International Music Therapy / DJ Services - Muscle/Fitness - New Media Network - Career Development - MetaPhysical Library - Portal - Spiritual Evolution 


The Paleo Diet May Need a Rewrite, Ancient Humans Feasted on a Wide Variety of Plants. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

The Paleo diet is a fad that claims to be based on what the human body was designed to eat—a pre-agriculture mix including meats, roots, fruits, vegetables and nuts. While it has its plusses and minuses, the big fault is that we really don’t know what the original paleo diet, which humans ate between 2.6 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago, looked like. Colin Barras at New Scientist reports that the “caveman” fascination with meat is often overemphasized because the bones of butchered animals tend to last a long time, while other materials have disintegrated.


But researchers at the Gesher Benot Ya’aqov archaeological site on Lake Hula in northern Israel have found a camp used by human ancestors which includes a whole menu of the plant-based foods that they would have sampled. The site, reports Barras, was likely inhabited by Homo erectus or a closely related human species and includes the remains of at least 55 edible plant species, including nuts, fruit seeds, roots, tubers, leaves and stems.

........ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/paleo-diet-may-need-a-rewrite-ancient-humans-feasted-wide-variety-plants-180961402/

Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 1:45 PM Comments comments (0)


Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II), blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa) and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1). As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.



Ursolic acid is a lipophilic pentacyclic triterpenoid that contributes to the waxy coats on apples, other fruits, and many herbs, including some folkloric herbal medicines for diabetes [1]–[4]. We recently identified ursolic acid in a screen for small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy [5]. In that study, we determined the effects of fasting and spinal cord injury on skeletal muscle mRNA levels in humans, and used that information to generate unbiased mRNA expression signatures of human skeletal muscle atrophy. We then used these signatures to query the Connectivity Map [6] for compounds whose expression signatures negatively correlated with the signatures of human muscle atrophy. Out of >1300 compounds in the Connectivity Map, ursolic acid emerged as the most likely inhibitor of muscle atrophy.


To test the hypothesis that ursolic acid might inhibit muscle atrophy, we studied mice that had been fasted or undergone surgical muscle denervation, and found that ursolic acid reduced muscle atrophy [5]. We then investigated ursolic acid's effect in the absence of an atrophy stimulus by adding ursolic acid to standard mouse chow for 5 weeks. In that setting, ursolic acid induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy [5]. Since the protein kinase Akt (also known as PKB) inhibits muscle atrophy and promotes muscle hypertrophy [7]–[13], we examined ursolic acid's effect on Akt. We found that ursolic acid increased Akt activity in mouse skeletal muscle and in cultured C2C12 skeletal myotubes [5]. In myotubes, ursolic acid increased Akt activity at least in part by enhancing ligand-dependent activation of the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor.


In addition to causing muscle hypertrophy, genetic interventions that activate Akt specifically in skeletal muscle also increase energy expenditure, reduce adiposity and blood glucose, and impart resistance to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease [8], [9]. Similarly, we found that ursolic acid reduced adiposity and blood glucose in non-obese mice [5], and others found that ursolic acid reduces total body weight, white fat, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in high fat-fed mice [14], [15]. Based on these considerations, we hypothesized that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, leading to muscle hypertrophy, increased energy expenditure and thus, reduced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis, and found that ursolic acid increases not only skeletal muscle, but also another tissue that opposes diet-induced obesity, brown fat.........

Indexed for NIH & PLOS ONE by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 1:35 PM Comments comments (0)

The potential chemo preventive effect of ursolic acid isolated from Paulownia tomentosa, against N-diethylnitrosamine: initiated and promoted hepatocarcinogenesis

Sanaa A. Ali, Nabaweya A. Ibrahim, and Esraa A. Refaat


The present study discusses the isolation of ursolic acid from the chloroform extract of Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb) Steud fruits and its cytotoxic effect has been assessed in-vitro was performed in different cells lines (A-549, MCF-7, HepG2) and in-vivo using N-diethylnitrosamine. The obtained results revealed that ursolic acid showed significant cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in comparison to Doxorubicin as a reference drug. Moreover, we have assessed the inhibitory effects of Paulownia tomentosa fruit chloroform extract and the isolated ursolic acid on hepatocarcinogenesis was carried out for the first time using N-diethylnitrosamine, where the group treated with ursolic acid given orally after 8 weeks of cancer induction showed the most significant results in comparison to the chloroform extract. The effect of ursolic acid on intoxicated rats caused significant restoration of most of the normal hepatocytes architecture with regular dark nuclei and the group treated with Paulownia tomentosa fruits showed remarkable results with improvement in biochemical analysis.

Keywords: Biochemistry, Natural product chemistry, Pharmaceutical chemistry
1. Introduction
The liver is one of the most vital organs in the human body dealing with the metabolism and detoxification of external and internal chemical substances. Many toxins target the liver and cause hepatotoxic effects that can be observed through some biochemical parameters. As it is the main site of N-diethylnitrosamine (NDEA) metabolism, the production of ROS in liver may be responsible for its carcinogenic effects [1].

Many herbs have been proven to be effective as hepatoprotective agents; these hepatoprotective plants have the phytoconstituents such as iridoidglycosides, phenyl compounds, coumarins, essential oils, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids and other nitrogenous compounds [2].

The chemical hepatocarcinogen NDEA is known to induce over expression of TGF-α (the growth factor transforming growth factor-α) which is closely involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and transformation in humans and animals. Furthermore, elevated expression of TGF-α in hepatic cirrhosis as TGF-α expression is higher in liver tissue of patients with chronic hepatic diseases compared with normal healthy subject [3].This phenomenon is thought to play an important role in the process of NDEA -induced hepatocarcinogenesis which is evidenced by changes in histopathological architecture and increased liver marker enzymes [4, 5].

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae, and it is commonly known as princess tree. It is a perennial tree native to China, Japan and the Far East but it has been adapted to the southern United States and it is even invasive now [6]. It has been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of gonorrhea, bruise and deodorant. A decoction of the leaves was used to wash foul ulcers and to promote the growth of hair and prevent greying [7].

Ursolic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpene, found in many plants and has a chemo protective activity in human. It possesses many important biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiulcer, hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic [8]. Numerous reports discussed ursolic acid in-vitro activities against tumor cell lines [9]. Several suggest possible mechanisms of action for tumor inhibition; i.e the proliferation of MCF-7 breast tumor cells by exerting an early cytostatic effect on the cell cycle at G1.The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects are likely to involve apoptosis (cell self-destruction). Also ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2human hepatoblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, with DNA fragmentation, enhanced release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3 (mediator for apoptosis). Expression of p21WAF1 (tumor suppressor) was increased, indicating possible involvement in mediating cell-cycle arrest. Also ursolic acid was found to inhibit tumor invasion by inhibited expression of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 at micromole concentrations, a finding that is consistent with the observed ability of ursolic acid to inhibit MMP expression in fibrosarcoma cells, and also inhibits proliferation and colony formation of tumor and limit the ability of tumor to invade and metastasize [10]. Ursolic acid reduces the proliferation of many tumor cell lines and many possible mechanisms of action have been addressed. Studies in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells showed an early G1 cytostatic effect for ursolic acid [11, 12]. Enhancement of intracellular Ca2+ signaling is thought to play a role in reducing proliferation [9]. Ursolic acid has been previously isolated from Paulownia tomentosa Leaves [13, 14]. The Essential oil of the flowers of Paulownia tomentosa. Growing in Egypt play a roleas antimicrobial activity [15].The methanolic extract was reported as antioxidant Hypoglycemic [16]. 

........ Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Evaluation of flavonoids as 2019-nCoV cell entry inhibitor through molecular docking and pharmacological analysis. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:55 AM Comments comments (0)

. 2021 Mar;7(3):e06515. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06515. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Evaluation of flavonoids as 2019-nCoV cell entry inhibitor through molecular docking and pharmacological analysis

Deep Bhowmik 1, Rajat Nandi 1, Amresh Prakash 2, Diwakar Kumar 1

PMID: 33748510

PMCID: PMC7955945

DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06515


The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is being rapidly spread by the extremely spreadable and pathogenic 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as SARS-CoV-2. Pandemic incidence of COVID-19 has created a severe threat to global public health, necessitating the development of effective drugs or inhibitors or therapeutics agents against SARS-CoV-2. Spike protein (S) of the SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in entering viruses into the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), and this specific interaction represents a promising drug target for the identification of potential drugs. This study aimed at the receptor-binding domain of S protein (RBD of nCoV-SP) and the ACE-2 receptor as a promising target for developing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Over 100 different flavonoids with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties from different literatures were taken as a ligand or inhibitor for molecular docking against target protein RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2 using PyRX and iGEMDOCK. Top flavonoids based on docking scores were selected for the pharmacokinetic study. Selected flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin, ECGC, and quercetin) showed excellent pharmacokinetics with proper absorption, solubility, permeability, distribution, metabolism, minimal toxicity, and excellent bioavailability. Molecular dynamics simulation studies up to 100 ns exhibited strong binding affinity of selected flavonoids to RBD of nCoV-SP and ACE-2, and the protein-ligand complexes were structurally stable........

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Epicatechin and quercetin exhibit in vitro antioxidant effect, improve biochemical parameters related to metabolic syndrome, and decrease cellular genotoxicity in humans. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Green tea is a natural source of polyphenols where their catechins and flavonols are the major components. Their antioxidant activities are the most important biological effect and often the object of study. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl) radical assay has been carried out to measure the individual scavenging activities expressed as percentage of DPPH inhibition for each tea polyphenol, and (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) (74.04 ± 0.38 %) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (69.51 ± 0.27 %) were the most active compounds. Synergistic, antagonistic and additive interactions among catechin derivatives as well as combined with green tea extract have been analyzed, where GCG and EGCG provided most of the synergistic effects. Flavonols such as quercetin (54.61 ± 0.21 %) and kaempferol (24.06 ± 0.02 %) also showed free radicals’ scavenging activity. Interactions between flavonols and individual catechins as well as their mixtures in the tea extract have been investigated. The results suggested that the presence of tea flavonols in tea extract provided additive interactions and the tea catechins were responsible for synergism in green tea. This work can be the starting point of the research about supplemented green tea from its own catechins to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the green tea.

Preview Indexed for Springer by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Effects of (-)-Epicatechin and Other Polyphenols in Cancer, , Diabetes, and Neurodegeneration. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:40 AM Comments comments (0)


Special Issue

Dietary Polyphenols and Their Effects on Cell Biochemistry and Pathophysiology 2014

Review Article | Open Access


Volume 2015 |Article ID 181260 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/181260


Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Effects of (−)-Epicatechin and Other Polyphenols in Cancer, , Diabetes, and Neurodegeneration

Joseph Shay,1,2 Hosam A. Elbaz,1,3 Icksoo Lee,4 Steven P. Zielske,3 Moh H. Malek,5,6 and Maik Hüttemann 1,2,6







Academic Editor: Cristina Angeloni


09 Jun 2015


With recent insight into the mechanisms involved in diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes, more efficient modes of treatment are now being assessed. Traditional medicine including the use of natural products is widely practiced around the world, assuming that certain natural products contain the healing properties that may in fact have a preventative role in many of the diseases plaguing the human population. This paper reviews the biological effects of a group of natural compounds called polyphenols, including apigenin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, and (−)-epicatechin, with a focus on the latter. (−)-Epicatechin has several unique features responsible for a variety of its effects. One of these is its ability to interact with and neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. (−)-Epicatechin also modulates cell signaling including the MAP kinase pathway, which is involved in cell proliferation. Mutations in this pathway are often associated with malignancies, and the use of (−)-epicatechin holds promise as a preventative agent and as an adjunct for chemotherapy and radiation therapy to improve outcome. This paper discusses the potential of some phenolic compounds to maintain, protect, and possibly reinstate health.


Dedicated to Dr. Manfred Holz


1. Introduction: Structural Characteristics of Polyphenols

Polyphenols belong to a ubiquitous family of naturally occurring compounds that encompass several other classes of compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids consist of several groups of compounds called anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonones, flavones, and isoflavones. These compounds are polyphenols due to the presence of multiple phenolic units in their chemical structure. Thus, phenolic compounds share structural features including an aromatic or a phenolic ring. Polyphenol compounds are most abundant in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Fruits such as apples, grapes, pears, cherries, and berries contain 200–300 mg of polyphenols per 100 grams [1]. (−)-Epicatechin, the focus of this review article, belongs to the group of flavanols. It is most commonly found as a natural product in cacao and cacao products, such as dark chocolate, and in green tea.


2. Biological Functions

Polyphenols have various important biological properties in both plants and animals that can be divided into two main categories, with antioxidant and nonantioxidant function. These functions are discussed throughout this paper. Regarding antioxidant action, it is noteworthy that polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet with a total daily intake as high as 1 gram, exceeding the intake of vitamin C by about 10-fold and that of vitamin E and carotenoids by about 100-fold [2]. Given the large number of studies showing beneficial effects with vitamin antioxidants, similar or better effects might be expected for polyphenols. Antioxidants, in general, have been intensely studied due to the high prevalence of oxidative stress found in numerous disease states, including Alzheimer’s disease, muscular dystrophy, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and aging. For example, in a randomized clinical trial for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients were treated for 16 weeks with vitamin E (α-tocopherol/E) 800 IU daily, 500 mg of vitamin C daily, 900 mg of α-lipoic acid (ALA) daily, and 400 mg of coenzyme Q (CoQ) three times daily or placebo [3]. The study showed, following E/C/ALA treatment only, a 19% decrease in F2-isoprostanes, which are cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD [3], suggesting the potential application of antioxidant treatment in patients with AD. Oxidative stress has also been found to play a pivotal role in the development of complications due to diabetes, such as cardiovascular and microvascular disease. Following treatment of diabetic mice with vitamins C, E, and β-carotene for 8 weeks Mekinová et al. [4] observed reductions of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, used to determine oxidative stress status), glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). These examples all argue for the potential use of ROS scavengers including natural compounds with such activities in certain diseases where the redox balance and ROS load are not any longer under control, a research direction that should be pursued with polyphenol compounds in the future.


There are numerous nonantioxidant functions of polyphenols with select examples discussed later in this paper. These include effects on estrogen receptor activity, cell signaling cascades, and cell cycle control in mammalian cells. Since polyphenols are plant-derived compounds, it is not surprising that they play important roles in plant physiology. As an example related to plant signaling, flavonoids were found to greatly affect the growth pattern of Malus x domestica, the apple tree [5]. The authors found, following RNAi silencing of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS), which is responsible for flavonoid synthesis in apples, a loss in skin and leaf pigmentation and a reduction in size, with smaller leaves and shortened internode lengths [5]. This suggests that flavonoid production is important for the integrity and morphology of apples. Polyphenols also have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is thought to be a primary function of polyphenols in mammals and therefore they are typically referred to as antioxidants.


3. Beneficial Health Effects of Selected Flavonoid Compounds

In this section we will briefly summarize the cellular and organismal effects of the selected flavonoids epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, apigenin, and (−)-epicatechin, the latter of which will be discussed in more detail.............

Indexed for Hindawi by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Epicatechin acts synergistically with curcumin-induced cytogenotoxic effect in acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 9:35 AM Comments comments (0)


Aim: The low bioavailability of curcumin, a polyphenol, limits its use as an antitumor agent. Identifying mechanisms to improve the bioavailability and effectiveness of curcumin can modify utilization of other plant-derived phenolic compounds. This study was conducted with an aim to determine the influence of some flavonoids on the effects of curcumin in an HL-60 cell line.

Methods: Cells were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of curcumin and several flavonoids for 20 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using propidium iodide staining. The evaluation of γH2AX expression using a specific antibody, together with study of the cell cycle, was analyzed using flow cytometry.

Results: A synergistic effect was obtained only using a combination of curcumin and lower concentrations of epicatechin. The low concentration of quercetin exerted an additive effect only in combination with curcumin. Moreover, incubation with curcumin and epicatechin resulted in a significant increase in the γH2AX level.

Conclusion: Combination treatment with epicatechin and curcumin can potentially be considered for improving the effectiveness and bioavailability of curcumin in cell lines of myeloid leukemia.

Polyphenols, cytotoxic effect, γ-H2AX, flow cytometry, HL-60 cell line

Treatment effectiveness in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unsatisfactory because of frequent relapses and treatment-related problems in elderly patients (age > 65), in whom AML incidence is relatively high compared to that in younger people[1,2]. Therefore, researchers are still on a quest for new, more effective, and safer therapies for the treatment of AML, particularly in elderly patients in whom aggressive chemotherapy for leukemia may sometimes be impossible (e.g. due to age-related comorbidities)[1].

Polyphenols are natural phytochemicals, and some exhibit a chemopreventive effect as demonstrated in vitro and in vivo studies[3-6]. Some polyphenols can exert a cytotoxic effect in AML cells[7] and curcumin, isolated from the rhizome Curcuma longa L. and with broad-spectrum anticancer properties, is an example[8]. Curcumin not only inhibits multiple pathways on different levels that are often overexpressed in cancer cells but also sensitizes them to apoptosis; in cancer cells resistant to apoptosis, curcumin can induce an alternative cell death, such as a mitotic catastrophe[8-10]. Curcumin acts at the gene level and triggers many metabolic pathways[11,12]. It inhibits genes contributing to multidrug resistance and can modulate epigenetic phenomena by inhibiting the methyltransferase 1 in AML cells[13,14].

At present, intensive research efforts are directed toward leveraging the anticancer effect of curcumin and improving its bioavailability[15]. Interest in this polyphenol is high, and the number of research efforts studying its anticancer activity is steadily increasing[16]. Thus, curcumin has a potential role in the development of novel cancer treatments.

Curcumin’s significant advantage is its low toxicity. Curcumin does not exhibit toxic effects in the human body even at doses of 9 g/kg b.w.[17,18]. Unfortunately, a major problem in the use of curcumin is its low bioavail-ability and rapid metabolism in plasma[19]. To improve bioavailability and stability of the compound currently involves improving the methods for creating micro- and nanoparticles of curcumin, liposomes, micelles, and derivatives of curcumin[20-23]. The effectiveness of curcumin, however, can be potentiated simply by using a combination of the compound and other polyphenols. This constitutes one of the most natural ways to improve the efficiency of curcumin action, and effectively increase its bioavailability[24,25].

The use of curcumin in combination with other polyphenols may potentiate its effectiveness through synergistic interactions[26]. Furthermore, cancer is a clonal disease, and individual clones of cells differ in sensitivity to chemotherapy and fall in mutual interactions[27]. Therefore, therapeutic action directed at various molecular targets, such as those exhibited by curcumin, may be more effective than action directed towards only one of these targets. Combination therapy of curcumin with other polyphenols that act synergistically with curcumin may be an effective and safe addition to conventional chemotherapy, and may allow dose reduction of cytostatic drugs.

This preliminary study was conducted to investigate the influence of a several flavonoid polyphenols on the cytogenotoxic activity of curcumin in a HL-60 myeloid leukemia cell line.........

Indexed for Journal Of Unexplored Medicine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Effects of (-)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 8, 2021 at 8:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Effects of (−)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation

Gabriela Gutierrez-Salmean, Theodore P. Ciaraldi, [...], and Israel Ramirez-Sanchez


Additional article information



Sarcopenia is a notable and debilitating age-associated condition. Flavonoids are known for their healthy effects and limited toxicity. The flavanol (−)-epicatechin (Epi) enhances exercise capacity in mice and Epi-rich cocoa improves skeletal muscle structure in heart failure patients. (−)-Epicatechin may thus, hold promise as treatment for sarcopenia.


We examined changes in protein levels of molecular modulators of growth and differentiation in young vs. old, human and mouse skeletal muscle. We report the effects of Epi in mice and the results of an initial proof-of-concept trial in humans, where muscle strength and levels of modulators of muscle growth were measured. In mice, myostatin and senescence-associated β-galactosidase levels increase with aging, while those of follistatin and Myf5 decrease. (−)-Epicatechin decreases myostatin and β-galactosidase and increases levels of markers of muscle growth. In humans, myostatin and β-galactosidase increase with aging while follistatin, MyoD and myogenin decrease. Treatment for 7 days with (−)-epicatechin increases hand grip strength and the ratio of plasma follistatin/myostatin.


In conclusion, aging has deleterious effects on modulators of muscle growth/differentiation, the consumption of modest amounts of the flavanol (−)-epicatechin can partially reverse these changes. This flavanol warrants its comprehensive evaluation for the treatment of sarcopenia


Keywords: Epicatechin, sarcopenia, flavanoids........ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857584/ ;

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

The iron metabolism parameters might be risk factors and clinical biomarkers for COVID-19 prognosis. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 5:05 AM Comments comments (0)


Background & aims
Iron is an essential trace element to almost all organism, and the delicate balance between host defend system and viral proliferation plays an important role in infective conditions. While the association of the iron metabolism with the prognosis of COVID-19 remains poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the associations of systemic iron metabolism parameters with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19.

In this retrospective cohort study, we included 158 confirmed COVID-19 patients in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China (27 January to 5 April, 2020). Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory examinations, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate the association of iron parameter levels with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

We identified 60 (38%) severe cases in 158 COVID-19 patients. The median age was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 54–73) and the median length of hospital stay was 28 days (IQR: 17–40). After adjusting for age, sex, IL-6, and pre-existing comorbidities, all iron parameters were associated with the severity of COVID-19 with adjusted risk ratio of 0.42 [95% CI: 0.22–0.83], 4.38 [95% CI: 1.86–10.33], 0.19 [95% CI: 0.08–0.48], and 0.25 [95% CI: 0.10–0.58] for serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron-binding capacity, respectively. These iron indices were also related to the risk of ARDS, coagulopathy, acute cardiac injury, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients and high cytokine concentrations.

Patients with low serum iron status likely suffered from severe condition and multiple–organ injury in COVID-19. The iron metabolism parameters might be risk factors and clinical biomarkers for COVID-19 prognosis.......... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723754/

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Exposure to toxic chemical linked with worse COVID-19 outcomes. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:50 AM Comments comments (0)

People who had elevated blood levels of a toxic chemical called perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) had an increased risk of a more severe course of COVID-19 than those who did not have elevated levels, according to a new study led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. PFBA is part of a class of man-made chemicals known as perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs), which have previously been shown to suppress immune function.


The study, published Dec. 31, 2020 in PLOS ONE, was led by Philippe Grandjean, adjunct professor of environmental health.


PFASs have water- and grease-resistant properties and are used in a wide variety of products, including nonstick cookware, waterproof clothing, food packaging, and firefighting foams. PFBA, more than other PFASs, is known to accumulate in the lungs, according to the study.


Researchers looked at PFAS levels in blood samples from 323 Danish individuals infected with the coronavirus. They found that those with higher PFBA levels had higher odds of being hospitalized, winding up in intensive care, and dying than those with lower levels.


The findings suggest that further study is needed to determine whether elevated exposures to other environmental immunotoxicants may worsen COVID-19 outcomes, the authors wrote........


Indexed for Harvard Gazette by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Bacterial DNA and toxins were discovered in virtually all severely ill COVID-19..unrecognized concern for significant contribution of bacterial products in the pathogenesis of this disease. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Endotoxemia and circulating bacteriome in severe COVID-19 patients

Phatadon Sirivongrangson, Win Kulvichit, […]Nattachai Srisawat

Intensive Care Medicine Experimental volume 8, Article number: 72 (2020) Cite this article





When severe, COVID-19 shares many clinical features with bacterial sepsis. Yet, secondary bacterial infection is uncommon. However, as epithelium is injured and barrier function is lost, bacterial products entering the circulation might contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19.



We studied 19 adults, severely ill patients with COVID-19 infection, who were admitted to King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, between 13th March and 17th April 2020. Blood samples on days 1, 3, and 7 of enrollment were analyzed for endotoxin activity assay (EAA), (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan (BG), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine the circulating bacteriome.



Of the 19 patients, 13 were in intensive care and 10 patients received mechanical ventilation. We found 8 patients with high EAA (≥ 0.6) and about half of the patients had high serum BG levels which tended to be higher in later in the illness. Although only 1 patient had a positive blood culture, 18 of 19 patients were positive for 16S rRNA gene amplification. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum. The diversity of bacterial genera was decreased overtime.



Bacterial DNA and toxins were discovered in virtually all severely ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients. This raises a previously unrecognized concern for significant contribution of bacterial products in the pathogenesis of this disease........... https://icm-experimental.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40635-020-00362-8

Indexed for Springer by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Higher prevalence and risk of developing thyroiditis and anti-thyroid antibodies among residents of areas surrounding the Petrochemical Complex . - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 5, 2021 at 4:25 AM Comments comments (0)

Environ Res

. 2010 Jan;110(1):112-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.10.009.

Can living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex be a risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease?

Clarice Umbelino de Freitas 1, Rosária A Grimaldi Campos, Mirta Alcira F Rodrigues Silva, Maria Rosana I Panachão, Jose Cássio de Moraes, William Waissmann, Antônio Roberto Chacra, Marina Y S Maeda, Regina S Minazzi Rodrigues, James Gonçalves Belchor, Sonia Oliveira Barbosa, Raimunda Telma M Santos 

PMID: 19913221

DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2009.10.009


Background: Based on a suspicion raised by a health professional and due to a subsequent legal request, a cross-sectional study was made with a comparison group to investigate a possible excess of Hashimoto's thyroiditis-HT and antibodies-ATA in the surroundings of a Petrochemical Complex.


Methods: People of both sexes aged over 20 years were investigated in a random sample of residents in the area surrounding the Petrochemical Complex. Controls were investigated in an area with steel industries. In the areas searched, participants were chosen randomly and stratified a priori by sex and age group. As a result, 90.5% of the expected sample was obtained, totaling 1533 individuals. HT and ATA prevalences were compared by the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to control the possible confounding factors for HT and ATA.


Results: Both TH (9.3%) and ATA (17.6%) prevalences were higher in the Petrochemical Complex area than in the control area (3.9% and 10.3%, respectively). After controlling the possible confounding factors, the POR for living in the surroundings of the Complex and presenting HT was 2.39 (CI95%: 1.42-4.03). According to the ATA criterion, the POR for living in the surroundings of the Complex was 1.78 (CI95%: 1.23-2.60).


Conclusions: The authors have found higher prevalence and risk of developing thyroiditis and anti-thyroid antibodies among residents of areas surrounding the Petrochemical Complex and think these findings need to be further studied in similar areas.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for propylene glycol toxicity in patients treated with PG-containing medications even when the total PG exposure is lower than currently accepted limits. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 2, 2021 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)


26 Feb 2017
Propylene glycol (PG) is a solvent commonly used in medications that, while benign at low doses, may cause toxicity in adults and children at high doses. We describe a case and the physiologic sequelae of propylene glycol toxicity manifested in a critically ill adolescent male with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus aggressively treated with multiple PG-containing medications (lorazepam, phenobarbital, and pentobarbital)—all within accepted dosing guidelines and a total daily PG exposure previously recognized to be safe. Hemodynamic measurements by bedside echocardiography during clinical toxicity are also reported. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for propylene glycol toxicity in patients treated with PG-containing medications even when the total PG exposure is lower than currently accepted limits.

1. Introduction
Propylene glycol (PG) is an excipient commonly used in medications and is “generally recognized as safe” by the US Food and Drug Administration under 21 CFR 184.1666 [1]. Clinical toxicity has been well described in both adults and children receiving PG-containing medications including lorazepam, diazepam, pentobarbital, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, esmolol, phenytoin, phenobarbital, etomidate, nitroglycerin, multivitamin preparations, and silver sulfadiazine [2]. A typical presentation for PG toxicity is the appearance of an anion and osmol gap metabolic acidosis associated with hemodynamic lability, renal insufficiency, and, if untreated, multiorgan system dysfunction. Fundamental to the appearance of this toxidrome is the provision of a “toxic” dose of PG as numerous therapeutic drugs commonly used in the intensive care unit contain PG, and low doses are believed to be safe. What is considered toxic is currently unknown. While the World Health Organization recommends a maximum ingestion of PG in food additives of 25 mg/kg/day, this limit does not apply to drug excipients where toxicity is reported at much higher dosages [2–4]. There are no formal recommendations regarding daily maximum PG doses in the United States. Using the recommended maximum adult lorazepam dose (166 mg/day), 69 g/day of PG is presumed safe in a 70 kg adult with normal renal and hepatic function [2]. When extrapolated to the pediatric population (daily maximum lorazepam dose 2.4 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg/hour), approximately 1 g/kg/day would be the upper limit of PG exposure. Maximum daily pediatric doses of other commonly used intravenous medications corresponding to this limit have been proposed to avoid PG toxicity in children [5]; however, evidence in support of these limits are weak and previous reports exist of children receiving much higher doses of PG-containing medications (9 g/kg/day) without clinical toxicity [6]. Use of PG-containing medications is exceedingly common, but the presence of a proposed dosing limit in children combined with numerous reports in the pediatric literature exceeding this limit without the development of PG toxicity has made prescribing limits for safe dosing of PG a clinical conundrum for all practitioners who care for critically ill children. We present a case of PG toxicity and associated physiologic sequelae of an adolescent male, unique in that he received PG at doses lower than the prescribed limit and previously thought to be safe.

2. Case Presentation............

Indexed for Hindawi by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

We unexpectedly found, with 90% confidence, detectable levels of anti-PEG Ab in .....72% of the contemporary specimens. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 2, 2021 at 6:20 AM Comments comments (0)


Circulating antibodies (Ab) that specifically bind polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer routinely used in protein and nanoparticle therapeutics, have been associated with reduced efficacy of and/or adverse reactions to therapeutics modified with or containing PEG. Unlike most antidrug antibodies that are induced following initial drug dosing, anti-PEG Ab can be found in treatment-naïve individuals (i.e., individuals who have never undergone treatment with PEGylated drugs but most likely have been exposed to PEG through other means). Unfortunately, the true prevalence, quantitative levels, and Ab isotype of pre-existing anti-PEG Ab remain poorly understood. Here, using rigorously validated competitive ELISAs with engineered chimeric anti-PEG monoclonal Ab standards, we quantified the levels of anti-PEG IgM and different subclasses of anti-PEG IgG (IgG1-4) in both contemporary and historical human samples. We unexpectedly found, with 90% confidence, detectable levels of anti-PEG Ab in ∼72% of the contemporary specimens (18% IgG, 25% IgM, 30% both IgG and IgM). The vast majority of these samples contained low levels of anti-PEG Ab, with only ∼7% and ∼1% of all specimens possessing anti-PEG IgG and IgM in excess of 500 ng/mL, respectively. IgG2 was the predominant anti-PEG IgG subclass. Anti-PEG Ab's were also observed in ∼56% of serum samples collected during 1970-1999 (20% IgG, 19% IgM, and 16% both IgG and IgM), suggesting that the presence of PEG-specific antibodies may be a longstanding phenomenon. Anti-PEG IgG levels demonstrated correlation with patient age, but not with gender or race. The widespread prevalence of pre-existing anti-PEG Ab, coupled with high Ab levels in a subset of the population, underscores the potential importance of screening patients for anti-PEG Ab levels prior to administration of therapeutics containing PEG......... 

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Carvacrol, a Plant Metabolite Targeting Viral Protease (Mpro) and ACE2 in Host Cells Can Be a Possible Candidate for COVID-19. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 31, 2021 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Hayate Javed1*, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran2, Niraj Kumar Jha3 and Shreesh Ojha2*

1Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

3Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology (SET), Sharda University, Knowledge Park III, Greater Noida, India

The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019, resulting in the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are solely accountable for rising mortality and socioeconomic saddles. Presently, there are few repurposed drugs such as remdesivir or favipiravir approved for the treatment of COVID-19, although vaccines and plasma therapy is also subject to emergency approval. However, some potential natural treatments and cures have also been proposed. Molecules of natural origin showed therapeutic importance such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, and could be useful drug candidates for treating COVID-19. In recent years, essential oils have shown promising therapeutic effects against many viral diseases. Carvacrol is one of the monoterpene phenol with abundant presence in essential oils of many aromatic plants, including thyme and oregano. It is being used as food flavoring, additive, and preservatives. Carvacrol is also used as a fragrance in cosmetic products. A number of research studies have shown biological actions of carvacrol with its therapeutic potential is of clinical significance. The in vitro and in vivo studies have shown multiple pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective, and spasmolytic. This review highlights the various biological and pharmacological properties of carvacrol within the scope of COVID-19............ https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.601335/full

Indexed for Frontiers by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

There is evidence that quercetin in combination with, for example, vitamins C and D, may exert a synergistic antiviral action that may provide either an alternative or additional therapeutic/preventive option. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 29, 2021 at 12:35 AM Comments comments (0)

First Published December 3, 2020 Review Article


Quercetin, a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid, is well known to ameliorate chronic diseases and aging processes in humans, and its antiviral properties have been investigated in numerous studies. In silico and in vitro studies demonstrated that quercetin can interfere with various stages of the coronavirus entry and replication cycle such as PLpro, 3CLpro, and NTPase/helicase. Due to its pleiotropic activities and lack of systemic toxicity, quercetin and its derivatives may represent target compounds to be tested in future clinical trials to enrich the drug arsenal against coronavirus infections. There is evidence that quercetin in combination with, for example, vitamins C and D, may exert a synergistic antiviral action that may provide either an alternative or additional therapeutic/preventive option due to overlapping antiviral and immunomodulatory properties. This review summarizes the antiviral significance of quercetin and proposes a possible strategy for the effective utilization of natural polyphenols in our daily diet for the prevention of viral infection.

Keywords Quercetin, flavonoids, antiviral, COVID-19, integrative considerations
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents an emergent global threat which is straining worldwide healthcare capacity. A coronavirus such as SARS-CoV-2 can be deadly because of its ability to stimulate a part of the innate immune response called the inflammasome, which can cause the uncontrolled release of proinflammatory cytokines, namely, interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-18, leading to cytokine storm and severe, sometimes irreversible, damage to the respiratory epithelium.1,2 The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been shown to activate the NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome.3,4

Among various polyphenolic natural products, quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone, Figure 1), a flavonoid, found abundantly in fruits and vegetables, including onions, broccoli, buckwheat, capers, peppers, Brassica vegetables, apples, grapes, berries, tea, and wine, as well as many nuts, seeds, barks, flowers, leaves, and spices,5-8 has been reported as one of the potent inhibitors of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production, typically acting at more than one element of the involved pathways.9 However, it is worthwhile to note that dietary intake of flavonoids ranges from 5 to 100 mg/day (quercetin [Que] and its glycosides account for about 75%), mostly depending on the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the intake of tea.10,11 Que is largely metabolized in the intestine and liver12,13 so that its plasma level is normally low. However, after consuming Que-rich foods, the plasma level of this flavonoid increases to different ranges........... https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1934578X20976293

Indexed for Sage Journals by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Lipid rafts are the sites of the initial binding, activation, internalization and cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 29, 2021 at 12:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Targeting Lipid Rafts—A Potential Therapy for COVID-19

Dmitri Sviridov1,2*, Yury I. Miller3, Rami A. Ballout4, Alan T. Remaley4 and Michael Bukrinsky5

1Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia

3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States

4Lipoprotein Metabolism Section, Translational Vascular Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

5Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States

COVID-19 is a global pandemic currently in an acute phase of rapid expansion. While public health measures remain the most effective protection strategy at this stage, when the peak passes, it will leave in its wake important health problems. Historically, very few viruses have ever been eradicated. Instead, the virus may persist in communities causing recurrent local outbreaks of the acute infection as well as several chronic diseases that may arise from the presence of a “suppressed” virus or as a consequence of the initial exposure. An ideal solution would be an anti-viral medication that (i) targets multiple stages of the viral lifecycle, (ii) is insensitive to frequent changes of viral phenotype due to mutagenesis, (iii) has broad spectrum, (iv) is safe and (v) also targets co-morbidities of the infection. In this Perspective we discuss a therapeutic approach that owns these attributes, namely “lipid raft therapy.” Lipid raft therapy is an approach aimed at reducing the abundance and structural modifications of host lipid rafts or at targeted delivery of therapeutics to the rafts. Lipid rafts are the sites of the initial binding, activation, internalization and cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2. They also are key regulators of immune and inflammatory responses, dysregulation of which is characteristic to COVID-19 infection. Lipid raft therapy was successful in targeting many viral infections and inflammatory disorders, and can potentially be highly effective for treatment of COVID-19. ........

Indexed for Frontiers by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Potential benefits of combination of Nigella sativa and Zn supplements to treat COVID-19. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 29, 2021 at 12:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Why a combination of Zn and black seed could be a natural alternative for COVID-19 treatment

It has been discussed in the preceding section that Zn is involved in boosting the immune response against viral infection including SARS-CoV-2. Immune-boosting activities of Zn include proliferation and activation of neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, and T and B cells as well as cytokine production by the immune cells. Zinc also mediates protection from the adverse effect of ROS that are generally produced during inflammatory processes. In addition, Zn2+ was shown to stop recombinant SARS-CoV RdRp activity by inhibiting elongation and template binding (te Velthuis et al., 2010). Earlier it was also shown that Zn2+ inhibits the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins (Denison et al., 1992; Denison and Perlman, 1986).

Therefore, cellular availability of Zn2+ access to SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumocytes is crucial to fight back the viral pathogenesis. However, oral supplement of Zn alone may not make sufficient availability of Zn in pneumocytes. Earlier it was proven that chloroquine can enhance the uptake of Zn by lysosomes - a cellular organelle important for SARS-CoV-2 replication (Xue et al., 2014). In an in vitro condition, A2780 cells treated with 100–300 μM chloroquine showed increased uptake of ZnCl2 by doubling intracellular Zn levels in a dose dependent manner (Xue et al., 2014). In other words, chloroquine can act as ionophore for Zn to enter in pneumocytes. Given the similar chemical structure of a number of terpenes present in black seed such as nigellimine, they might provide similar ionophore functions to aid Zn entry to pneumocytes. While the other component, thymoquinone, might inhibit the binding of the virus with ACE2 on the pneumocytes.


Having a range of bioactive components such as thymoquinone and nigellimine, black seed might offer a number of benefits to treat COVID-19 such as (i) blocking the entry of the virus into pneumocytes and (ii) providing ionophore for enhanced uptake of Zn2+ which in turn can enhance host immune response against SARS-CoV-2 as well as inhibit its replication by blocking the viral RdRp. However, it is important to identify the right doses for both black seed or its derivatives such as oil, as well as for Zn. It can be noted that black seed oil has been used at doses of between 40−80 mg/kg/day as adjunctive therapy without any side effects. On the other hand, Zn intake above its recommended daily allowance (RDA) might be harmful which varies according to age, sex and other health conditions. For example, the RDA varies for children 1–8 years old (3−5 mg), males 9–13 years (8 mg), males > 14 years (11 mg), females > 18 years (8 mg), and females 14–18 years (9 mg). Individuals with health conditions such as with liver and kidney diseases as well as pregnant women must consult the physicians before deciding to take any self-prescribed Zn supplement........

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Alkaline water has a negative ORP potential due to negative hydroxyl ions prevalent in its composition. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 28, 2021 at 9:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Why should we drink ionized alkaline water?

Life-giving qualities of water

Water is the source of life. At birth, our bodies contain more than 90% of water. Our cells actually bathe in water, otherwise known as interstitial fluid – their natural reservoir of nutrients and oxygen, as well as a medium for removal of metabolic waste. However, the amount of water tends to dwindle with the passage of time. For instance, the average adult body already contains 60-70% of water, and in the eight decade of life – even less.

Responding to shrinking water resources, our bodies tend to „dry out“. This process is accompanied by weakening functional capacities and gradual physical deterioration, known as ageing, as a result. Declining metabolism, poor circulation, inadequate nutrient supply… these are just a few negative outcomes resulting from an insufficient intake of water.

So, the general recommendation is to drink as much fresh water as you can, without waiting for signs of thirst to appear. In fact, the moment you feel thirst, the organism already wants half a litre of water. The daily norm for an adult person is about 2 – 2.5 litres. However, the quality and characteristics of water are at the core of its beneficial effect.

The source of powerful antioxidants

Alkaline water is distinguished by a negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP=-100…-200mV), indicating powerful antioxidant properties. This means that it has plenty of free electrons to give away to free radicals.

Oxidation-reduction reactions or exchange of electrons between atoms or groups of atoms are the basis of all natural chemical processes. Atoms lacking electrons try to steal them from other atoms. These are called free radicals – unstable molecules with an unpaired electron. They form as a result of oxidation reactions in the human body (oxidation is the gain of oxygen). Free radicals have high positive oxidation potential. Seeking out electrons, they continuously attack healthy cells, thus disturbing their normal activity and even destroying cellular structure. This process may trigger uncontrollable chemical reactions, leading to a number of pathological conditions in the human body.

On the other hand, there are atoms, called antioxidants, which have a surplus of electrons ready to donate. By giving them away to free radicals, antioxidants promote the formation of stable oxygen molecules and thus protect the organism against oxidative stress. Antioxidants are characterised by a negative oxidation-reduction potential. Negative value means that oxygen, present in hydroxyl ion, has an extra electron. The more negative ORP value, the higher anti-oxidative effect..........

Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 24, 2021 at 12:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

Indexed by PLOS ONE by Dragonfly Kingdom Library