|Posted on April 10, 2021 at 7:40 AM||comments (0)|
The Paleo diet is a fad that claims to be based on what the human body was designed to eat—a pre-agriculture mix including meats, roots, fruits, vegetables and nuts. While it has its plusses and minuses, the big fault is that we really don’t know what the original paleo diet, which humans ate between 2.6 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago, looked like. Colin Barras at New Scientist reports that the “caveman” fascination with meat is often overemphasized because the bones of butchered animals tend to last a long time, while other materials have disintegrated.
But researchers at the Gesher Benot Ya’aqov archaeological site on Lake Hula in northern Israel have found a camp used by human ancestors which includes a whole menu of the plant-based foods that they would have sampled. The site, reports Barras, was likely inhabited by Homo erectus or a closely related human species and includes the remains of at least 55 edible plant species, including nuts, fruit seeds, roots, tubers, leaves and stems.
|Posted on April 8, 2021 at 1:45 PM||comments (0)|
Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.
Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid that contributes to the waxy coats on apples, other fruits, and many herbs, including some folkloric herbal medicines for diabetes –. We recently identified ursolic acid in a screen for small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy . In that study, we determined the effects of fasting and spinal cord injury on skeletal muscle mRNA levels in humans, and used that information to generate unbiased mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. We then used these signatures to query the Connectivity Map  for compounds whose expression signatures negatively correlated with the signatures of human muscle atrophy. Out of >1300 compounds in the Connectivity Map, ursolic acid emerged as the most likely inhibitor of muscle atrophy.
To test the hypothesis that ursolic acid might inhibit muscle atrophy, we studied mice that had been fasted or undergone surgical muscle denervation, and found that ursolic acid reduced muscle atrophy . We then investigated ursolic acid's effect in the absence of an atrophy stimulus by adding ursolic acid to standard mouse chow for 5 weeks. In that setting, ursolic acid induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy . Since the protein kinase Akt (also known as PKB) inhibits muscle atrophy and promotes muscle hypertrophy –, we examined ursolic acid's effect on Akt. We found that ursolic acid increased Akt activity in mouse skeletal muscle and in cultured C2C12 skeletal myotubes . In myotubes, ursolic acid increased Akt activity at least in part by enhancing ligand-dependent activation of the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor.
In addition to causing muscle hypertrophy, genetic interventions that activate Akt specifically in skeletal muscle also increase energy expenditure, reduce adiposity and blood glucose, and impart resistance to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease , . Similarly, we found that ursolic acid reduced adiposity and blood glucose in non-obese mice , and others found that ursolic acid reduces total body weight, white fat, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in high fat-fed mice , . Based on these considerations, we hypothesized that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, leading to muscle hypertrophy, increased energy expenditure and thus, reduced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis, and found that ursolic acid increases not only skeletal muscle, but also another tissue that opposes diet-induced obesity, brown fat.........
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The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa, against N-diethylnitrosamine: initiated and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis
|Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:55 AM||comments (0)|
. 2021 Mar;7(3):e06515. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06515. Epub 2021 Mar 14.
Evaluation of flavonoids as 2019-nCoV cell entry inhibitor through molecular docking and pharmacological analysis
Deep Bhowmik 1, Rajat Nandi 1, Amresh Prakash 2, Diwakar Kumar 1
The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is being rapidly spread by the extremely spreadable and pathogenic 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as SARS-CoV-2. Pandemic incidence of COVID-19 has created a severe threat to global public health, necessitating the development of effective drugs or inhibitors or therapeutics agents against SARS-CoV-2. Spike protein (S) of the SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in entering viruses into the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), and this specific interaction represents a promising drug target for the identification of potential drugs. This study aimed at the receptor-binding domain of S protein (RBD of nCoV-SP) and the ACE-2 receptor as a promising target for developing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Over 100 different flavonoids with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties from different literatures were taken as a ligand or inhibitor for molecular docking against target protein RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2 using PyRX and iGEMDOCK. Top flavonoids based on docking scores were selected for the pharmacokinetic study. Selected flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin, ECGC, and quercetin) showed excellent pharmacokinetics with proper absorption, solubility, permeability, distribution, metabolism, minimal toxicity, and excellent bioavailability. Molecular dynamics simulation studies up to 100 ns exhibited strong binding affinity of selected flavonoids to RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2, and the protein-ligand complexes were structurally stable........
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Green tea is a natural source of polyphenols where their catechins and flavonols are the major components. Their antioxidant activities are the most important biological effect and often the object of study. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) radical assay has been carried out to measure the individual scavenging activities expressed as percentage of DPPH inhibition for each tea polyphenol, and (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) (74.04 ± 0.38 %) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (69.51 ± 0.27 %) were the most active compounds. Synergistic, antagonistic and additive interactions among catechin derivatives as well as combined with green tea extract have been analyzed, where GCG and EGCG provided most of the synergistic effects. Flavonols such as quercetin (54.61 ± 0.21 %) and kaempferol (24.06 ± 0.02 %) also showed free radicals’ scavenging activity. Interactions between flavonols and individual catechins as well as their mixtures in the tea extract have been investigated. The results suggested that the presence of tea flavonols in tea extract provided additive interactions and the tea catechins were responsible for synergism in green tea. This work can be the starting point of the research about supplemented green tea from its own catechins to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the green tea.
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|Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:40 AM||comments (0)|
Dietary Polyphenols and Their Effects on Cell Biochemistry and Pathophysiology 2014
Review Article | Open Access
Volume 2015 |Article ID 181260 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/181260
Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Effects of (−)-Epicatechin and Other Polyphenols in Cancer, , Diabetes, and Neurodegeneration
Joseph Shay,1,2 Hosam A. Elbaz,1,3 Icksoo Lee,4 Steven P. Zielske,3 Moh H. Malek,5,6 and Maik Hüttemann 1,2,6
Academic Editor: Cristina Angeloni
09 Jun 2015
With recent insight into the mechanisms involved in diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes, more efficient modes of treatment are now being assessed. Traditional medicine including the use of natural products is widely practiced around the world, assuming that certain natural products contain the healing properties that may in fact have a preventative role in many of the diseases plaguing the human population. This paper reviews the biological effects of a group of natural compounds called polyphenols, including apigenin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, and (−)-epicatechin, with a focus on the latter. (−)-Epicatechin has several unique features responsible for a variety of its effects. One of these is its ability to interact with and neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. (−)-Epicatechin also modulates cell signaling including the MAP kinase pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation. Mutations in this pathway are often associated with malignancies, and the use of (−)-epicatechin holds promise as a preventative agent and as an adjunct for chemotherapy and radiation therapy to improve outcome. This paper discusses the potential of some phenolic compounds to maintain, protect, and possibly reinstate health.
Dedicated to Dr. Manfred Holz
1. Introduction: Structural Characteristics of Polyphenols
Polyphenols belong to a ubiquitous family of naturally occurring compounds that encompass several other classes of compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids consist of several groups of compounds called anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonones, flavones, and isoflavones. These compounds are polyphenols due to the presence of multiple phenolic units in their chemical structure. Thus, phenolic compounds share structural features including an aromatic or a phenolic ring. Polyphenol compounds are most abundant in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Fruits such as apples, grapes, pears, cherries, and berries contain 200–300 mg of polyphenols per 100 grams . (−)-Epicatechin, the focus of this review article, belongs to the group of flavanols. It is most commonly found as a natural product in cacao and cacao products, such as dark chocolate, and in green tea.
2. Biological Functions
Polyphenols have various important biological properties in both plants and animals that can be divided into two main categories, with antioxidant and nonantioxidant function. These functions are discussed throughout this paper. Regarding antioxidant action, it is noteworthy that polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet with a total daily intake as high as 1 gram, exceeding the intake of vitamin C by about 10-fold and that of vitamin E and carotenoids by about 100-fold . Given the large number of studies showing beneficial effects with vitamin antioxidants, similar or better effects might be expected for polyphenols. Antioxidants, in general, have been intensely studied due to the high prevalence of oxidative stress found in numerous disease states, including Alzheimer’s disease, muscular dystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and aging. For example, in a randomized clinical trial for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients were treated for 16 weeks with vitamin E (α-tocopherol/E) 800 IU daily, 500 mg of vitamin C daily, 900 mg of α-lipoic acid (ALA) daily, and 400 mg of coenzyme Q (CoQ) three times daily or placebo . The study showed, following E/C/ALA treatment only, a 19% decrease in F2-isoprostanes, which are cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD , suggesting the potential application of antioxidant treatment in patients with AD. Oxidative stress has also been found to play a pivotal role in the development of complications due to diabetes, such as cardiovascular and microvascular disease. Following treatment of diabetic mice with vitamins C, E, and β-carotene for 8 weeks Mekinová et al.  observed reductions of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, used to determine oxidative stress status), glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). These examples all argue for the potential use of ROS scavengers including natural compounds with such activities in certain diseases where the redox balance and ROS load are not any longer under control, a research direction that should be pursued with polyphenol compounds in the future.
There are numerous nonantioxidant functions of polyphenols with select examples discussed later in this paper. These include effects on estrogen receptor activity, cell signaling cascades, and cell cycle control in mammalian cells. Since polyphenols are plant-derived compounds, it is not surprising that they play important roles in plant physiology. As an example related to plant signaling, flavonoids were found to greatly affect the growth pattern of Malus x domestica, the apple tree . The authors found, following RNAi silencing of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS), which is responsible for flavonoid synthesis in apples, a loss in skin and leaf pigmentation and a reduction in size, with smaller leaves and shortened internode lengths . This suggests that flavonoid production is important for the integrity and morphology of apples. Polyphenols also have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is thought to be a primary function of polyphenols in mammals and therefore they are typically referred to as antioxidants.
3. Beneficial Health Effects of Selected Flavonoid Compounds
In this section we will briefly summarize the cellular and organismal effects of the selected flavonoids epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, apigenin, and (−)-epicatechin, the latter of which will be discussed in more detail.............
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|Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:35 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on April 8, 2021 at 8:00 AM||comments (0)|
Effects of (−)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation
Gabriela Gutierrez-Salmean, Theodore P. Ciaraldi, [...], and Israel Ramirez-Sanchez
Additional article information
Sarcopenia is a notable and debilitating age-associated condition. Flavonoids are known for their healthy effects and limited toxicity. The flavanol (−)-epicatechin (Epi) enhances exercise capacity in mice and Epi-rich cocoa improves skeletal muscle structure in heart failure patients. (−)-Epicatechin may thus, hold promise as treatment for sarcopenia.
We examined changes in protein levels of molecular modulators of growth and differentiation in young vs. old, human and mouse skeletal muscle. We report the effects of Epi in mice and the results of an initial proof-of-concept trial in humans, where muscle strength and levels of modulators of muscle growth were measured. In mice, myostatin and senescence-associated β-galactosidase levels increase with aging, while those of follistatin and Myf5 decrease. (−)-Epicatechin decreases myostatin and β-galactosidase and increases levels of markers of muscle growth. In humans, myostatin and β-galactosidase increase with aging while follistatin, MyoD and myogenin decrease. Treatment for 7 days with (−)-epicatechin increases hand grip strength and the ratio of plasma follistatin/myostatin.
In conclusion, aging has deleterious effects on modulators of muscle growth/differentiation, the consumption of modest amounts of the flavanol (−)-epicatechin can partially reverse these changes. This flavanol warrants its comprehensive evaluation for the treatment of sarcopenia
Keywords: Epicatechin, sarcopenia, flavanoids........ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857584/ ;
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|Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:50 AM||comments (0)|
People who had elevated blood levels of a toxic chemical called perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) had an increased risk of a more severe course of COVID-19 than those who did not have elevated levels, according to a new study led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. PFBA is part of a class of man-made chemicals known as perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs), which have previously been shown to suppress immune function.
The study, published Dec. 31, 2020 in PLOS ONE, was led by Philippe Grandjean, adjunct professor of environmental health.
PFASs have water- and grease-resistant properties and are used in a wide variety of products, including nonstick cookware, waterproof clothing, food packaging, and firefighting foams. PFBA, more than other PFASs, is known to accumulate in the lungs, according to the study.
Researchers looked at PFAS levels in blood samples from 323 Danish individuals infected with the coronavirus. They found that those with higher PFBA levels had higher odds of being hospitalized, winding up in intensive care, and dying than those with lower levels.
The findings suggest that further study is needed to determine whether elevated exposures to other environmental immunotoxicants may worsen COVID-19 outcomes, the authors wrote........
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|Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:45 AM||comments (0)|
Endotoxemia and circulating bacteriome in severe COVID-19 patients
Phatadon Sirivongrangson, Win Kulvichit, […]Nattachai Srisawat
Intensive Care Medicine Experimental volume 8, Article number: 72 (2020) Cite this article
When severe, COVID-19 shares many clinical features with bacterial sepsis. Yet, secondary bacterial infection is uncommon. However, as epithelium is injured and barrier function is lost, bacterial products entering the circulation might contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19.
We studied 19 adults, severely ill patients with COVID-19 infection, who were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, between 13th March and 17th April 2020. Blood samples on days 1, 3, and 7 of enrollment were analyzed for endotoxin activity assay (EAA), (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan (BG), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the circulating bacteriome.
Of the 19 patients, 13 were in intensive care and 10 patients received mechanical ventilation. We found 8 patients with high EAA (≥ 0.6) and about half of the patients had high serum BG levels which tended to be higher in later in the illness. Although only 1 patient had a positive blood culture, 18 of 19 patients were positive for 16S rRNA gene amplification. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum. The diversity of bacterial genera was decreased overtime.
Bacterial DNA and toxins were discovered in virtually all severely ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients. This raises a previously unrecognized concern for significant contribution of bacterial products in the pathogenesis of this disease........... https://icm-experimental.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40635-020-00362-8
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|Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:25 AM||comments (0)|
. 2010 Jan;110(1):112-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.10.009.
Can living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex be a risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease?
Clarice Umbelino de Freitas 1, Rosária A Grimaldi Campos, Mirta Alcira F Rodrigues Silva, Maria Rosana I Panachão, Jose Cássio de Moraes, William Waissmann, Antônio Roberto Chacra, Marina Y S Maeda, Regina S Minazzi Rodrigues, James Gonçalves Belchor, Sonia Oliveira Barbosa, Raimunda Telma M Santos
Background: Based on a suspicion raised by a health professional and due to a subsequent legal request, a cross-sectional study was made with a comparison group to investigate a possible excess of Hashimoto's thyroiditis-HT and antibodies-ATA in the surroundings of a Petrochemical Complex.
Methods: People of both sexes aged over 20 years were investigated in a random sample of residents in the area surrounding the Petrochemical Complex. Controls were investigated in an area with steel industries. In the areas searched, participants were chosen randomly and stratified a priori by sex and age group. As a result, 90.5% of the expected sample was obtained, totaling 1533 individuals. HT and ATA prevalences were compared by the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to control the possible confounding factors for HT and ATA.
Results: Both TH (9.3%) and ATA (17.6%) prevalences were higher in the Petrochemical Complex area than in the control area (3.9% and 10.3%, respectively). After controlling the possible confounding factors, the POR for living in the surroundings of the Complex and presenting HT was 2.39 (CI95%: 1.42-4.03). According to the ATA criterion, the POR for living in the surroundings of the Complex was 1.78 (CI95%: 1.23-2.60).
Conclusions: The authors have found higher prevalence and risk of developing thyroiditis and anti-thyroid antibodies among residents of areas surrounding the Petrochemical Complex and think these findings need to be further studied in similar areas.
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|Posted on March 31, 2021 at 7:40 AM||comments (0)|
Hayate Javed1*, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran2, Niraj Kumar Jha3 and Shreesh Ojha2*
1Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
3Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology (SET), Sharda University, Knowledge Park III, Greater Noida, India
The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019, resulting in the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are solely accountable for rising mortality and socioeconomic saddles. Presently, there are few repurposed drugs such as remdesivir or favipiravir approved for the treatment of COVID-19, although vaccines and plasma therapy is also subject to emergency approval. However, some potential natural treatments and cures have also been proposed. Molecules of natural origin showed therapeutic importance such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, and could be useful drug candidates for treating COVID-19. In recent years, essential oils have shown promising therapeutic effects against many viral diseases. Carvacrol is one of the monoterpene phenol with abundant presence in essential oils of many aromatic plants, including thyme and oregano. It is being used as food flavoring, additive, and preservatives. Carvacrol is also used as a fragrance in cosmetic products. A number of research studies have shown biological actions of carvacrol with its therapeutic potential is of clinical significance. The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown multiple pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective, and spasmolytic. This review highlights the various biological and pharmacological properties of carvacrol within the scope of COVID-19............ https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.601335/full
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|Posted on March 29, 2021 at 12:35 AM||comments (0)|
First Published December 3, 2020 Review Article
|Posted on March 29, 2021 at 12:20 AM||comments (0)|
Targeting Lipid Rafts—A Potential Therapy for COVID-19
Dmitri Sviridov1,2*, Yury I. Miller3, Rami A. Ballout4, Alan T. Remaley4 and Michael Bukrinsky5
1Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia
3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
4Lipoprotein Metabolism Section, Translational Vascular Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States
5Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States
COVID-19 is a global pandemic currently in an acute phase of rapid expansion. While public health measures remain the most effective protection strategy at this stage, when the peak passes, it will leave in its wake important health problems. Historically, very few viruses have ever been eradicated. Instead, the virus may persist in communities causing recurrent local outbreaks of the acute infection as well as several chronic diseases that may arise from the presence of a “suppressed” virus or as a consequence of the initial exposure. An ideal solution would be an anti-viral medication that (i) targets multiple stages of the viral lifecycle, (ii) is insensitive to frequent changes of viral phenotype due to mutagenesis, (iii) has broad spectrum, (iv) is safe and (v) also targets co-morbidities of the infection. In this Perspective we discuss a therapeutic approach that owns these attributes, namely “lipid raft therapy.” Lipid raft therapy is an approach aimed at reducing the abundance and structural modifications of host lipid rafts or at targeted delivery of therapeutics to the rafts. Lipid rafts are the sites of the initial binding, activation, internalization and cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2. They also are key regulators of immune and inflammatory responses, dysregulation of which is characteristic to COVID-19 infection. Lipid raft therapy was successful in targeting many viral infections and inflammatory disorders, and can potentially be highly effective for treatment of COVID-19. ........
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|Posted on March 29, 2021 at 12:05 AM||comments (0)|
Why a combination of Zn and black seed could be a natural alternative for COVID-19 treatment
|Posted on March 28, 2021 at 9:20 AM||comments (0)|
Why should we drink ionized alkaline water?
|Posted on March 24, 2021 at 12:15 AM||comments (0)|
Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.
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