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High-fat diet promotes enhanced Human Endogenous Retroviruses expression

Posted on December 27, 2021 at 3:25 AM Comments comments (0)

Highlights

 Endogenous retrovirus sensing is required for commensal-

specific immunity

 Reverse transcription inhibition impairs commensal-induced

immunity in the skin

 cGAS/STING signaling in keratinocytes is required for skin

immunity to the microbiota

 Enhanced endogenous retrovirus expression promotes

microbiota-induced inflammation



Endogenous retroviruses promote homeostatic

and inflammatory responses to the microbiota



Djalma S. Lima-Junior,1,11 Siddharth R. Krishnamurthy,1,2,11 Nicolas Bouladoux,1,2 Nicholas Collins,1 Seong-Ji Han,1

Erin Y. Chen,3 Michael G. Constantinides,1,10 Verena M. Link,1,4 Ai Ing Lim,1 Michel Enamorado,1 Christophe Cataisson,5

Louis Gil,2 Indira Rao,1,6 Taylor K. Farley,1,7 Galina Koroleva,4 Jan Attig,8,9 Stuart H. Yuspa,5 Michael A. Fischbach,3

George Kassiotis,8,9 and Yasmine Belkaid1,2,12,*


1Metaorganism Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National

Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

2NIAID Microbiome Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

3Department of Bioengineering and ChEM-H, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

4NIH Center for Human Immunology, Bethesda, MD 20896, USA

5In Vitro Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National

Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA

6Immunology Graduate Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

7Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of

Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7FY, UK

8Retroviral Immunology, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK

9Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK

10Present address: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA

11These authors contributed equally

12Lead contact

*Correspondence: ybelkaid@niaid.nih.gov

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.020



SUMMARY

The microbiota plays a fundamental role in regulating host immunity. However, the processes involved in

the initiation and regulation of immunity to the microbiota remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the

skin microbiota promotes the discrete expression of defined endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Keratino-

cyte-intrinsic responses to ERVs depended on cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/stimulator of interferon

genes protein (STING) signaling and promoted the induction of commensal-specific T cells. Inhibition of

ERV reverse transcription significantly impacted these responses, resulting in impaired immunity to the mi-

crobiota and its associated tissue repair function. Conversely, a lipid-enriched diet primed the skin for

heightened ERV- expression in response to commensal colonization, leading to increased immune re-

sponses and tissue inflammation. Together, our results support the idea that the host may have co-opted

its endogenous virome as a means to communicate with the exogenous microbiota, resulting in a multi-

kingdom dialog that controls both tissue homeostasis and inflammation..........


Echinacea purpurea for the Long-term Prevention of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized, Open, Controlled, Exploratory Clinical Study

Posted on December 27, 2021 at 2:45 AM Comments comments (0)



Abstract


Introduction SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is effective in preventing severe COVID-19, but efficacy in reducing viral load and transmission wanes over time. In addition, the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants increases the threat of uncontrolled dissemination and additional antiviral therapies are urgently needed for effective containment. In previous in vitro studies Echinacea purpurea demonstrated strong antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we examined the potential of Echinacea purpurea in preventing and treating respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and in particular, SARS-CoV-2 infections.

 

Methods 120 healthy volunteers (m,f, 18 – 75 years) were randomly assigned to Echinacea prevention or control group without any intervention. After a run-in week, participants went through 3 prevention cycles of 2, 2 and 1 months with daily 2’400mg Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinaforce®, EF). The prevention cycles were interrupted by breaks of 1 week. Acute respiratory symptoms were treated with 4’000 mg EF for up to 10 days, and their severity assessed via a diary. Naso/oropharyngeal swabs and venous blood samples were routinely collected every month and during acute illnesses for detection and identification of respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 via RT-qPCR and serology.

 

Results Summarized over all phases of prevention, 21 and 29 samples tested positive for any virus in the EF and control group, of which 5 and 14 samples tested SARS-CoV-2 positive (RR=0.37, Chi-square test, p=0.03). Overall, 10 and 14 symptomatic episodes occurred, of which 5 and 8 were COVID-19 (RR=0.70, Chi-square test, p>0.05). EF treatment when applied during acute episodes significantly reduced the overall virus load by at least 2.12 log10 or approx. 99% (t-test, p<0.05), the time to virus clearance by 8.0 days for all viruses (Wilcoxon test, p=0.02) and by 4.8 days for SARS-CoV-2 (p>0.05) in comparison to control. Finally, EF treatment significantly reduced fever days (1 day vs 11 days, Chi-square test, p=0.003) but not the overall symptom severity. There were fewer COVID-19 related hospitalizations in the EF treatment group (N=0 vs N=2).

 

Discussion/Conclusion EF exhibited antiviral effects and reduced the risk of viral RTIs, including SARS-CoV-2. By substantially reducing virus loads in infected subjects, EF offers a supportive addition to existing mandated treatments like vaccinations. Future confirmatory studies are warranted.


Indexed for CSH BMJ YALE  by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.10.21267582v1




Role of polyphenols in combating the SARS COVID-19 pandemic

Posted on December 25, 2021 at 2:30 AM Comments comments (0)




Role of polyphenols in combating the SARS COVID-19 pandemic


Potential therapies for SARS-CoV-2 can be categorized into two groups based on targets; drugs that target the virus and drugs that target the host and its immune system.83 The target proteins in SARS-CoV-2 are categorized as non-structural proteins (MPRO, PLPRO and RdRp) and spike protein (S protein) (Table 1). Resveratrol, a well-known phytoalexin, showed potent inhibitory action against MERS-CoV in an in vitro study. The same study also indicated that resveratrol could prolong the cellular survival after viral infection.84 Emodin, an anthraquinone polyphenol found in the roots of rhubarb, was found to inhibit the interaction of ACE2 and S protein (Table 1).85 Molecular docking studies have shown that polyphenols from Curcuma sp. (curcumin and its derivatives) and Citrus sp. (hesperetin, hesperidin, and tangeretin) have a stronger binding affinity for the S protein than the reference compound nafamostat.86




Naringenin was found to have more substantial binding energy to viral spike glycoprotein (PDB: 6VSB) than remdesivir,87 an anti-viral which was approved by the FDA for the therapy of COVID-19.88 Tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (TGG) and luteolin were found to bind with SARS-CoV surface protein and thus hinder the virus's entry into the host cell.89
The target for the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 is the ACE2, which is a transmembrane metallocarboxypeptidase.90 This receptor thus serves as a potential target for anti-viral drug discovery.




Eriodictyol, a flavanone found in Eriodictyon californicum, showed the highest affinity for ACE2 among 77 candidates.91 Although in silico studies can identify promising candidates, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to assess their actual impact on the pandemic. A study found that mice having inactivated or knocked-out ACE2 developed severe SARS-CoV infection, and they sustained lung injury worse than the wild type control group. The symptoms were alleviated upon administration of recombinant ACE2.92 A cell-based assay revealed that the entry of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 was blocked when soluble ACE2 was introduced, thus confirming that recombinant ACE2 can be used as a decoy target against viral S protein.93,94



Since ACE2 plays a vital role in human physiology, targeting it for anti-viral drug discovery should be done after careful assessment of its risks. Protease inhibitors are a class of compounds that have been extensively used in the management of viruses like HIV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.95,96 The structural and non-structural proteins essential for the life cycle of the coronavirus are proteolytically processed from the polyprotein by 3CLPRO (MPRO) and the PLPRO.97




Natural products like diarylheptanoids,98 terpenoids,99 flavonoids100 and coumarins100 are potent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV proteases. In silico and in vitro analyses have found that epigallocatechin gallate (IC50 = 73 μM), gallocatechin gallate (IC50 = 47 μM) and quercetin (IC50 = 73 μM) are potent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 MPRO.101,102




Flavonoids such as kaempferol and isoliquiritigenin synergistically inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 MPRO and PLPRO in vitro.103 Gentile et al. screened a library of Marine Natural Products (MNP Library) and identified potent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 MPRO via molecular docking analysis. The potent inhibitors of the viral MPRO were heptafuhalol A, phlorethopentafuhalol B, pseudopentafuhalol C, phlorethopentafuhalol A, hydroxypentafuhalol A and pentaphlorethol B, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene from Sargassum spinuligerum and 8,8′-bieckol, 6,6′-bieckol and dieckol from Ecklonia cava.104 Flavonoids from traditional Chinese medicines, like herbacetin, rhoifolin, and pectolinarin, were found to inhibit the MPRO of SARS-CoV.105 Jo et al. found that flavonoids like herbacetin, isobavachalcone and helichrysetin have an inhibitory effect on MERS-CoV MPRO.106



Wen et al. investigated over 200 plant extracts to find their inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV induced cytopathogenic effects were studied in Vero E6 cell lines and they have shown that herbal extracts from Gentianae radix, Dioscoreae rhizoma, Cassiae semen and Loranthi ramus and Rhizoma cibotii in the concentrations from 25 to 200 μg ml−1 proved to have a potential inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV.107



A recent in silico study on naturally derived compounds came up with 3 potential leads which can block the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 in the host cells by inhibiting the host target protein TMPRSS2. The same study also showed that the three compounds (glucogallin, mangiferin, and phlorizin) could also be used to restrict the virus's life cycle inside the host due to their inhibitory action on the viral MPRO.108 The possible anti COVID-19 mechanism of action of the above-mentioned compounds in this section are compiled in a column in Table 2.


Indexed for Royal Society Of Chemistry by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Garden Of Life Nutrition & Protein Powders

Posted on December 22, 2021 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)


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Posted on December 22, 2021 at 3:50 AM Comments comments (0)


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Viruses and other pathogens are often studied as stand-alone entities, despite that, in nature, they mostly live in multispecies associations called biofilms-both externally and within the host.

Posted on December 21, 2021 at 7:00 AM Comments comments (0)



Abstract


Bats are a key reservoir of coronaviruses (CoVs), including the agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the recent deadly viral pneumonia pandemic. However, understanding how bats can harbor several microorganisms without developing illnesses is still a matter under discussion. Viruses and other pathogens are often studied as stand-alone entities, despite that, in nature, they mostly live in multispecies associations called biofilms-both externally and within the host.


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Microorganisms in biofilms are enclosed by an extracellular matrix that confers protection and improves survival. Previous studies have shown that viruses can secondarily colonize preexisting biofilms, and viral biofilms have also been described. In this review, we raise the perspective that CoVs can persistently infect bats due to their association with biofilm structures. This phenomenon potentially provides an optimal environment for nonpathogenic and well-adapted viruses to interact with the host, as well as for viral recombination. Biofilms can also enhance virion viability in extracellular environments, such as on fomites and in aquatic sediments, allowing viral persistence and dissemination.


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Moreover, understanding the biofilm lifestyle of CoVs in reservoirs might contribute to explaining several burning questions as to persistence and transmissibility of highly pathogenic emerging CoVs.




Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34190608/


Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera

Posted on December 21, 2021 at 6:55 AM Comments comments (0)


Due to its phytochemical composition, A. vera leaf gel may show promise in alleviating symptoms associated with/or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes.

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There are several factors that contribute to the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in meat processing plants and one of the factors is the formation of a multi-species biofilm with virus.

Posted on December 21, 2021 at 6:50 AM Comments comments (0)
Abstract


Meat processing plants have been at the center of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. There are several
 factors that contribute to the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in meat processing plants and one of the
factors is the formation of a multi-species biofilm with virus. Biofilm can act as a reservoir in
protecting, harboring, and dispersing SARS-CoV-2 from biofilm to the meat processing facility
environment. We used Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 virus and
 meat processing facility drain samples to develop mixed-species biofilms on commonly found
materials in processing facilities (Stainless-Steel (SS), PVC and tiles). The results showed that
MHV was able to integrate into the environmental biofilm and survived for a period of 5 days at
7°C. There was no significate difference between the viral-environmental biofilm biovolumes
developed on different materials SS, PVC, and tiles. There was a 2-fold increase in the virus-
environmental biofilm biovolume when compared to environmental biofilm by itself. These results
indicate a complex virus-environmental biofilm interaction which is providing enhanced
 protection for the survival of viral particles with the environmental biofilm community......



available under aCC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

(which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made

bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.29.466519; this version posted November 1, 2021.



Anti-biofilm, anti-hemolysis, and anti-virulence activities of black pepper, cananga, myrrh oils, and nerolidol against Staphylococcus aureus

Posted on December 21, 2021 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)


Abstract


The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, anti-virulence approaches target bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability, which may be less prone to develop drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that produces diverse virulence factors, such as α-toxin, which is hemolytic. Also, biofilm formation of S. aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. In this study, anti-biofilm screening of 83 essential oils showed that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and their common constituent cis-nerolidol at 0.01 % markedly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation. Furthermore, the three essential oils and cis-nerolidol at below 0.005 % almost abolished the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that black pepper oil down-regulated the expressions of the α-toxin gene (hla), the nuclease genes, and the regulatory genes. In addition, black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and cis-nerolidol attenuated S. aureus virulence in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This study is one of the most extensive on anti-virulence screening using diverse essential oils and provides comprehensive data on the subject. This finding implies other beneficial effects of essential oils and suggests that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential use as anti-virulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infections.

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Cho HS, et al. Biofouling. 2015. PMID: 25535776



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Common Herbs With MAO Inhibitor Activity

Posted on December 13, 2021 at 5:40 AM Comments comments (0)



Common Herbs With MAO Inhibitor Activity

Syrian Rue
Passionflower
Ayahuasca
Nutmeg
Turmeric
Kava


Written by
Janet Contursi
05 December, 2018


MAOs, or monoamine oxidases, are enzymes that break down neurotransmitters and stop their messaging activity. MAO-A breaks down serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine; MAO-B deactivates dopamine. MAO inhibitors prevent the breakdown process, allowing neurotransmitters to remain available longer in the synapses between nerve sells. MAO inhibitors are prescribed for depression, but due to their dangerous interactions with certain foods, they have been largely replaced by other types of antidepressants. Herbs can inhibit MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes without the unpleasant side effects of antidepressants.

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Review on plants with CNS-effects used in traditional South African medicine against mental diseases

Posted on December 13, 2021 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)



Abstract

The majority of the population in South Africa use traditional health care to treat various mental conditions. In this review, we present ethnobotanical information on plants used by the traditional healers in South Africa to treat mental illnesses, specifically epilepsy, depression, age-related dementia and debilitative mental disorders. Details of the recent scientific studies conducted on some of these plants are reviewed. Extracts of Searsia chirindensis, Cotelydon orbiculata and Leonotis leonurus have shown in vivo anticonvulsant activity. Extracts from Searsia dentata and Searsia pyroides showed spontaneous epileptiform discharge in mouse cortical slices, and acted as NMDA-receptor antagonists. Apigenin, amentoflavone and agathisflavone with affinity to the benzodiazepine site on the GABA(A)-receptor were isolated from Searsia pyroides. Naringenin with affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor was isolated from Mentha aquatica. Agapanthus campanulatus, Boophone disticha, Mondia whitei and Xysmalobium undulatum exhibited antidepressant-like activity in three in vivo models for depression. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids with activity to the serotonin transporter were isolated from Boophone disticha. The alkaloid mesembrine, which act as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was isolated from Sceletium tortuosum.


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Investigations of plants used to treat age-related dementia and debilitative mental disorders lead to the isolation of a number of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity from Boophone disticha and Crinum species. Extracts of Mentha aquatica, Gasteria croucheri, Ruta graveolens and Scotia brachypetala inhibited MAO-B. Naringenin was isolated from Mentha aquatica as a MAO inhibitor. Only a small number of the more than 300 southern African plant species reported to treat or affect the CNS have been scientifically evaluated. Very few of the active compounds have been isolated and identified.



Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

Agroecology is sustainable farming that works with nature. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on December 4, 2021 at 3:40 AM Comments comments (0)




Agroecology is sustainable farming that works with nature.

Ecology is the study of relationships between plants, animals, people, and their environment - and the balance between these relationships.

 

Agroecology is the application of ecological concepts and principals in farming.

 

Agroecology promotes farming practices that;

 

Mitigate climate change - reducing emissions, recycling resources and prioritising local supply chains.

Work with wildlife - managing the impact of farming on wildlife and harnessing nature to do the hard work for us, such as pollinating crops and controlling pests.

Put farmers and communities in the driving seat - they give power to approaches led by local people and adapt agricultural techniques to suit the local area - and its specific social, environmental and economic conditions.

 

Agroecology in action

Agroforestry is a great example of agroecology. It's the practice of combining trees and farming; it demonstrates how food production and nature can co-exist.

 

Grazing farm animals under trees gives them shelter and fodder, whilst their manure enriches the soil. And planting trees on land normally used to grow cereal crops can provide another crop - be that fruit, nuts or timber. This provides another income stream for farmers and also protects soils from erosion, as the trees' deep roots help create a healthy soil structure.

 

Agroforestry, like many agroecological approaches, is a win-win.  ..........


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Going to the roots of reduced magnesium dietary intake: A tradeoff between climate changes and sources

Posted on November 28, 2021 at 7:50 AM Comments comments (0)


Abstract


Magnesium is essential in plants where it is associated with chlorophyll pigments and serves as a cofactor of enzymes implicated in photosynthesis and metabolism. It is an essential nutrient for animals, involved in hundreds metabolic reaction and crucial for the biological activity of ATP. Not surprisingly, magnesium deficiency is detrimental for the health of plants and animals. In humans, subclinical magnesium deficiency is common and generates chronic inflammation, which is the common denominator of a wide range of mental and physical health problems from metabolic diseases to cognitive impairment, from osteopenia and sarcopenia to depression. It is ascertained that magnesium content in fruits and vegetables dropped in the last fifty years, and about 80% of this metal is lost during food processing. As a consequence, a large percentage of people all over the world does not meet the minimum daily magnesium requirement. In this scoping review, we summarize how agronomic and environmental factors, including global warming, affect magnesium content and availability in the soil and, consequently, in the food chain, with the aim of attracting the interest of botanists, agronomists, animal and human nutritionists and physicians to work on a strategy that grants adequate magnesium intake for everybody. 

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

Supplementation with tomato-based products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema

Posted on November 28, 2021 at 5:35 AM Comments comments (0)



Abstract



 

Carotenoids are suitable photoprotectants, and beta-carotene supplements are used for protection against ultraviolet (UV) light-induced erythema. Protective effects are also observed when carotenoids are provided with the diet. Here, we investigated the photoprotective effects of synthetic lycopene in comparison with a tomato extract (Lyc-o-Mato) and a drink containing solubilized Lyc-o-Mato (Lyc-o-Guard-Drink). With these different sources, the volunteers ingested similar amounts of lycopene (about 10 mg/day). After 12 weeks of supplementation, significant increases in lycopene serum levels and total skin carotenoids were observed in all groups. Significant increases in the serum levels of phytofluene and phytoene occurred in the Lyc-o-Mato and the Lyc-o-Guard-Drink group. At weeks 0, 4, and 12 an erythema was induced with a solar light simulator. Dorsal skin of each subject was irradiated with 1.25 minimal erythemal dose (MED). Reddening of the skin was evaluated before and 24 hours after irradiation by chromametry and expressed as positive a-values (red/green-axis). delta a-values (difference of a-value before irradiation and after 24 hours) were used as an index of erythema intensity. A decrease in the delta a-value from week 0 to week 12, indicating prevention of erythema formation, was observed in all groups. Compared to week 0, the delta a-value at week 12 was 25% lower in the synthetic lycopene group. The protective effect was more pronounced in the Lyc-o-Mato (38%) and Lyc-o-Guard-Drink (48%) groups. In the two latter groups, phytofluene and phytoene may have contributed to protection. Both of these carotenoids exhibit absorption maxima at wavelengths of UV light. Absorption of UV light protects skin from photodamage and might explain the differences observed between groups.

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Upregulation of lymphocyte apoptosis as a strategy for preventing and treating autoimmune disorders: a role for whole-food vegan diets, fish oil and dopamine agonists

Posted on November 28, 2021 at 5:20 AM Comments comments (0)


Abstract

Induced apoptosis of autoreactive T-lymphocyte precursors in the thymus is crucial for the prevention of autoimmune disorders. IGF-I and prolactin, which are lymphocyte growth factors, may have the potential to suppress apoptosis in thymocytes and thus encourage autoimmunity; conversely, dietary fish oil rich in omega-3 fats appears to upregulate apoptosis in lymphocytes. Since whole-food vegan diets may downregulate systemic IGF-I activity, it is proposed that such a diet, in conjunction with fish oil supplementation and treatment with dopamine agonists capable of suppressing prolactin secretion, may have utility for treating and preventing autoimmune disorders. This prediction is consistent with the extreme rarity of autoimmune disorders among sub-Saharan black Africans as long as they followed their traditional quasi-vegan lifestyles, and with recent ecologic studies correlating risks for IDDM and for multiple sclerosis mortality with animal product and/or saturated fat consumption. Moreover, there is evidence that vegan or quasi-vegan diets are useful in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and possibly SLE. The dopamine agonist bromocryptine exerts anti-inflammatory effects in rodent models of autoimmunity, and there is preliminary evidence that this drug may be clinically useful in several human autoimmune diseases; better tolerated D2-specific agonists such as cabergoline may prove to be more practical for use in therapy. The moderate clinical utility of supplemental fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis and certain other autoimmune disorders is documented. It is not unlikely that extra-thymic anti-inflammatory effects contribute importantly to the clinical utility of vegan diets, bromocryptine, and fish oil in autoimmunity. The favorable impact of low latitude or high altitude on autoimmune risk may be mediated by superior vitamin D status, which is associated with decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone; there are theoretical grounds for suspecting that parathyroid hormone may inhibit apoptosis in thymocytes. Androgens appear to up-regulate thymocyte apoptosis, may be largely responsible for the relative protection from autoimmunity enjoyed by men, and merit further evaluation for the management of autoimmunity in women. It will probably prove more practical to prevent autoimmune disorders than to reverse them once established; a whole-food vegan diet, coupled with fish oil and vitamin D supplementation, may represent a practical strategy for achieving this prevention, while concurrently lowering risk for many other life-threatening 'Western' diseases.

Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

A moderately low phosphate intake may provide health benefits analogous to those conferred by UV light - a further advantage of vegan diets

Posted on November 28, 2021 at 5:05 AM Comments comments (0)




Abstract


Although exposure to ultraviolet light is often viewed as pathogenic owing to its role in the genesis of skin cancer and skin aging, there is growing epidemiological evidence that such exposure may decrease risk for a number of more serious cancers, may have a favorable impact on blood pressure and vascular health, and may help to prevent certain autoimmune disorders - in addition to its well-known influence on bone density. Most likely, these health benefits are reflective of improved vitamin D status. Increased synthesis or intake of vitamin D can be expected to down-regulate parathyroid hormone (PTH), and to increase autocrine synthesis of its active metabolite calcitriol in certain tissues; these effects, in turn, may impact cancer risk, vascular health, immune regulation, and bone density through a variety of mechanisms. Presumably, a truly adequate supplemental intake of vitamin D - manyfold higher than the grossly inadequate current RDA - could replicate the benefits of optimal UV exposure, without however damaging the skin. Diets moderately low in bioavailable phosphate - like many vegan diets - might be expected to have a complementary impact on disease risks, inasmuch as serum phosphate suppresses renal calcitriol synthesis while up-regulating that of PTH. A proviso is that the impact of dietary phosphorus on bone health is more equivocal than that of vitamin D. Increased intakes of calcium, on the other hand, down-regulate the production of both PTH and calcitriol - the latter effect may explain why the impact of dietary calcium on cancer risk (excepting colon cancer), hypertension, and autoimmunity is not clearly positive. An overview suggests that a vegan diet supplemented with high-dose vitamin D should increase both systemic and autocrine calcitriol production while suppressing PTH secretion, and thus should represent a highly effective way to achieve the wide-ranging health protection conferred by optimal UV exposure.


Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14592785/

Keep Food Fresh & Reduce Waste: Reusable Canning Lids Now Available.

Posted on November 23, 2021 at 4:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Reusable Canning Lids are the market's best solution to single use, throw-away metal canning lids such as Ball and Kerr. Harvest Guard lids provide a quality, reusable alternative to home food canners.