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Antiviral Functional Foods and Exercise Lifestyle Prevention of Coronavirus. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 23, 2021 at 9:30 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract



Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is causing global mortality and lockdown burdens. A compromised immune system is a known risk factor for all viral influenza infections. Functional foods optimize the immune system capacity to prevent and control pathogenic viral infections, while physical activity augments such protective benefits. Exercise enhances innate and adaptive immune systems through acute, transient, and long-term adaptations to physical activity in a dose-response relationship.



Functional foods prevention of non-communicable disease can be translated into protecting against respiratory viral infections and COVID-19. Functional foods and nutraceuticals within popular diets contain immune-boosting nutraceuticals, polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, unsaturated fatty-acids, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate, and trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper.


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Foods with antiviral properties include fruits, vegetables, fermented foods and probiotics, olive oil, fish, nuts and seeds, herbs, roots, fungi, amino acids, peptides, and cyclotides.


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Regular moderate exercise may contribute to reduce viral risk and enhance sleep quality during quarantine, in combination with appropriate dietary habits and functional foods. Lifestyle and appropriate nutrition with functional compounds may offer further antiviral approaches for public health.


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Keywords: COVID-19; exercise; functional food; immune system; lifestyle prevention; viral infection 


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32872374/



Biopiracy in the Philippines: Why a Sui Generis System should be adopted in Philippine Law for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 23, 2021 at 7:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Biopiracy occurs in the Philippines when pharmaceutical firms from
developed nations patent endemic animals and plants whose medical
properties have been harnessed by indigenous people for generations.
Traditional knowledge is exploited by the existing patent system
because of gaps in our legal framework: the ambiguity of the
Intellectual Property Code, the lack of biopiracy laws, poor
implementation of international treaties, and the absence of a system
for documenting indigenous innovations. This paper discusses the
underlying philosophical arguments that justify the patent regime, and
argues that they rest on faulty premises and distorted views of justice.
In particular, it explores three arguments that claim industrial
processes and products are patentable, whereas traditional
knowledge should not qualify for intellectual property protection.
These are the arguments from moral arbitrariness, merit, and the
common good. My aim in this paper is to apply a framework of
entitlement theory and libertarian justice to expose the flawed
reasoning implicit in these claims, and to develop a constructive
framework for protecting traditional knowledge under current global
standards. I conclude by outlining some policy recommendations that
fill in some gaps in Philippine law that constitute the implementation
of a sui generis system for protecting indigenous intellectual property
rights.......

Enrique Benjamin R. Fernando III
April 2020
ISSN: 2546-1885

Stealth Adapted Coronaviruses Resulting From the Use of Covid-19 Vaccines. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 23, 2021 at 6:55 AM Comments comments (0)




Abstract

The continuing emergence of variant forms of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the probable consequence of using the current Covid-19 vaccines. These vaccines do not induce the same immunity as do naturally occurring infections. First, the vaccines are given by intramuscular injections. This is far less effective than natural infection in stimulating the development of virus specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) producing cells and cytotoxic T cells (CTL) within the respiratory mucosa. Virus exposure in a previously vaccinated individual with limited mucosal immunity increases the risk of a persistent, subclinical infection, which will initially be restricted to the superficial mucosa. NIH and CDC officials have alluded to this possibility in advising those who have been vaccinated to continue wearing masks lest they may infect others.


The second major distinction between the Covid-19 vaccines and natural infection is the FDA allowance of using only one component as the antigen, namely the spike protein. Deletion or other modifications of a single targeted component can occur more readily as an immune evasion mechanism than concurrent genetic modifications of multiple antigenic components. Covid-19 vaccine evoked immunity will, therefore, exert a strong immunoselective pressure for major modifications or deletion of the spike protein. With successive additional changes in the few remaining viral components that are normally targeted by cellular immunity, as well as the incorporation of sufficient genetic sequences from cells and other microbes; non-immunogenic, pathogenic viruses will then emerge. These viruses will no longer be immunologically restricted to the respiratory mucosa and will become more widespread within the body. The immune evasion/escape mechanism utilized in this manner is termed stealth adaptation. It was initially identified in the cytomegaloviruses of monkeys used to produce polio vaccines. Not only were these viruses probably involved in causing AIDS, but they can account for the rise in many chronic illnesses, such as autism and the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Until proven otherwise, the neuropsychiatric symptoms of the Long Covid syndrome in previously healthy individuals, are consistent with brain infection with stealth adapted coronaviruses. This illness is, therefore, likely to be infectious, including the possibility of transplacental transmission.


Testing for stealth adapted viruses in these patients is best performed using virus cultures followed by genetic sequencing. Even though cellular immunity fails to effectively suppress stealth adapted viruses, these viruses as well as the conventional viruses from which they are derived, are still susceptible to a non-immunological anti-virus defense mechanism mediated by the alternative cellular energy (ACE) pathway. This pathway is reflected in an added kinetic activity of the body's fluids. The environmental life-force energy for the ACE pathway is called KELEA (Kinetic Energy Limiting Electrostatic Attraction). Water with high levels of KELEA is available for clinical studies. Enhancing the ACE pathway in those who are susceptible to severe Covid-19 illness and in Long Covid syndrome patients is arguably preferable to risking the development of new forms of stealth adapted viruses by using the current Covid-19 vaccines.


Indexed for Wiley Library by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Plant Based Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All Cause Mortality. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 6:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Background


Previous studies have documented the cardiometabolic health benefits of plant‐based diets; however, these studies were conducted in selected study populations that had narrow generalizability.


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Methods and Results

We used data from a community‐based cohort of middle‐aged adults (n=12 168) in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study who were followed up from 1987 through 2016. Participants’ diet was classified using 4 diet indexes. In the overall plant‐based diet index and provegetarian diet index, higher intakes of all or selected plant foods received higher scores; in the healthy plant‐based diet index, higher intakes of only the healthy plant foods received higher scores; in the less healthy plant‐based diet index, higher intakes of only the less healthy plant foods received higher scores. In all indexes, higher intakes of animal foods received lower scores. Results from Cox proportional hazards models showed that participants in the highest versus lowest quintile for adherence to overall plant‐based diet index or provegetarian diet had a 16%, 31% to 32%, and 18% to 25% lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality, respectively, after adjusting for important confounders (all P<0.05 for trend).


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Higher adherence to a healthy plant‐based diet index was associated with a 19% and 11% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality, respectively, but not incident cardiovascular disease (P<0.05 for trend). No associations were observed between the less healthy plant‐based diet index and the outcomes.



 

Conclusions

Diets higher in plant foods and lower in animal foods were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a general population.


 

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Clinical Perspective

What Is New?

Plant‐based diets, diets that emphasize higher intakes of plant foods and lower intakes of animal foods, are associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality in a general US adult population.

 

Healthful plant‐based diets, diets higher in nutrient‐dense plant foods and lower in refined carbohydrates and animal foods, are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality, but not incident cardiovascular disease.


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What Are the Clinical Implications?

Our results suggest that dietary patterns that are relatively higher in plant foods and relatively lower in animal foods may confer benefits for cardiovascular health.

 

Future research examining whether the quality of plant foods (healthful versus less healthful) within the framework of an overall plant‐based diet is associated with cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality is warranted.


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Introduction

Plant‐based diets are dietary patterns that emphasize higher intakes of plant foods and are low in animal foods. Vegetarian diets, a type of plant‐based diet, with a focus on restriction of different types of animal foods (meat, poultry, or fish), have been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease.1, 2, 3 However, prospective cohort studies have shown mixed results on the associations with cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality.4, 5, 6 These previous studies were conducted in selected study populations that were mostly composed of Seventh‐Day Adventists, vegetarians, or health‐conscious individuals; thus, they had relatively narrow generalizability.4, 5, 7, 8, 9


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Although prior studies have characterized participants’ diets using a relatively simple classification method based on frequency of animal food consumption,4, 5, 6 there have since been more comprehensive attempts to assess an individual's diet using plant‐based diet indexes.10, 11, 12, 13 These indexes give higher scores for higher consumption of plant foods and lower consumption of animal foods, allowing researchers to examine whether the degree of adherence to an overall plant‐based diet is associated with health outcomes. Studies that used such indexes (ie, an overall plant‐based diet index [PDI] or a provegetarian diet index) found that greater adherence to these diets was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and all‐cause mortality.10, 11, 12 In addition, some plant‐based indexes separately scored healthful (whole grains, vegetables, and plant proteins) and unhealthful (refined carbohydrates and sugar) plant sources of food.


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Healthful plant‐based diets, which scored higher intakes of only healthful plant foods higher, were more strongly inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease than the overall plant‐based diets.11, 12 In contrast, greater adherence to less healthful (unhealthful) plant‐based diets, which scored higher intakes of only less healthful plant foods higher, were associated with a higher risk of these conditions.11, 12


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Given the limited evidence on plant‐based diets in the general population and recent developments in plant‐based diet scores, the objectives of the present study were as follows: (1) to evaluate whether overall plant‐based diets are associated with a lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all‐cause mortality in a general US population; and (2) to assess if the association differed by adherence to healthful and less healthful plant‐based diets using 4 a priori defined plant‐based diet scores (overall plant‐based diet, healthy plant‐based diet, less healthy plant‐based diet, and provegetarian diet indexes).


Indexed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library for 



https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.119.012865

Diet rich in animal protein is associated with a greater risk of early death. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on October 3, 2021 at 5:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Date:

April 10, 2019


Source:

University of Eastern Finland


Summary:

A diet rich in animal protein and meat in particular is not good for the health, a new study finds, providing further backing for earlier research evidence. Men who favored animal protein over plant-based protein in their diet had a greater risk of death in a 20-year follow-up than men whose diet was more balanced in terms of their sources of protein.........


Indexed for Science Daily by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/04/190410095951.htm

Natural Birth Control For Men: Herbal Male Contraceptives. - Bright Star Apothecary at Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency

Posted on September 30, 2021 at 8:40 AM Comments comments (0)

The calcium channel of sperm—CatSper—is vital for male fertility. CatSper is activated by the hormone progesterone, but its pharmacological profile is not well studied. By exploring steroid selectivity of CatSper activation, we found one additional agonist—pregnenolone sulfate—and the two plant-derived inhibitors pristimerin and lupeol. By averting sperm hyperactivation, both inhibitors can prevent fertilization, thus acting as contraceptive agents. Additionally, by exploring CatSper regulation by endogenous steroids, we explain why CatSper is silent within the male reproductive tract and is only activated in close proximity to the egg. Interestingly, both testosterone and hydrocortisone antagonize the action of progesterone at physiological concentrations, which may explain why elevated levels of these steroids in the female organism affect fertility.


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Abstract

The calcium channel of sperm (CatSper) is essential for sperm hyperactivated motility and fertility. The steroid hormone progesterone activates CatSper of human sperm via binding to the serine hydrolase ABHD2. However, steroid specificity of ABHD2 has not been evaluated. Here, we explored whether steroid hormones to which human spermatozoa are exposed in the male and female genital tract influence CatSper activation via modulation of ABHD2. The results show that testosterone, estrogen, and hydrocortisone did not alter basal CatSper currents, whereas the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate exerted similar effects as progesterone, likely binding to the same site. However, physiological concentrations of testosterone and hydrocortisone inhibited CatSper activation by progesterone.


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Additionally, testosterone antagonized the effect of pregnenolone sulfate. We have also explored whether steroid-like molecules, such as the plant triterpenoids pristimerin and lupeol, affect sperm fertility. Interestingly, both compounds competed with progesterone and pregnenolone sulfate and significantly reduced CatSper activation by either steroid. Furthermore, pristimerin and lupeol considerably diminished hyperactivation of capacitated spermatozoa. These results indicate that (i) pregnenolone sulfate together with progesterone are the main steroids that activate CatSper and (ii) pristimerin and lupeol can act as contraceptive compounds by averting sperm hyperactivation, thus preventing fertilization.


Indexed for PNAS by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://www.pnas.org/content/114/22/5743.abstract

Inhibition of the replication of SARS CoV2 by thymoquinone. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 30, 2021 at 7:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract:

Introduction: The COVID-19 caused by a new type of coronavirus has emerged from China and led to thousands of deaths globally. Despite many groups engaged in studying the newly emerged virus and searching for the treatment, the understanding of the SARS-CoV2 target ligand interactions represents a key challenge. Several studies are being conducted to identify potential treatment. Alternatively, the results of numerous studies have shown that protease inhibitors can be a genuine leader in research. The antiviral activity and beneficial effect against respiratory disorders of thymoquinone have been largely demonstrated.

 

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate in silico the inhibition of the replication of SARS CoV2 by thymoquinone.

 

Methods: This is a molecular simulation study using SARS CoV2 protease and thymoquinone structures provided by Protein Data Bank.

 

Results: The preliminary results have shown that thymoquinone may have inhibitory activities against SARS CoV2 protease.

 

Conclusion: Furthermore, given the demonstrated results of thymoquinone, we can conclude that it may be considered as an effective or adjuvant treatment for SARS CoV2 infection.

 


Indexed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library for 

 

Youness Kadil*, Mohammed Mouhcine and Houda Filali, “In Silico Investigation of the SARS CoV2 Protease with Thymoquinone, the Major Constituent of Nigella Sativa”, Current Drug Discovery Technologies 2021; 18(4) . https://doi.org/10.2174/1570163817666200712164406

 

DOI

https://doi.org/10.2174/1570163817666200712164406


Red palm oil: nutritional, physiological and therapeutic roles in improving human wellbeing and quality of life. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 26, 2021 at 7:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract


The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular disease has created a growing interest in dietary red palm oil research. Also, the link between nutrition and health, oxidative stress and the severity or progression of disease has stimulated further interest in the potential role of red palm oil (a natural antioxidant product) to improve oxidative status by reducing oxidative stress in patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer and other chronic diseases. In spite of its level of saturated fatty acid content (50%), red palm oil has not been found to promote atherosclerosis and/or arterial thrombosis. This is probably due to the ratio of its saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid content and its high concentration of antioxidants such as beta-carotene, tocotrienols, tocopherols and vitamin E.


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It has also been reported that the consumption of red palm oil reduces the level of endogenous cholesterol, and this seems to be due to the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of red palm oil to health include a reduction in the risk of arterial thrombosis and/or atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, a reduction in oxidative stress and a reduction in blood pressure. It has also been shown that dietary red palm oil, taken in moderation in animals and humans, promotes the efficient utilisation of nutrients, activates hepatic drug metabolising enzymes, facilitates the haemoglobinisation of red blood cells and improves immune function. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional, physiological and biochemical roles of red palm oil in improving wellbeing and quality of life.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Protective effect of vitamin C against the ethanol mediated toxic effects on human brain glial cells. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 14, 2021 at 9:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

It is now known that chronic consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol is a major source of social and medical problems. Ethanol-mediated glial cell activation may lead to neuron damage in many ways, including the formation of free radicals and production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Vitamin C (vit-C) is an essential dietary nutrient required as a co-factor for many enzymes and a very efficient antioxidant, protecting cells against free radical-mediated damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of vit-C on glial cell activation and viability against ethanol-mediated toxicity. Human brain astrocyte cells (HA) were exposed to ethanol (0, 50, and 350 mmol/L) for 24 h. We found that glial cells incubated with different concentrations of vit-C increase their vit-C in a dose-dependent manner. HA incubated with 0, 50 or 350 mmol/L of ethanol for up to 24 h showed toxic effects that were proportional to the levels of ethanol in the medium, HA showed increased levels of heat shock protein (Hsp70). However, cells enriched with vit-C before being exposed to ethanol, were better protected against the alcohol-mediated toxicity than non-supplemented cells, and showed significantly lower concentrations of Hsp70. Ethanol also caused increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which were reduced by vit-C. In summary, HA supplemented with vit-C were significantly more resistant to the ethanol-mediated toxic effects.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14559112/

Protective effects of silymarin, a milk thistle (Silybium marianum) derivative on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in liver. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 14, 2021 at 9:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to be a major factor in oxidative cell injury. The antioxidant activity or the inhibition of the generation of free radicals is important in providing protection against such hepatic damage. Silymarin, derived from the milk thistle plant, Silybium marianum, has been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. In the present study, the effect of hepatoprotective drug silymarin on body weight and biochemical parameters, particularly, antioxidant status of ethanol-exposed rats was studied and its efficacy was compared with the potent antioxidant, ascorbic acid as well as capacity of hepatic regeneration during abstention. Ethanol, at a dose of 1.6 g/kg body wt/day for 4 wks affected body weight in 16-18 week-old male albino rats (Wistar strain weighing 200-220 g). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased, whereas GSH content, and catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly reduced, on ethanol exposure. These changes were reversed by silybin and ascorbic acid treatment. It was also observed that abstinence from ethanol might help in hepatic regeneration. Silybin showed a significant hepatoprotective activity, but activity was less than that of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, preventive measures were more effective than curative treatment.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17133738/


Butterbur root extract and music therapy in the prevention of childhood migraine. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Background: Migraine is very common in school-aged children, but despite a number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological options for prophylaxis, randomized controlled evidence in children is small. Evidence-based prophylactic drugs may have considerable side effects.

 

Objective: This study was to assess efficacy of a butterbur root extract (Petadolex) and music therapy in primary school children with migraine.

 

Design: Prospective, randomized, partly double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

 

Methods: Following a 8-week baseline patients were randomized and received either butterbur root extract (n=19), music therapy (n=20) or placebo (n=19) over 12 weeks. All participants received additionally headache education ("treatment as usual") from the baseline onwards. Reduction of headache frequency after treatment (8-week post-treatment) as well as 6 months later (8-week follow-up) was the efficacy variable.

 

Results: Data analysis of subjects completing the respective study phase showed that during post-treatment, only music therapy was superior to placebo (p=0.005), whereas in the follow-up period both music therapy and butterbur root extract were superior to placebo (p=0.018 and p=0.044, respectively). All groups showed a substantial reduction of attack frequency already during baseline.

 

Conclusion: Butterbur root extract and music therapy might be superior to placebo and may represent promising treatment approaches in the prophylaxis of paediatric migraine.....


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17659990/

Anti-Inflammatory Diet in Clinical Practice: A Review. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 9:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Recently, there has been an increase in the research regarding the impact of acute and chronic inflammation on health and disease. Specific foods are now known to exert strong effects on inflammatory pathways within the body. Carefully selecting foods that are anti-inflammatory in nature while avoiding foods that are proinflammatory is central to an anti-inflammatory diet plan. Ultimately, the plan models a pattern of eating that (1) focuses on eating whole, plant-based foods that are rich in healthy fats and phytonutrients and (2) maintains a stable glycemic response.



 

Keywords: Mediterranean diet; anti-inflammatory diet; fatty acids; glycemic index; nutrition therapy 



Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28350517/





An aberrant inflammatory response in severe COVID-19. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Severe COVID-19 arises from the convergence of inadequate pre-existing immunity and a host response that damages, rather than repairs, tissues. We outline clinical presentations of COVID-19 that are likely driven by dysregulated host immunity, discuss potential mechanisms underlying pathological responses, and highlight important areas for basic research on this topic.

 

Main text

The substantial mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been driven largely by an absence of pre-existing immunity that could have provided some protection in vulnerable populations against severe and fatal outcomes. As population immunity increases in some regions, severe COVID-19 has become much less frequent; yet communities lacking protection continue to be ravaged by this disease. In addition to vaccines, having medications that prevent the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that is often central in fatal COVID-19 could dramatically reduce the threat of SARS-CoV-2 as a human pathogen. For this reason, understanding mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 is imperative.

 

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections result in a vast spectrum of clinical outcomes, yet most infections are subclinical or mild, even in the absence of pre-existing immunity. The drivers of severe COVID-19 are not entirely clear, but excessive inflammation is nearly always associated with worsening clinical status in this disease. Interestingly, minimal virus is detected in most organs obtained from autopsies of COVID-19 patients, which may suggest that while the virus triggers an initial disease, it is not the ultimate cause of organ failure. Tissue damage often appears driven by excessive accumulation and activation of effector immune cells. Together, the evidence supports a model in which severe and fatal COVID-19 are driven by an aberrant immune response to the infection that causes pathology rather than restoring health. We propose that this aberrant response is the driver of susceptibility to severe COVID-19 in vulnerable populations.

 

In addition to severe disease, SARS-CoV-2 infections can result in long-term symptoms (here called “long COVID syndromes”) in a large proportion of cases, regardless of severity of the acute infection. Many of the long-term sequelae are likely to be driven by inflammatory pathways. In this article, we outline clinical presentations of COVID-19 that are likely driven by dysregulated host immune responses and discuss potential mechanisms of disease as well as outstanding clinical and research questions on this important topic.

 

COVID-19 clinical presentations and syndromes related to inflammation

Severe acute COVID-19 Those who develop severe COVID-19 usually worsen after 7 days of mild-to-moderate symptoms. Many of the sequalae in severe cases, such as ARDS, thromboembolism, arrhythmias, and renal failure, are mediated by inflammation and are central in the mortality associated with COVID-19. Some effective treatments have immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive effects. These include compounds with data showing clinical benefit such as corticosteroids, tocilizumab that inhibits the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), the JAK inhibitor baricitinib, and SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). While we know that severe COVID-19 is associated with an elevation in routine inflammatory markers and an absence of early neutralizing antibodies, we currently lack adequate tools to identify cases that would benefit from early therapeutic interventions. Further, methods are not yet established for guiding treatments based on monitoring of inflammation within affected organs, short of invasive biopsies. As an example, the assessment of lung bronchoscopy fluid for cellular and soluble factors could be very helpful for therapeutic monitoring and potentially for guiding treatment, yet practical methods for dynamic sampling of this fluid and studies correlating results with clinical outcomes are not available. Such methods could also improve our understanding of the mechanisms resulting in long-term sequelae of severe COVID-19.

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children/adolescence.......


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279571/

Plant-based and/or pescatarian diet are significantly less likely to develop a moderate to severe COVID-19 infection

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)


Looking for another reason to carve out meat from your dinners? A new study has suggested those who eat a plant-based and/or pescatarian diet are significantly less likely to develop a moderate to severe COVID-19 infection.



Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on September 10, 2021 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Background: Obesity and chronic pain are prevalent concerns. Pain is frequently experienced in weight-bearing joints, but is common in other areas of the body as well, suggesting other factors. Poor diet often contributes to obesity and can directly influence the immune system. We have shown that poor diet prolongs recovery from inflammatory injury. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether poor-quality diet-induced consequences could be prevented or reversed by an anti-inflammatory diet (AID).

 

Methods: A Standard American Diet (SAD) was developed to investigate the effects of poor diet on pain. The SAD includes amounts of refined sugar, carbohydrates and fats that better model the typical American diet, as compared to high-fat diets. We developed an AID to explore whether the effects of the SAD could reverse or whether the AID would enhance recovery prophylactically. The AID was developed using ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, sulforaphane, resveratrol, curcumin and ginseng) with known anti-inflammatory properties. Following 15 weeks of diet [SAD, AID or regular (REG)] exposure, male and female mice underwent inflammatory injury, at which point some animals had their diets switched for the remainder of the study.

 

Results: Animals who consumed the SAD showed longer recovery compared to the AID- and REG-fed animals. Animals switched off the SAD had faster recovery times, with AID-fed animals recovering as fast as REG-fed animals.

 

Conclusions: Poor diet prolonged recovery from inflammatory injury. Substitution of SAD with AID or REG promoted faster recovery. These findings suggest diet can be used as a non-pharmacological intervention following injury.

 

Significance: Obesity may increase susceptibility to chronic pain often due to poor diet. Diet has potential to be used as treatment for pain. This study investigates the use of a novel translatable diet to act as a preventative (i.e. prior to surgery) or an intervention (i.e. following an injury).


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29436058/

Magnesium content in fruits and vegetables dropped in the last fifty years, and about 80% is lost during food processing. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on August 25, 2021 at 4:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Magnesium is essential in plants where it is associated with chlorophyll pigments and serves as a cofactor of enzymes implicated in photosynthesis and metabolism. It is an essential nutrient for animals, involved in hundreds metabolic reaction and crucial for the biological activity of ATP. Not surprisingly, magnesium deficiency is detrimental for the health of plants and animals. In humans, subclinical magnesium deficiency is common and generates chronic inflammation, which is the common denominator of a wide range of mental and physical health problems from metabolic diseases to cognitive impairment, from osteopenia and sarcopenia to depression. It is ascertained that magnesium content in fruits and vegetables dropped in the last fifty years, and about 80% of this metal is lost during food processing. As a consequence, a large percentage of people all over the world does not meet the minimum daily magnesium requirement. In this scoping review, we summarize how agronomic and environmental factors, including global warming, affect magnesium content and availability in the soil and, consequently, in the food chain, with the aim of attracting the interest of botanists, agronomists, animal and human nutritionists and physicians to work on a strategy that grants adequate magnesium intake for everybody.


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649274/

Associations between organochlorine pesticides and vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on August 25, 2021 at 4:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Conclusion/significance: The current study suggests that the background exposure to some OC pesticides leads to vitamin D deficiency in human. Considering the importance of vitamin D deficiency in the development of chronic diseases, chemical exposure as a possible cause of vitamin D deficiency should be evaluated in prospective and experimental studies.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22295072/

Selenium Deficiency Is Associated with Mortality Risk from COVID-19. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on August 25, 2021 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infections underlie the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and are causative for a high death toll particularly among elderly subjects and those with comorbidities. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of high importance for human health and particularly for a well-balanced immune response. The mortality risk from a severe disease like sepsis or polytrauma is inversely related to Se status. We hypothesized that this relation also applies to COVID-19. Serum samples (n = 166) from COVID-19 patients (n = 33) were collected consecutively and analyzed for total Se by X-ray fluorescence and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) by a validated ELISA. Both biomarkers showed the expected strong correlation (r = 0.7758, p < 0.001), pointing to an insufficient Se availability for optimal selenoprotein expression. In comparison with reference data from a European cross-sectional analysis (EPIC, n = 1915), the patients showed a pronounced deficit in total serum Se (mean ± SD, 50.8 ± 15.7 vs. 84.4 ± 23.4 µg/L) and SELENOP (3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0 mg/L) concentrations. A Se status below the 2.5th percentile of the reference population, i.e., [Se] < 45.7 µg/L and [SELENOP] < 2.56 mg/L, was present in 43.4% and 39.2% of COVID samples, respectively. The Se status was significantly higher in samples from surviving COVID patients as compared with non-survivors (Se; 53.3 ± 16.2 vs. 40.8 ± 8.1 µg/L, SELENOP; 3.3 ± 1.3 vs. 2.1 ± 0.9 mg/L), recovering with time in survivors while remaining low or even declining in non-survivors. We conclude that Se status analysis in COVID patients provides diagnostic information. However, causality remains unknown due to the observational nature of this study. Nevertheless, the findings strengthen the notion of a relevant role of Se for COVID convalescence and support the discussion on adjuvant Se supplementation in severely diseased and Se-deficient patients.

 

Keywords: trace element, inflammation, selenoprotein P, micronutrient, COVID-19......


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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400921/