|Posted on August 5, 2021 at 7:30 AM||comments (0)|
Thymoquinone: A Promising Natural Compound with Potential Benefits for COVID-19 Prevention and Cure
Authors Badary OA, Hamza MS, Tikamdas R
Received 28 February 2021
Accepted for publication 13 April 2021
Published 3 May 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 1819—1833
Osama A Badary,1,2 Marwa S Hamza,1 Rajiv Tikamdas1
1Clinical Pharmacy Practice Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt; 2Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Correspondence: Osama A Badary
Clinical Pharmacy Practice Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt, P.O. Box 43, El-Sherouk City, Cairo, 11837, Egypt
Abstract: COVID-19 has caused a major global health crisis, as excessive inflammation, oxidation, and exaggerated immune response in some sufferers can lead to a condition known as cytokine storm, which may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDs), which can be fatal. So far, few effective drugs have emerged to assist in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, though some herbal medicine candidates may assist in the fight against COVID-19 deaths. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main active ingredient of black seed oil, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anticoagulant activities. TQ also increases the activity and number of cytokine suppressors, lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and macrophages, and it has demonstrated antiviral potential against a number of viruses, including murine cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and other coronaviruses. Recently, TQ has demonstrated notable antiviral activity against a SARSCoV-2 strain isolated from Egyptian patients and, interestingly, molecular docking studies have also shown that TQ could potentially inhibit COVID-19 development through binding to the receptor-binding domain on the spike and envelope proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which may hinder virus entry into the host cell and inhibit its ion channel and pore forming activity. Other studies have shown that TQ may have an inhibitory effect on SARS CoV2 proteases, which could diminish viral replication, and it has also demonstrated good antagonism to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, allowing it to interfere with virus uptake into the host cell. Several studies have also noted its potential protective capability against numerous chronic diseases and conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, asthma, renal dysfunction and malignancy. TQ has recently been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of several different diseases, and this review thus aims to highlight the potential therapeutic effects of TQ in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: thymoquinone, COVID-19, natural, therapeutic benefits.........
Black Seed / Black Seed Oil Available at https://amzn.to/2VzmkqR
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|Posted on August 5, 2021 at 7:20 AM||comments (0)|
Since December 2019, the deadly novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the current COVID-19 pandemic. To date, vaccines are available in the developed countries to prevent the infection of this virus, however, medicines are necessary to help control COVID-19. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) causes the common cold. The main protease (Mpro) is an essential enzyme required for the multiplication of these two viruses in the host cells, and thus is an appropriate candidate to screen potential medicinal compounds. Flavonols and dihydroflavonols are two groups of plant flavonoids. In this study, we report docking simulation with two Mpro enzymes and five flavonols and three dihydroflavonols, in vitro inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and in vitro inhibition of the HCoV 229E replication. The docking simulation results predicted that (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)-dihydroquercetin, (+)-dihydromyricetin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricentin, isoquercetin, and rutin could bind to at least two subsites (S1, S1’, S2, and S4) in the binding pocket and inhibit the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.
Their affinity scores ranged from -8.8 to -7.4. Likewise, these compounds were predicted to bind and inhibit the HCoV-229E Mpro activity with affinity scores ranging from -7.1 to -7.8. In vitro inhibition assays showed that seven available compounds effectively inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity and their IC50 values ranged from 0.125 to 12.9 µM. Five compounds inhibited the replication of HCoV-229E in Huh-7 cells. These findings indicate that these antioxidative flavonols and dihydroflavonols are promising candidates for curbing the two viruses.
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|Posted on August 5, 2021 at 7:10 AM||comments (1)|
Current challenges to the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 should open new prospects in the search for novel drugs from medicinal plants and other natural products. This paper provides details of natural agents that inhibit human coronavirus entry into cells, general replication, and specific chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro)-mediated replication. Medicinal plants, fungi, and marine organisms as remedies for human coronaviruses in China, Lebanon, Malaysia, Singapore, and South Africa are described. Common species include Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud., Artemisia annua L., Artemisia apiacea Hance, Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl, edible brown algae Ecklonia cava Kjellman, Euphorbia neriifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Pelargonium sidoides DC., Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem., and Torreya nucifera (L.) Siebold & Zucc. At least fifty natural compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, lignins, and tannins, which inhibit various strains of human coronaviruses, are presented.
Given the scarcity of efficacious and safe vaccines or drugs for coronavirus disease 2019, natural products are low-hanging fruits that should be harnessed as the new global frontier against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.........
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|Posted on August 5, 2021 at 6:50 AM||comments (0)|
To examine the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects of resveratrol oligosaccharides, human MRC5 lung cells, which had been infected with SARS-CoV-2, were incubated with different concentrations of resveratrol oligosaccharides. These suppressed the cell death induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, more efficiently, at 0.1% concentration, than resveratrol itself. Resveratrol oligosaccharides effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in the 5% to 10% concentration range, which indicates that these compounds could be useful anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents.
antiviral effects, anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds, polyphenol, resveratrol, oligosaccharides
Resveratrol is a polyphenol that is present in many fruits, including grape berries of Vitis vinifera.1 There have been many studies of resveratrol demonstrating its capacity to prevent versatile conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and to control bacterial and viral infections.2-6 It has also been reported for its ability to abolish the effects of oxidative stress in cultured cells.6 The biological activity of resveratrol as an antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts has been shown. There have been other studies showing that this compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A.7 Its toxicity at high concentrations has been found, but, on the other hand, at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA.7 The transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus may be hindered, thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane.
Cultured plant cells can be used to transform organic molecules to more useful compounds by carrying out hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, esterification, isomerization, and glycosylation reactions.8 Glycosylation of biological active compounds can enhance water solubility, physicochemical stability, intestinal absorption, and biological half-life.8 The fact that many secondary metabolites accumulate in the form of glycosides in plants suggests that such cells would contain glucosyltransferases, which catalyze the conjugation of an aglycone and a glucosyl donor molecule......
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|Posted on August 5, 2021 at 6:40 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on August 4, 2021 at 7:10 AM||comments (0)|
The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a significant threat to human health and the worldwide economy. Coronaviruses cause a variety of diseases, such as pneumonia-like upper respiratory tract illnesses, gastroenteritis, encephalitis, multiple organ failure involving lungs and kidneys which might cause death. Since the pandemic started there have been more than 107 million COVID-19 infections caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and ∼2.4 million deaths globally. SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted from person-to-person and has spread quickly across all continents. With the continued increase in morbidity and mortality caused by COVID-19, and the damage to the global economy, there is an urgent need for effective prevention and treatment strategies. The advent of safe and effective vaccines has been a significant step forward in the battle against COVID-19, however treatment of the symptoms associated with the disease still requires new anti-viral and anti-inflammatory drug therapies. To this end, scientists have been investigating available natural products that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2, with some products showing promise in fighting several viral infections. Since many natural products are dietary components or are prepared as dietary supplements people tend to consider them safer than synthetic drugs. For example, Traditional Chinese Medicines have been effectively utilized to treat SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with promising results. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of COVID-19 therapies and the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant extracts and natural compounds for the treatment of several viral infections, with special emphasis on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Realistic strategies that can be employed for the effective use of bioactive compounds for anti-SARS-CoV-2 research are also provided.
Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; bioactive compounds; natural compounds.
Copyright © 2021 Ayatollahi, Sharifi-Rad, Tsouh Fokou, Mahady, Ansar Rasul Suleria, Krishna Kapuganti, Gadhave, Giri, Garg, Sharma, Ribeiro, Rodrigues, Reiner, Taheri and Cruz-Martins.
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dagonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on August 4, 2021 at 7:05 AM||comments (0)|
There were severe panics caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus. Therefore, researches targeting these viruses have been required. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been rising targets of some flavonoids. The antiviral activity of some flavonoids against CoVs is presumed directly caused by inhibiting 3C-like protease (3CLpro). Here, we applied a flavonoid library to systematically probe inhibitory compounds against SARS-CoV 3CLpro. Herbacetin, rhoifolin and pectolinarin were found to efficiently block the enzymatic activity of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. The interaction of the three flavonoids was confirmed using a tryptophan-based fluorescence method, too. An induced-fit docking analysis indicated that S1, S2 and S3' sites are involved in binding with flavonoids. The comparison with previous studies showed that Triton X-100 played a critical role in objecting false positive or overestimated inhibitory activity of flavonoids. With the systematic analysis, the three flavonoids are suggested to be templates to design functionally improved inhibitors.
Keywords: FRET; SARS-CoV; SARS-CoV 3CLpro; flavonoid; inhibitory compounds.
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|Posted on August 4, 2021 at 7:05 AM||comments (0)|
A newly diagnosed coronavirus in 2019 (COVID-19) has affected all human activities since its discovery. Flavonoids commonly found in the human diet have attracted a lot of attention due to their remarkable biological activities. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the benefits of flavonoids in COVID-19 disease. Previously-reported effects of flavonoids on five RNA viruses with similar clinical manifestations and/or pharmacological treatments, including influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, were considered. Flavonoids act via direct antiviral properties, where they inhibit different stages of the virus infective cycle and indirect effects when they modulate host responses to viral infection and subsequent complications. Flavonoids have shown antiviral activity via inhibition of viral protease, RNA polymerase, and mRNA, virus replication, and infectivity. The compounds were also effective for the regulation of interferons, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and sub-cellular inflammatory pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and Jun N-terminal kinases. Baicalin, quercetin and its derivatives, hesperidin, and catechins are the most studied flavonoids in this regard. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids are promising treatment options against COVID-19 infection; however, future investigations are recommended to assess the antiviral properties of these compounds on this disease.
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|Posted on August 4, 2021 at 7:00 AM||comments (0)|
You may not know that in the first part of the twentieth century there was such a thing as vitamin P. Not only that, but vitamin P helped to reduce blood sugar, improve insulin resistance, reduce lipids, and fight inflammation. It sounds like pretty good stuff, and you can’t help but wonder where it went. Actually, vitamin P is a substance we now call flavonoids. And yes, flavonoids have been credited with all of those effects and possibly more.
vitamin p, flavonoids, antioxidants, nutrition, hesperidinA flavonoid is a byproduct of plant metabolism, so you get flavonoids when you eat plants. Hesperidin is a popular and healthy type of flavonoid that comes from citrus fruits. In a recent study by the Journal of Strength of Conditioning, researchers wanted to see if hesperidin supplementation would benefit chemical and stress indicators during exercise.
In this case researchers looked at rats, not people, but the results were telling. They had the rats do different swimming protocols, both interval and steady, and they supplemented the rats with hesperidin. The workouts were pretty intense by human standards. Either 50 minutes of continuous loaded swimming, or 50 one-minute intervals with even heavier loaded swimming.
Exercise reduces blood glucose, as you would imagine. The more intense the exercise, the lower the glucose level becomes, so the rats performing the intervals had the least glucose. Each rat that supplemented with hesperidin had even less blood glucose. This is likely due to better utilization of blood sugar by an improvement to the insulin system, and as such taking hesperidin presumably wouldn’t be a detriment to people with already low blood sugar.
The hesperidin also improved the blood profiles of other important biochemicals. For example, the rats supplementing with hesperidin had lower total cholesterol, lower LDL cholesterol (the bad kind), and lower triglycerides, but they had higher HDL cholesterol (the good kind). These changes have been associated with a reduction in metabolic diseases like diabetes, in this case not only from the exercise itself, but also from hesperidin supplementation.
Blood chemistry wasn’t the only improvement, though. Protection from cancer-causing free radicals was also increased. In the continuous swimming group, the antioxidant capacity of rats actually increased to 83% more than their non-hesperidin counterparts. The interval swimming group experienced reduced lipid peroxidation to the tune of 45%. Lipid peroxidation is the direct chemical process by which free radicals damage your cells.
No matter which exercise was performed, the protective benefits of this citrus flavonoid were clear. Not only does hesperidin help keep you safe from free radicals, but when combined with steady cardio it will actually improve your protection against future activities.
So the evidence is in. Hesperidin is good for rats. And in this case, although the numbers maybe unreliable - especially since I’d definitely drown if I had to swim weighted for 50 minutes - I think we can extend these benefits in some degree to us as well. And best of all, you can also just eat citrus fruits.
|Posted on July 24, 2021 at 11:45 AM||comments (0)|
1Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, El-Oued University, Algeria
2Laboratory of Biodiversity and Application of Biotechnology in the Agricultural Field, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of El Oued, Algeria
COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of developing inflammatory responses associated with serious and even fatal respiratory diseases. This review focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and COVID-19. Coronaviruses are a family of common RNA viruses that can cause serious lower respiratory tract infections, followed by bronchitis and pneumonia. Pulmonary inflammation, fever and fibrosis are symptoms of COVID-19 mediated by cytokine pro-inflammatory.
Oxidative stress affect repair mechanisms and the immune control system, which is one of the main events of the inflammatory response which allows us also to conclude that oxidative stress is a major factor increasing the severity of COVID-19 especially during chronic diseases associated with the fragility of the antioxidant system, suggesting to recommend antioxidants supplementation in therapeutic strategies against COVID-19....
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|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 6:05 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on July 21, 2021 at 5:55 AM||comments (0)|
COVID-19 has impacted populations around the world, with the fatality rate varying dramatically across countries. Selenium, as one of the important micronutrients implicated in viral infections, was suggested to play roles.
An ecological study was performed to assess the association between the COVID-19 related fatality and the selenium content both from crops and topsoil, in China.
Totally, 14,045 COVID-19 cases were reported from 147 cities during 8 December 2019–13 December 2020 were included. Based on selenium content in crops, the case fatality rates (CFRs) gradually increased from 1.17% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.28% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 3.16% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P = 0.002). Based on selenium content in topsoil, the CFRs gradually increased from 0.76% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.70% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 1.85% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P < 0.001). The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model showed a significantly higher fatality risk in cities with severe-selenium-deficient selenium content in crops than non-selenium-deficient cities, with incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 3.88 (95% CIs: 1.21–12.52), which was further confirmed by regression fitting the association between CFR of COVID-19 and selenium content in topsoil, with the IRR of 2.38 (95% CIs: 1.14–4.98) for moderate-selenium-deficient cities and 3.06 (1.49–6.27) for severe-selenium-deficient cities.
Regional selenium deficiency might be related to an increased CFR of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to explore the associations between selenium status and disease outcome at individual-level.
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|Posted on July 19, 2021 at 7:55 AM||comments (0)|
COVID-19 and Fast Foods Consumption: a Review
Jalal BohlouliORCID Icon,Amir Reza MoravejolahkamiORCID Icon,Marjan Ganjali DashtiORCID Icon,Zakiyeh Balouch ZehiORCID Icon,Mohammad Ali Hojjati KermaniORCID Icon,Mohammad Borzoo-IsfahaniORCID Icon & show all
Pages 203-209 | Received 10 Aug 2020, Accepted 04 Jan 2021, Published online: 21 Jan 2021
Bigher adherence to refined carbohydrate diets, sweets, and saturated fats contributes to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes; these disorders increase the risk for severe COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Fast food consumption activates the intrinsic immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defence against viruses. Furthermore, inflammatory responses caused by COVID-19 may have long-term costs in survived individuals, leading to chronic disorders such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that are related to an unhealthy diet.
Therefore, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a main concern and individuals should be aware of healthy eating habits to reduce COVID-19 complications........
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|Posted on July 18, 2021 at 8:20 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on July 17, 2021 at 11:50 AM||comments (0)|
Microbial production of vitamin B12
J H Martens et al
One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined....
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|Posted on July 17, 2021 at 11:50 AM||comments (0)|
Jose M. Jimenez-Guardeño, Ana Maria Ortega-Prieto, Borja Menendez Moreno, Thomas J.A. Maguire, Juan Ignacio Diaz-Hernandez, Javier Diez Perez, Mark Zuckerman, Albert Mercadal Playa, Carlos Cordero Deline, Michael H. Malim, Rocio T Martinez-Nunez
The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the need to identify new therapeutics at pace, including through drug repurposing. We employed a Quadratic Unbounded Binary Optimization (QUBO) model, to search for compounds similar to Remdesivir (RDV), the only antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 currently approved for human use, using a quantum-inspired device. We modelled RDV and compounds present in the DrugBank database as graphs, established the optimal parameters in our algorithm and resolved the Maximum Weighted Independent Set problem within the conflict graph generated. We also employed a traditional Tanimoto fingerprint model. The two methods yielded different lists of compounds, with some overlap. While GS-6620 was the top compound predicted by both models, the QUBO model predicted BMS-986094 as second best. The Tanimoto model predicted different forms of cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12. We then determined the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in cell culture models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and assessed cytotoxicity. Lastly, we demonstrated efficacy against several variants including SARS-CoV-2 Strain England 2 (England 02/2020/407073), B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta) and B.1.617.2 (Delta). Our data reveal that BMS-986094 and different forms of vitamin B12 are effective at inhibiting replication of all these variants of SARS-CoV-2. While BMS-986094 can cause secondary effects in humans as established by phase II trials, these findings suggest that vitamin B12 deserves consideration as a SARS-CoV-2 antiviral, particularly given its extended use and lack of toxicity in humans, and its availability and affordability. Our screening method can be employed in future searches for novel pharmacologic inhibitors, thus providing an approach for accelerating drug deployment...
|Posted on July 17, 2021 at 11:40 AM||comments (0)|
Background: In vitro, vitamin B12 acts as a natural inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication.
Objective: To assess the effect of vitamin B12 on virological response in patients with chronic HCV hepatitis naïve to antiviral therapy.
Methods: Ninety-four patients with chronic HCV hepatitis were randomly assigned to receive pegylated interferon α plus ribavirin (standard-of-care; SOC) or SOC plus vitamin B12 (SOC+B12). Viral response-namely, undetectable serum HCV-RNA, was evaluated 4 weeks after starting treatment (rapid viral response), 12 weeks after starting treatment (complete early viral response) and 24 or 48 weeks after starting treatment (end-of-treatment viral response) and 24 weeks after completing treatment (sustained viral response (SVR)). Genotyping for the interleukin (IL)-28B polymorphism was performed a posteriori in a subset (42/64) of HCV genotype 1 carriers.
Results: Overall, rapid viral response did not differ between the two groups, whereas the rates of complete early viral response (p=0.03), end-of-treatment viral response (p=0.03) and SVR (p=0.001) were significantly higher in SOC+B12 patients than in SOC patients. In SOC+B12 patients, the SVR rate was also significantly higher in carriers of a difficult-to-treat genotype (p=0.002) and in patients with a high baseline viral load (p=0.002). Distribution of genotype IL-28B did not differ between the two groups. At multivariate analysis, only easy-to-treat HCV genotypes (OR=9.00; 95% CI 2.5 to 37.5; p=0.001) and vitamin B12 supplementation (OR=6.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 23.6; p=0.002) were independently associated with SVR.
Conclusion: Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly improves SVR rates in HCV-infected patients naïve to antiviral therapy.
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|Posted on June 15, 2021 at 11:30 AM||comments (0)|
A cytopathic 'stealth' virus was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with a bipolar psychotic disorder who developed a severe encephalopathy leading to a vegetative state. DNA sequencing of a polymerase chain reaction-amplified product from infected cultures has identified the virus as an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV)-related stealth virus. The virus is similar to the SCMV-related stealth virus isolated from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome. The findings support the concepts that stealth viruses can account for a spectrum of dysfunctional brain diseases and that some of these viruses may have arisen from live polio viral vaccines.
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on May 20, 2021 at 11:05 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on May 18, 2021 at 6:50 AM||comments (0)|
Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans.
Advertisment: Get Chlorella & other whole food supplements at Global Healing Center https://go.globalhealingcenter.com/7VKLy
Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.
Keywords: chlorella; methylmalonic acid; veganism; vegetarian diet; vitamin B12 deficiency
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