among infected adults," the authors concluded. "The potential for habitual physical activity to lower COVID-19 illness severity should be promoted by the medical community and public health agencies."
In a Kaiser Permanente press release, senior author Deborah Rohm Young, PhD, said she was surprised by how strongly inactivity and poor COVID-19 outcomes were linked. "Even after we included variables such as obesity and smoking in the analysis, we still saw inactivity was strongly associated with much higher odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death compared with moderate physical activity or any activity at all," she said.
Lead author Robert Sallis, MD, said that the study shows how important regular physical activity is to health during the pandemic and beyond. "Walk 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week at a moderate pace and that will give you a tremendous protective effect against COVID-19," he said, adding that walking at a moderate pace should leave walkers too out of breath to sing but not to talk.
"I continue to believe that exercise is medicine that everyone should take—especially in this era of COVID-19."
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 5:20 AM||comments ()|
Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is causing global mortality and lockdown burdens. A compromised immune system is a known risk factor for all viral influenza infections. Functional foods optimize the immune system capacity to prevent and control pathogenic viral infections, while physical activity augments such protective benefits. Exercise enhances innate and adaptive immune systems through acute, transient, and long-term adaptations to physical activity in a dose-response relationship. Functional foods prevention of non-communicable disease can be translated into protecting against respiratory viral infections and COVID-19.
Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper. Foods with antiviral properties include fruits, vegetables, fermented foods and probiotics, olive oil, fish, nuts and seeds, herbs, roots, fungi, amino acids, BCAA 2:1:1 (Branch Chain Amino Acids) Powder peptides, and cyclotides.
Get the vitamins you need today!
> Doctor Endorsed
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Regular moderate exercise may contribute to reduce viral risk and enhance sleep quality during quarantine, in combination with appropriate dietary habits and functional foods. Lifestyle and appropriate nutrition with functional compounds may offer further antiviral approaches for public health.
Keywords: COVID-19; exercise; functional food; immune system; lifestyle prevention; viral infection.
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 4:45 AM||comments ()|
BMJ 2020; 371 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3872 (Published 05 October 2020)
Vitamin D Mitigates COVID-19, Say 40+ Patient Studies (listed below) – Yet BAME, Elderly, Care-homers, and Obese are still ‘D’ deficient, thus at greater COVID-19 risk - WHY?
Vitamin D reduces COVID-19; infection; severity; ICU admission and mortality: as clearly evidenced by; immune biology, observational and interventional studies, and wider considerations of; latitude, seasonal UVB exposure, and national supplementation policies: the uncertainty is the quantum: but studies suggest ‘D’ effects are likely large - 50% less infectivity – multiples lower ICU and mortality rate.
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone, also present in limited dietary sources. For most, the major ‘D’ source is skin exposure to UVB in sunlight, which waxes and wanes seasonally. Supplementation is the only other option. ‘D’ with 50 metabolites is more bio-actively influential than appreciated. Sensible ‘D’ supplementation has a 100-year track-record. Side-effects are minimal.
Dexamethasone in the same structural steroid family as ‘D’, shares common VDR (vitamin-D-receptor) and related gene pathways, is artificial, and in some circumstances mitigates against COVID-19, albeit with variable side-effects. Dexamethasone is clearly a useful adjunct.
‘D’ deficiencies are widespread globally, and particularly in; BAME, African Americans, Elderly, Carehomers,[6, 7] (Reality-check ref.) and Obese Persons; groups also at high-risk of COVID-19. Regions with proactive Vitamin-D-policies, education, nutritional supplementation, and/or greater UVB exposure, have much lower COVID-19 infection and mortality; e.g. Finland, Norway, New Zealand and, Equatorial-Africa (despite poverty / high urban-multi-person-dwelling-occupation).
Appropriate vitamin D supplementation risks are small: rewards huge. Public policy application of Bradford-Hill risk / harm criteria, used for smoking, social-distancing and masks, would support ‘D’ supplementation of at-risk groups, and ‘D’ testing of all COVID-19 hospital patients.
Parachute RCTs studies (Smith & Pell. J CBE ) [10, 11] ; analogies for research situations of observable risk reduction, but limited viable ethical alternatives; incisively, with wry humour, highlight risks of overly focusing on para-RCT-centric research.
Patient-based-studies; four interventions [12-14, 85]; a retrospective examination of clinical practice; and thirty-nine observationals,[16-50, 86] three more are questioned;[51-53] some are preprints. All consider, mixed-size pre-and -or-post-infection ‘D’ samples, and COVID-19 positive patients. All studies variously evidence mitigation of COVID-19 infectivity and/or severity, by ‘D’.
Additionally, Biobank-study ‘D’ data (all over 10-years-old),[54-56] showed positive associations before adjustment. Comorbidities adjusted for, are impacted by vitamin D levels, making evaluation complex. EPIC vitamin D data had no date-limits.
Latitudinal, COVID-19 seasonality, and wider, studies, including of polymorphisms, grow in number; including those referencing historic pandemics and influenzas: Juzeniene is a stand-out. Latitudinal studies[63, 64] are helpful, but limited by availability of current accurate population ‘D’ data.
An in-vitro study, observes; “Vitamin D, calcitriol, exhibits significant potent activity against SARS-CoV-2.”
Numerous studies, explain vitamin D’s central genetic evolutionary,[67, 68] and wider role, in immune modulation, through multiple various and diverse  pathways, including via peroxisomes and mitochondria. More generally, studies link low ‘D’ with negative wider health effects including increased mortality.
Early 2020 hypotheses linking COVID-19 infectivity / severity, to vitamin D, include; Grant, Brown, and Davies. Helpful summaries include Benskin.
The urgent need for major studies, has been raised in several BMJ Rapid Responses.[76-82]
Collectively, studies strongly suggest essential prohormone-and-nutrient vitamin D, is a far more effective potential basal COVID-19 treatment, than any additive pharmaceutical available to date. Pharmaceuticals and vaccines are ultimately appreciated adjuncts, to meeting essential evolutionary biological nutrient intake imperatives.
Immediately testing of all COVID-19 hospital patient admissions for vitamin D, and supplementing where necessary, according to established NICE guidelines, would provide time for new protocol, RCT-clinical-trials.
Thus, there is every reason to ‘D’ test hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Arguably, not to do so, in light of study outcomes to date, risks negligence. Judges, if asked, may take a broad-view in weighing evidence.
Since late January 2020, a loose group, have requested major clinical studies of sufficient power, including in care-homes, and hospitals. I thank Cooper, Grant, Grimes, Lahore, Pfleger, Rhein, Shotwell, Sarkar, and others, for sharing.
However, high-level drive and funding, have been lacking, exacerbated by the Wellcome-Gates-Accelerator exclusion from funding of ‘D’. Consequentially, research establishments excluded ‘D’ trials, focusing instead on repurposing, and new drugs, including in care-home settings. ‘D’ studies would reduce the study patient pool: further, successful ‘D’ outcomes may reduce funding for long-shot studies.
‘D’ is a non-patentable product family, produced by evolution, for which humans can garner no credit, with limited financial drivers to satisfy eternal human-yearning for golden but elusive bonanzas......
Indexed for The BMJ by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on July 18, 2021 at 9:20 AM||comments ()|
Here, we summarized the available evidence suggesting the potential role of vitamin B6 in suppressing the severity of COVID-19 possibly through ameliorating complications of chronic diseases such as hypertension, CVD, and diabetes. Clinical studies in COVID-19 patients are urgently needed to confirm these possibilities. In spite of the lungs being a primary target organ for SARS-CoV2 infection, information regarding the role of nutrition in lung health is very limited.
Considering the emergence of new viruses, nutrition studies on the lungs, a primary target of airborne viral infections, should be performed. Severe vitamin B6 deficiency is relatively uncommon, but some individuals might have marginal vitamin B6 deficiency. Vitamin B6 can be easily available as a dietary supplement with low cost and health risk. Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin B6 supplementation may be useful for COVID-19 patients with low vitamin B6 status.
Indexed for Frontiers by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on July 10, 2021 at 10:15 AM||comments ()|
|Posted on June 30, 2021 at 9:10 AM||comments ()|
|Posted on June 22, 2021 at 7:55 AM||comments ()|
Background: Telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) levels have emerged as possible predictors of cognitive decline and dementia.
Objective: To assess the: 1) effects of two 12-week relaxation programs on TL, TA, and Aβ levels in adults with subjective cognitive decline; and 2) relationship of biomarker changes to those in cognitive function, psychosocial status, and quality of life (QOL).
Methods: Participants were randomized to a 12-week Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) or music listening (ML) program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day. Plasma Aβ(38/40/42) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell TL and TA were measured at baseline and 3 months. Cognition, stress, sleep, mood, and QOL were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
Results: Baseline blood samples were available for 53 participants (25 KK, 28 ML). The KK group showed significantly greater increases in Aβ40 than the ML group. TA rose in both groups, although increases were significant only among those with higher practice adherence and lower baseline TA. Changes in both TL and TA varied by their baseline values, with greater increases among participants with values ≤50th percentile (ps-interaction <0.006). Both groups improved in cognitive and psychosocial status (ps ≤0.05), with improvements in stress, mood, and QOL greater in the KK group. Rising Aβ levels were correlated with gains in cognitive function, mood, sleep, and QOL at both 3 and 6 months, associations that were particularly pronounced in the KK group. Increases in TL and TA were also correlated with improvements in certain cognitive and psychosocial measures.
Conclusion: Practice of simple mind-body therapies may alter plasma Aβ levels, TL, and TA. Biomarker increases were associated with improvements in cognitive function, sleep, mood, and QOL, suggesting potential functional relationships.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; memory complaints; mind-body therapy; mood; plasma amyloid-β; quality of life; sleep; subjective cognitive impairment; telomerase; telomeres.
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on June 20, 2021 at 10:20 AM||comments ()|
|Posted on June 16, 2021 at 12:25 AM||comments ()|
Complex intracellular inclusions in the brain of a child with a stealth virus encephalopathy.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 01 Jun 2003, 74(3):197-209
DOI: 10.1016/s0014-4800(03)00038-8 PMID: 12782006
Unusual pigmented intracellular inclusions are commonly seen in cultures obtained from patients infected with stealth viruses. Some of these structures may potentially provide a source of chemical energy for the infected cells to help compensate for the apparent damage to the cells' mitochondria. They have accordingly been termed alternative cellular energy pigments (ACE pigments). In keeping with this suggestion, the present paper illustrates the diversity of extraneous materials present in vacuolated, mitochondria-damaged cells seen in the brain biopsy of a child with a stealth-virus-associated encephalopathy. Many of the intracellular inclusions show highly ordered structuring, while others have a more amorphous appearance. These structures may provide a target for energy-based therapeutic intervention in stealth-virus-infected patients.
|Posted on June 14, 2021 at 12:00 AM||comments ()|
Several observations made during the course of studies on stealth-adapted viruses are explainable by a pervasive, energy-rich, ether environment. Activation of an alternative cellular energy (ACE) pathway provides stealth virus damaged cells with a repair mechanism that is independent of the cellular immune response. ACE activation can also assist in the systemic healing of infections caused by conventional viruses such as Herpes simplex virus, Herpes zoster virus and human papillomavirus. ACE pigments convert conventional forms of physical energies into a biological cell healing energy, the nature of which is still uncertain.
More recent studies suggest that ACE pigments may also capture etheric energy. In addition to cellular repair, ACE pigment activation can lead to the biogenesis of lipid-like chemical structures. ACE pigment and virus culture healing activities were also seen with several natural products, including a homeopathic formulation. A colloidal silver solution appeared to facilitate the transmission of ACE and to enhance its biosynthetic activity. These results open a window into a greater understanding of a fundamental force of nature of potential therapeutic importance.
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on June 13, 2021 at 11:40 AM||comments ()|
For scientists attempting to understand how the building blocks of RNA originated on Earth, guanine has proven to be a particular challenge. By adding UV light to a model prebiotic reaction, researchers have discovered a route by which guanine could have been formed.
|Posted on June 13, 2021 at 11:30 AM||comments ()|
HHS Public Access
Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: “The Cure That Time Forgot”?
Michael R. Hamblin
Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, UBI use declined and it has now been called “the cure that time forgot”. Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers and in other Eastern countries and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial.
This chapter discusses the potential of UBI as an alternative approach to current methods used to treat infections, as an immune-modulating therapy and as a method for normalizing blood parameters. No resistance of microorganisms to UV irradiation has been reported, and multi- antibiotic resistant strains are as susceptible as their wild-type counterparts. Low and mild doses of UV kill microorganisms by damaging the DNA, while any DNA damage in host cells can be rapidly repaired by DNA repair enzymes. However the use of UBI to treat septicemia cannot be solely due to UV-mediated killing of bacteria in the blood-stream, as only 5–7% of blood volume needs to be treated with UV to produce the optimum benefit. UBI may enhance the phagocytic capacity of various phagocytic cells (neutrophils and dendritic cells), inhibit lymphocytes, and oxidize blood lipids. The oxidative nature of UBI may have mechanisms in common with ozone therapy and other oxygen therapies. There may be some similarities to extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) using psoralens and UVA irradiation. However there are differences between UBI and ECP in that UBI tends to stimulate the immune system, while ECP tends to be immunosuppressive. With the recent emergence of bacteria that are resistant to all known antibiotics, UBI should be more investigated as an alternative approach to infections, and as an immune-modulating therapy.
Keywords: Ultraviolet C, Knott hemo-irradiator, UBI, DNA repair, Blood cells, Antigen-presenting cells, Infections, Cytokines......
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