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Oxidative Stress Associated with SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19). - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on July 24, 2021 at 11:45 AM Comments comments ()


1Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, El-Oued University, Algeria


2Laboratory of Biodiversity and Application of Biotechnology in the Agricultural Field, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of El Oued, Algeria


COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of developing inflammatory responses associated with serious and even fatal respiratory diseases. This review focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and COVID-19. Coronaviruses are a family of common RNA viruses that can cause serious lower respiratory tract infections, followed by bronchitis and pneumonia. Pulmonary inflammation, fever and fibrosis are symptoms of COVID-19 mediated by cytokine pro-inflammatory.

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Oxidative stress affect repair mechanisms and the immune control system, which is one of the main events of the inflammatory response which allows us also to conclude that oxidative stress is a major factor increasing the severity of COVID-19 especially during chronic diseases associated with the fragility of the antioxidant system, suggesting to recommend antioxidants supplementation in therapeutic strategies against COVID-19....

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AYUSH medicine as add-on therapy for mild category COVID-19; an open label randomised, controlled clinical trial. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on July 21, 2021 at 6:05 AM Comments comments ()


Background AYUSH formulations have a potential role in symptomatic treatment, preventing disease progression and improving quality of life in COVID-19 patients.

Objective To study the effect of AYUSH formulation (Kabasura Kudineer tablets, Shakti drops and Turmeric plus) as an add-on treatment in patients with mild COVID - 19

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Methodology Single centre, two arms, open labelled randomized controlled trial with a total of 30 patients (15 in the intervention arm and 15 in the standard care arm). Intervention arm received a combination of 3 AYUSH formulation along with the standard of care treatment for 21 days. All patients were followed for 28 days. Symptom severity (using Modified Jackson scale), negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA (using RTPCR) and quality of life (WHOWOL BREF questionnaire) was assessed.

Results Fifteen patients (93.8%) in the intervention group and twelve patients (92.3%) in the standard care arm had complete resolution of symptoms (P value= 0.36). Negative conversion for SARS-CoV-2 was seen in thirteen patients (92.9%) in intervention arm and eleven patients (100%) in standard care arm at day 28 (P value = 0.56). There was no difference in the quality of life scores between the 2 groups.

Conclusion The use of Ayush interventions as add-on therapy did not negatively impact the clinical outcomes in COVID-19. This trial confirmed the safety and tolerability of Kabasura Kudineer tablets, Shakti drops and Turmeric plus tablets when used use among mild to moderate symptom category, of COVID-19. There were no serious adverse events in the treated group. There was no clinical progression of disease from baseline status and all trial participants recovered fully by day 28. A longer follow up and a larger sample size is recommended for future definitive trials with this alternative medicine (AYUSH) combination.

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Association between fatality rate of COVID-19 and selenium deficiency in China. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on July 21, 2021 at 5:55 AM Comments comments ()


COVID-19 has impacted populations around the world, with the fatality rate varying dramatically across countries. Selenium, as one of the important micronutrients implicated in viral infections, was suggested to play roles.



An ecological study was performed to assess the association between the COVID-19 related fatality and the selenium content both from crops and topsoil, in China.

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Totally, 14,045 COVID-19 cases were reported from 147 cities during 8 December 2019–13 December 2020 were included. Based on selenium content in crops, the case fatality rates (CFRs) gradually increased from 1.17% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.28% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 3.16% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P = 0.002). Based on selenium content in topsoil, the CFRs gradually increased from 0.76% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.70% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 1.85% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P < 0.001). The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model showed a significantly higher fatality risk in cities with severe-selenium-deficient selenium content in crops than non-selenium-deficient cities, with incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 3.88 (95% CIs: 1.21–12.52), which was further confirmed by regression fitting the association between CFR of COVID-19 and selenium content in topsoil, with the IRR of 2.38 (95% CIs: 1.14–4.98) for moderate-selenium-deficient cities and 3.06 (1.49–6.27) for severe-selenium-deficient cities.



Regional selenium deficiency might be related to an increased CFR of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to explore the associations between selenium status and disease outcome at individual-level.

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COVID-19 and Fast Foods Consumption: a Review. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on July 19, 2021 at 7:55 AM Comments comments ()


COVID-19 and Fast Foods Consumption: a Review

Jalal BohlouliORCID Icon,Amir Reza MoravejolahkamiORCID Icon,Marjan Ganjali DashtiORCID Icon,Zakiyeh Balouch ZehiORCID Icon,Mohammad Ali Hojjati KermaniORCID Icon,Mohammad Borzoo-IsfahaniORCID Icon & show all

Pages 203-209 | Received 10 Aug 2020, Accepted 04 Jan 2021, Published online: 21 Jan 2021



 Bigher adherence to refined carbohydrate diets, sweets, and saturated fats contributes to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes; these disorders increase the risk for severe COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Fast food consumption activates the intrinsic immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defence against viruses. Furthermore, inflammatory responses caused by COVID-19 may have long-term costs in survived individuals, leading to chronic disorders such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that are related to an unhealthy diet.

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Therefore, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a main concern and individuals should be aware of healthy eating habits to reduce COVID-19 complications........

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Vitamin B12 does not originate from animals, fact checking the fact checkers. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on July 17, 2021 at 11:50 AM Comments comments ()


Microbial production of vitamin B12

J H Martens et al


One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined....

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Our data reveal that BMS-986094 and different forms of vitamin B12 are effective at inhibiting replication of all these variants of SARS-CoV-2.

Posted on July 17, 2021 at 11:50 AM Comments comments ()

Jose M. Jimenez-Guardeño, Ana Maria Ortega-Prieto, Borja Menendez Moreno, Thomas J.A. Maguire, Juan Ignacio Diaz-Hernandez, Javier Diez Perez, Mark Zuckerman, Albert Mercadal Playa, Carlos Cordero Deline, Michael H. Malim, Rocio T Martinez-Nunez

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.25.449609



The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the need to identify new therapeutics at pace, including through drug repurposing. We employed a Quadratic Unbounded Binary Optimization (QUBO) model, to search for compounds similar to Remdesivir (RDV), the only antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 currently approved for human use, using a quantum-inspired device. We modelled RDV and compounds present in the DrugBank database as graphs, established the optimal parameters in our algorithm and resolved the Maximum Weighted Independent Set problem within the conflict graph generated. We also employed a traditional Tanimoto fingerprint model. The two methods yielded different lists of compounds, with some overlap. While GS-6620 was the top compound predicted by both models, the QUBO model predicted BMS-986094 as second best. The Tanimoto model predicted different forms of cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12. We then determined the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in cell culture models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and assessed cytotoxicity. Lastly, we demonstrated efficacy against several variants including SARS-CoV-2 Strain England 2 (England 02/2020/407073), B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta) and B.1.617.2 (Delta). Our data reveal that BMS-986094 and different forms of vitamin B12 are effective at inhibiting replication of all these variants of SARS-CoV-2. While BMS-986094 can cause secondary effects in humans as established by phase II trials, these findings suggest that vitamin B12 deserves consideration as a SARS-CoV-2 antiviral, particularly given its extended use and lack of toxicity in humans, and its availability and affordability. Our screening method can be employed in future searches for novel pharmacologic inhibitors, thus providing an approach for accelerating drug deployment...


Vitamin B12 supplementation improves rates of sustained viral response in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus

Posted on July 17, 2021 at 11:40 AM Comments comments ()


Background: In vitro, vitamin B12 acts as a natural inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication.


Objective: To assess the effect of vitamin B12 on virological response in patients with chronic HCV hepatitis naïve to antiviral therapy.


Methods: Ninety-four patients with chronic HCV hepatitis were randomly assigned to receive pegylated interferon α plus ribavirin (standard-of-care; SOC) or SOC plus vitamin B12 (SOC+B12). Viral response-namely, undetectable serum HCV-RNA, was evaluated 4 weeks after starting treatment (rapid viral response), 12 weeks after starting treatment (complete early viral response) and 24 or 48 weeks after starting treatment (end-of-treatment viral response) and 24 weeks after completing treatment (sustained viral response (SVR)). Genotyping for the interleukin (IL)-28B polymorphism was performed a posteriori in a subset (42/64) of HCV genotype 1 carriers.


Results: Overall, rapid viral response did not differ between the two groups, whereas the rates of complete early viral response (p=0.03), end-of-treatment viral response (p=0.03) and SVR (p=0.001) were significantly higher in SOC+B12 patients than in SOC patients. In SOC+B12 patients, the SVR rate was also significantly higher in carriers of a difficult-to-treat genotype (p=0.002) and in patients with a high baseline viral load (p=0.002). Distribution of genotype IL-28B did not differ between the two groups. At multivariate analysis, only easy-to-treat HCV genotypes (OR=9.00; 95% CI 2.5 to 37.5; p=0.001) and vitamin B12 supplementation (OR=6.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 23.6; p=0.002) were independently associated with SVR.


Conclusion: Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly improves SVR rates in HCV-infected patients naïve to antiviral therapy.

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These findings support the concepts that stealth viruses can account for a spectrum of dysfunctional brain diseases. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on June 15, 2021 at 11:30 AM Comments comments ()


A cytopathic 'stealth' virus was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with a bipolar psychotic disorder who developed a severe encephalopathy leading to a vegetative state. DNA sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction-amplified product from infected cultures has identified the virus as an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV)-related stealth virus. The virus is similar to the SCMV-related stealth virus isolated from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome. The findings support the concepts that stealth viruses can account for a spectrum of dysfunctional brain diseases and that some of these viruses may have arisen from live polio viral vaccines.

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Results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on May 18, 2021 at 6:50 AM Comments comments ()


Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.

Advertisment: Get Chlorella & other whole food supplements at Global Healing Center https://go.globalhealingcenter.com/7VKLy

Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.


Keywords: chlorella; methylmalonic acid; veganism; vegetarian diet; vitamin B12 deficiency 

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With a proper combination of sources, vegetable proteins may provide similar benefits as protein from animal sources. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on May 16, 2021 at 9:05 AM Comments comments ()


Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations.

The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed.

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Key Points: Higher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein consumed from primarily animal sources.With a proper combination of sources, vegetable proteins may provide similar benefits as protein from animal sources.Casein protein supplementation may provide the greatest benefit for increases in protein synthesis for a prolonged duration.


Keywords: Sport supplementation; animal protein; ergogenic aid; vegetable protein

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library/Bright Star Apothecary Complimentary Integrative Alternative Medicine at Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency

Posted on May 16, 2021 at 8:55 AM Comments comments ()


The most important dietary goal for individuals with type I diabetes mellitus is the establishment of a regular meal pattern with consistent day-to-day caloric and carbohydrate intake. Ideally, the diet should contain 55 to 60 per cent of total calories as carbohydrate, less than 30 per cent of calories as fat, less than 10 per cent of calories as saturated fat, and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. The best tool for helping type I individuals achieve these objectives is the Exchange Lists for Meal Planning. A second important dietary goal in type I diabetes is to avoid weight gain during intensive treatment programs. The most important dietary and therapeutic goal in obese persons with type II diabetes is weight loss. Unfortunately, no dietary method, whether initiated by self-help groups like TOPS, physicians, or other health care professionals, has been demonstrated to be effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss. Nevertheless, some individual patients will be successful, and it therefore is appropriate to attempt weight reduction with a balanced diet moderately restricted in calories.

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A reduction of 500 calories per day below the weight maintenance level is reasonable and can be expected to produce weight loss of about 1 lb per week. For those type II diabetic patients who are not able to lose weight and are at least twice their ideal body weight, gastric reduction surgery could be considered. The Glycemic Index of Foods is a new concept that has not been evaluated adequately. Recent evidence suggests that differences among foods are reduced when the foods are combined in a meal and thus raises questions about the utility of glycemic indexing. The longstanding restriction on the use of sucrose in the diabetic diet is without scientific basis. Recognizing this, the American Diabetes Association recently sanctioned consumption of modest amounts of sucrose in the diabetic diet. Although conclusive evidence is not yet available that high fiber diets improve glycemic control or reduce serum lipids in diabetic persons, it appears reasonable to encourage the consumption of natural foods high in soluble fiber. Vegetables (particularly legumes), oats, and many fruits are good sources. The American Diabetes Association recommends a goal of 40 g of soluble fiber intake per day. The dietary treatment of diabetes is likely to be more successful if physicians learn more about its essential features and pay it greater attention. The goals of dietary therapy are difficult to achieve and often require significant sacrifices.

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The association of red meat consumption and mental health in women: A cross-sectional study. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library/Bright Star Apothecary Harm Reduction Initiative Research at Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency

Posted on May 16, 2021 at 8:30 AM Comments comments ()

The association of red meat consumption and mental health in women: A cross-sectional study



Women in highest quartile of red meat had a higher risk of depression compared with those in the lowest quartile.


There was significant positive association between red meat intake and anxiety in women.


Women in highest quartile of red meat had a higher incidence of distress compared with those in the lowest quartile.

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Previous studies have shown that red meat consumption has beneficial effects on health. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between red meat consumption and depression, anxiety and psychological distress in Tehrani women.



In this cross-sectional study, 482 women aged 20-50 years old referred to the health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2018 were selected by multistage cluster sampling. The usual dietary intake was evaluated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire containing 168 items that its validity and reliability were approved previously. The red meat category was defined as the sum of red meats (beef, lamb), and organ meats (beef liver, kidney, and heart, ruminant meat). Psychological disorders were assessed using a validated Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires with 21-items. In the logistic regression analysis, the results were adjusted to the confounding factors.



The mean age of the study participants was 31.87 ± 7.6 years. The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety and psychological distress among participants was 34%, 40% and 42%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, women in the highest quartile of red meat had a highest prevalence of depressive symptoms (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.32–4.76; p = 0.002), anxiety (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.00–3.29; p = 0.034) and stress (OR: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.88–6.42; p < 0.001) compared with those in the lowest quartile.



We found a significant association between red meat intake and mental health in women. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.........

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A small molecule compound berberine as an orally active therapeutic candidate against COVID-19 and SARS: A computational and mechanistic study. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on May 6, 2021 at 6:20 AM Comments comments ()


The novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has grown into a global pandemic and a major public health threat since its breakout in December 2019. To date, no specific therapeutic drug or vaccine for treating COVID-19 and SARS has been FDA approved. Previous studies suggest that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has shown various biological activities that may help against COVID-19 and SARS, including antiviral, anti-allergy and inflammation, hepatoprotection against drug- and infection-induced liver injury, as well as reducing oxidative stress. In particular, berberine has a wide range of antiviral activities such as anti-influenza, anti-hepatitis C, anti-cytomegalovirus, and anti-alphavirus. As an ingredient recommended in guidelines issued by the China National Health Commission for COVID-19 to be combined with other therapy, berberine is a promising orally administered therapeutic candidate against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The current study comprehensively evaluates the potential therapeutic mechanisms of berberine in preventing and treating COVID-19 and SARS using computational modeling, including target mining, gene ontology enrichment, pathway analyses, protein-protein interaction analysis, and in silico molecular docking. An orally available immunotherapeutic-berberine nanomedicine, named NIT-X, has been developed by our group and has shown significantly increased oral bioavailability of berberine, increased IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells, and inhibition of mast cell histamine release in vivo, suggesting a protective immune response. We further validated the inhibition of replication of SARS-CoV-2 in lung epithelial cells line in vitro (Calu3 cells) by berberine.

Moreover, the expression of targets including ACE2, TMPRSS2, IL-1α, IL-8, IL-6, and CCL-2 in SARS-CoV-2 infected Calu3 cells were significantly suppressed by NIT-X. By supporting protective immunity while inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines; inhibiting viral infection and replication; inducing apoptosis; and protecting against tissue damage, berberine is a promising candidate in preventing and treating COVID-19 and SARS. Given the high oral bioavailability and safety of berberine nanomedicine, the current study may lead to the development of berberine as an orally, active therapeutic against COVID-19 and SARS.

Keywords: COVID-19 and SARS; anti-viral; apoptosis; berberine; computational modeling.

© 2021 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

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Overall findings suggest that neither unprocessed red nor processed meat consumption is beneficial for cardiometabolic health. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on May 4, 2021 at 7:30 AM Comments comments ()


Growing evidence suggests that effects of red meat consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes could vary depending on processing. We reviewed the evidence for effects of unprocessed (fresh/frozen) red and processed (using sodium/other preservatives) meat consumption on CHD and diabetes. In meta-analyses of prospective cohorts, higher risk of CHD is seen with processed meat consumption (RR per 50 g: 1.42, 95 %CI = 1.07-1.89), but a smaller increase or no risk is seen with unprocessed meat consumption.

Differences in sodium content (~400 % higher in processed meat) appear to account for about two-thirds of this risk difference. In similar analyses, both unprocessed red and processed meat consumption are associated with incident diabetes, with higher risk per g of processed (RR per 50 g: 1.51, 95 %CI = 1.25-1.83) versus unprocessed (RR per 100 g: 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.37) meats. Contents of heme iron and dietary cholesterol may partly account for these associations. The overall findings suggest that neither unprocessed red nor processed meat consumption is beneficial for cardiometabolic health, and that clinical and public health guidance should especially prioritize reducing processed meat consumption.

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High glucose induces mitochondrial dysfunction independently of protein O-GlcNAcylation. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 29, 2021 at 6:20 AM Comments comments ()


Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycaemia and perturbations in intermediary metabolism. In particular, diabetes can augment flux through accessory pathways of glucose metabolism, such as the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), which produces the sugar donor for the β-O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) post-translational modification of proteins. Diabetes also promotes mitochondrial dysfunction. Nevertheless, the relationships among diabetes, hyperglycaemia, mitochondrial dysfunction and O-GlcNAc modifications remain unclear. In the present study, we tested whether high-induced increases in O-GlcNAc modifications directly regulate mitochondrial function in isolated cardiomyocytes. Augmentation of O-GlcNAcylation with high glucose (33 mM) was associated with diminished basal and maximal cardiomyocyte respiration, a decreased mitochondrial reserve capacity and lower Complex II-dependent respiration (P < 0.05); however, pharmacological or genetic modulation of O-GlcNAc modifications under normal or high glucose conditions showed few significant effects on mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that O-GlcNAc does not play a major role in regulating cardiomyocyte mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an osmotic control recapitulated high-glucose-induced changes to mitochondrial metabolism (P < 0.05) without increasing O-GlcNAcylation. Thus, increased O-GlcNAcylation is neither sufficient nor necessary for high-glucose-induced suppression of mitochondrial metabolism in isolated cardiomyocytes.........

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Higher prices of healthy foods were associated with increased blood sugar/glucose among people with type 2 diabetes. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 29, 2021 at 6:20 AM Comments comments ()

The Association Between Food Prices and the Blood Glucose Level of US Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

Tobenna D. Anekwe, ScD and Ilya Rahkovsky, PhD


Objectives. We estimated the association between the price of healthy and less-healthy food groups and blood sugar among US adults with type 2 diabetes.

Methods. We linked 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey health information to food prices contained in the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database. We regressed blood sugar levels on food prices from the previous calendar quarter, controlling for market region and a range of other covariates. We also examined whether the association between food prices and blood sugar varies among different income groups.

Results. The prices of produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Specifically, higher prices for produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose 3 months later. Food prices had a greater association with blood sugar for low-income people than for higher-income people, and in the expected direction.

Conclusions. Higher prices of healthy foods were associated with increased blood sugar among people with type 2 diabetes. The association was especially pronounced among low-income people with type 2 diabetes.

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Global pandemics interconnected - obesity, impaired metabolic health and COVID-19. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 29, 2021 at 6:15 AM Comments comments ()


Obesity and impaired metabolic health are established risk factors for the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, otherwise known as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). With the worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), obesity and impaired metabolic health also emerged as important determinants of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, novel findings indicate that specifically visceral obesity and characteristics of impaired metabolic health such as hyperglycaemia, hypertension and subclinical inflammation are associated with a high risk of severe COVID-19. In this Review, we highlight how obesity and impaired metabolic health increase complications and mortality in COVID-19. We also summarize the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection for organ function and risk of NCDs. In addition, we discuss data indicating that the COVID-19 pandemic could have serious consequences for the obesity epidemic. As obesity and impaired metabolic health are both accelerators and consequences of severe COVID-19, and might adversely influence the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, we propose strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and impaired metabolic health on a clinical and population level, particularly while the COVID-19 pandemic is present.

Indexed for Nature Reviews Endocrinology 



Key points

Obesity, particularly severe obesity, is a strong and independent determinant of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); novel studies also suggest that visceral obesity increases the risk of complications.


Although diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for severe COVID-19, evidence is increasing that hyperglycaemia in the non-diabetic and diabetic range also strongly predicts severe COVID-19.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) targets organs and tissues that are relevant for cardiometabolic health; SARS-CoV-2-induced organ or tissue dysfunction could result in an increased incidence of cardiometabolic diseases.


Targeted interventions for metabolic pathologies could improve management of COVID-19; the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response should be carefully evaluated in patients with obesity and/or diabetes mellitus because of a potentially reduced response.


Programmes resulting in weight loss and the improvement of metabolic health in people with metabolically unhealthy obesity should be implemented at the patient level and in the public health sector.


Research to understand how diet and nutritional status modify the immune response could help explain some of the variability in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality and improve patient outcomes.