Music Muscle Mindfulness Heartfulness Happiness Health Fitness Fashion Phytonutrients


Neurobiology: Exploring a link between increased violent crime, mental health and increased exposure to wireless radiation. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on June 6, 2022 at 8:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Here are a few resources but do your own research.


Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic waves alters acetylcholinesterase gene expression, exploratory and motor coordination-linked behaviour

Association between Internet overuse and aggression ...

Wireless Microwave Radiation is Neurotoxic: Case Study 

Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

Posted on May 28, 2022 at 8:30 AM Comments comments (0)

Definition - What does Sahaja mean?

From birth, born with, naturally occurring, congenital. 

Sahaja is a Sanskrit word that translates to “spontaneous” or “naturally born together." This term is widely used in Buddhism and has particular importance in Tantrism.


Additionally, Sahaja yoga is a form of meditation which was devised by Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi in 1970 and has become popular all around the world. Since its inception, this type of yoga has been practiced by hundreds of thousands of people in more than 90 countries.


Yogapedia explains Sahaja

Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi says that Sahaja yoga allows an awakening to occur in each person, which, on a larger scale, will help achieve a global unity of mankind. She also claims that this practice lets each person become their own spiritual guide.


For those who mediate for the purpose of achieving liberation or a spiritual awakening (moksha), this is a form of yoga that offers an intense meditative practice to that end. The goal is to expand one's awareness until it is capable of discovering the eternal truths of the universe and human existence.  -- Yogapedia

Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

Sergio Elías Hernández, José Suero, .....and Katya Rubia


To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.


Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.


Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.


The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.......

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Function Of The Orgasm: Sexual Health & Mental Health, understanding the social problems of our time

Posted on May 26, 2022 at 8:30 AM Comments comments (0)

This book describes Reich's medical and scientific work onthe living organism from his first efforts at the Medical School of the University of Vienna in 1919 to the laboratory experiments in Oslo in 1939 which revealed the existence of a radiating biological energy, orgone energy.

The subject of "sexuality" is basic to this work, and Reich shows clearly its importance for human life and its relevance in understanding the social problems of our time.

"The Function of the Orgasm" advances what is perhaps the most radical, most widely acclaimed, theory of contemporary psychology - the theory that total health, both mental and physical, is impossible in the absence of complete sexual satisfaction and that, in every case, restriction of the sexual urge leads to neurosis. Freud's most controversial disciple, Wilhelm Reich, addressed the theory of orgone energy to adolescents as well as adults, advocating unrestricted sexual freedom for all.

Order your copy at https://amzn.to/3PLo33K

Secondary Drives in Orgonomy: sadistic impulses, deviated sexual impulses, kleptomaniac impulses, fake altruistic behavior, irrational hate and irrational anger and so on

Posted on May 26, 2022 at 8:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Masochism, Physical Armoring, Sadism

Secondary Drives in Orgonomy

The concept of secondary drives in human psychology is an important discovery which is unique to orgonomy. This itself is the consequence of the discovery of the process of armoring in the human structure. Dr. Reich discovered that in the process of chronic contraction of the organism, the physical and psychological contraction becomes permanent and constitutes the armor which then prevents the expression of primary impulses. Armor, in orgonomy is defined as, “The total defense apparatus of the organism, consisting of the rigidities of the character and the chronic spasms of musculature, which functions essentially as a defense against the break-through of the emotions – primary anxiety, rage and sexual excitation.” (2) The primary impulses, such as love, fear, anger, and hate as a result of the armor are unable to be expressed in their original form. An alive organism, however, continuously produces the bioenergetically charged primary impulses from the core toward the periphery, from the inside toward the outside. These impulses continuously push and demand discharge. Armor eventually becomes unable to hold these impulses and the impulses take turns at this point. It may turn back and move in an opposite direction, from periphery toward inside, which will be experienced by the organism as a sense of anxiety. Or, it may go through countering and opposing forces that operate in the armor and emerge as their resultant force as a distortion of the initial primary motive which in orgonomy is called “secondary drives”. Secondary drives are basically distorted forms of primary drives that at times might have the opposite content what the initial primary drive. Examples of them are sadistic impulses, deviated sexual impulses, kleptomaniac impulses, fake altruistic behavior, irrational hate and irrational anger and so on…

The following is a schematic depiction of the unarmored orgonotic structure, versus armored organism, and production of secondary drives as a consequence of armoring.
In psychology and psychoanalysis there is a concept which is called “displacement.” This term is originated by Sigmund Freud to underscore the fact that psychic energy can be redirected from one idea to another (5). However, in psychology and psychoanalysis there is no concept of the mechanism of the shift or redirection of the psychic energy from one idea to the other. Orgonomy by the virtue of discovery of the process of armoring, is able to provide a theoretical basis to explain this shift, and consequently provides a systematic treatment approach for eliminating the secondary drives and restoring the organism’s ability to express the natural and logical primary drives as nature has ordained.

There are ample clinical examples in orgonomy literature that substantiates the elimination of the secondary motives and restoring the ability of the patient to express his primary motives by psychiatric orgone therapy and successful elimination of armoring. Two of these examples are posted in this Journal under the title of Kleptomania, a Case Discussion and Annotation on Dr. Reich’s Case: The Orgasm Reflex.

Although the armor can be dissolved accidently by different events or consequences of life incidents, the systematic dissolution of it at present time is only possible by character analysis and vegetotherapy, (psychiatric orgone therapy) which is described in orgonomy literature, particularly in the book Character Analysis and The Function of Orgasm by Dr. Wilhelm Reich.......
Indexed for The Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy by Dragonfly Kingdom Library 

Other Medications Also Tied to Religious Vaccine Exemption. 30 common medications that used fetal cell lines.

Posted on May 6, 2022 at 4:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Sep. 18, 2021 -- A hospital system in Arkansas is requiring employees to confirm that they won’t use common medications — such as Tylenol, Tums, and Preparation H — to receive a religious exemption for the COVID-19 vaccine, according to Becker’s Hospital Review.


The Conway Regional Health System has required the flu shot annually as part of employment, but managers saw a spike in vaccine exemption requests for the COVID-19 vaccine.


“This was significantly disproportionate to what we’ve seen with the influenza vaccine,” Matt Troup, president and CEO of the health system, told Becker’s.


The majority of requests cited the use of fetal cell lines in the development of vaccines as part of the religious exemption. The practice uses cells grown in labs to test many new vaccines and drugs, including common antacids and cold medications.


“Thus, we provided a religious attestation form for those individuals requesting a religious exemption,” Troup said.


The hospital’s form includes a list of 30 common medications that used fetal cell lines during research and development. The list includes acetaminophen, albuterol, aspirin, ibuprofen, Tylenol, Pepto Bismol, Tums, Lipitor, Senokot, Motrin, Maalox, Ex-Lax, Benadryl, Sudafed, Preparation H, Claritin, Prilosec, and Zoloft......... Full article at https://www.webmd.com/vaccines/covid-19-vaccine/news/20210918/some-medications-also-tied-to-religious-vaccine-exemption

Sexual activity played a protective effect, in both genders, on the quarantine-related plague of anxiety and mood disorders.

Posted on April 24, 2022 at 8:50 AM Comments comments (0)



The COVID-19–related lockdown has profoundly changed human behaviors and habits, impairing general and psychological well-being. Along with psychosocial consequences, it is possible that sexual behavior was also affected.



With the present study, we evaluated the impact of the community-wide containment and consequent social distancing on the intrapsychic, relational, and sexual health through standardized psychometric tools.



A case-control study was performed through a web-based survey and comparing subjects of both genders with (group A, N = 2,608) and without (group B, N = 4,213) sexual activity during lockdown. The Welch and chi-square tests were used to assess differences between groups. Univariate analysis of covariance, logistic regression models, and structural equation modeling were performed to measure influence and mediation effects of sexual activity on psychological, relational, and sexual outcomes.



Main outcome measures were General Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Dyadic Adjustment Scale for quality of relationship and a set of well-validated sexological inventories (International Index of Erectile Function, Female Sexual Function Index, and male-female versions of the Orgasmometer).



Anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower in subjects sexually active during lockdown. Analysis of covariance identified gender, sexual activity, and living without partner during lockdown as significantly affecting anxiety and depression scores (P < .0001). Logistic regression models showed that lack of sexual activity during lockdown was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing anxiety and depression (OR: 1.32 [95% CI: 1.12 - 1.57, P < .001] and 1.34 [95% CI: 1.15 - 1.57, P < .0001], respectively). Structural equation modeling evidenced the protective role of sexual activity toward psychological distress (βmales = -0.18 and βfemales = -0.14), relational health (βmales = 0.26 and βfemales = 0.29) and sexual health, both directly (βmales = 0.43 and βfemales = 0.31), and indirectly (βmales = 0.13 and βfemales = 0.13).


Clinical translation

The demonstrated mutual influence of sexual health on psychological and relational health could direct the clinical community toward a reinterpretation of the relationship among these factors.

Strengths and limitations

Based on a large number of subjects and well-validated psychometric tools, this study elucidated the protective role of sexual activity for psychological distress, as well for relational and sexual health. Main limitations were the web-based characteristics of the protocol and the retrospective nature of prelockdown data on psychorelational and sexual health of subjects recruited


COVID-19 lockdown dramatically impacted on psychological, relational, and sexual health of the population. In this scenario, sexual activity played a protective effect, in both genders, on the quarantine-related plague of anxiety and mood disorders

Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Mollaioli D, Sansone A, Ciocca G, et al. Benefits of Sexual Activity on Psychological, Relational, and Sexual Health During the COVID-19 Breakout. J Sex Med 2021;18:35–


Intentional Community Fundraiser: Marco's Spiritual Sports Medicine, Nutrition & Respite Center. Recovery is possible & probable.

Posted on April 24, 2022 at 8:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Energy Medicine meets Bodybuilding, Nutritional Harm Reduction & Mental Health Recovery

Fundraiser for Marco's Clubhouse: Spiritual Sports Medicine, Nutrition & Respite Center

With Holistic Health Wellness & Fitness Specialist
Sahaj Marco Andre

Donate at 

Saffron is as effective as fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate OCD.

Posted on April 15, 2022 at 11:20 AM Comments comments (0)
Comparison of Saffron and Fluvoxamine in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial


Objective: There are different pathophysiological mechanisms for obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) as suggested by the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic hypotheses. The present study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus) and fluvoxamine in the treatment of mild to moderate obsessive- compulsive disorder.

Method: In this study, 50 males and females, aged 18 to 60 years, with mild to moderate OCD, participated. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either saffron (30 mg/day, 15 mg twice a day) or fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) for 10 weeks. Using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Adverse Event Checklist, we assessed the patients at baseline, and at the second, fourth, sixth, eighth, and tenth week. Finally, the data were analyzed using general linear repeated measures.

Results: In this study, 46 patients completed the trial. General linear repeated measures demonstrated no significant effect for time-treatment interaction on the Y-BOCS total scores [F (2.42, 106.87) = 0.70, P = 0.52], obsession Y-BOCS subscale scores [F (2.47, 108.87) = 0.77, p = 0.49], and compulsion Y-BOCS subscale scores [F (2.18, 96.06) = 0.25, P = 0.79]. Frequency of adverse events was not significantly different between the 2 groups.

Click HERE for Organic Saffron

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that saffron is as effective as fluvoxamine in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate OCD........

Indexed for NIH and

Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

study of Brazilian skulls ranging from 11,000 to 7,500 years old has revealed that they have more in common with Aboriginal Australians and Melanesians than modern Native Americans

Posted on April 8, 2022 at 8:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Some of the first Americans may have been Australians. A new study of Brazilian skulls ranging from 11,000 to 7,500 years old has revealed that they have more in common with Aboriginal Australians and Melanesians than modern Native Americans.

"The earliest Americans are very different from nowadays Indians or later archaeological material," says Walter Neves of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, co-author of the study that is being published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "We are proposing that the Americas were populated by waves of humans."


Neves and his colleague Mark Hubbe studied skulls found in the Lagoa Santa region of central Brazil, an area riddled with caves. Since 1842, at least 250 ancient human skeletons ranging from ancient to nearly modern have turned up there. The scientists dated 22 of the oldest specimens by measuring their isotopes and found them to be between 8,500 and 7,500 years old.


The researchers then enlarged this sample by including all remains buried in a similar fashion--in shallow graves covered with small blocks of limestone or quartz--which they presume to hail from the same time period as the dated material. They ended up with 55 well preserved skulls that fit the criteria and compared them with standardized skull measurements of more than 2,500 modern humans. By comparing the size and shape of the skulls as well as their noses and eye sockets, Neves found that the oldest Brazilian specimens most closely resembled the skulls of the Tolai people of New Britain in Papua New Guinea, followed by other Australo-Melanesians. The closest match among modern Native Americans are Eskimos. "Eskimos get close because they are one of the few American Indians to have a long skull," Neves explains.

This broader skull data seems to support Neves' theory that two distinct waves of people populated the Americas, perhaps both crossing the Bering Strait during different periods. But recent genetic studies have been interpreted to indicate only one such migration. "DNA lineages are often lost during the course of evolution, even in short periods of time," Neves counters. "Today, no South American native group presents the X [mitochondrial DNA] lineage, which is universal among North American native groups. However, DNA extracted a few years ago from human skeletons from the Brazilian Amazon, dated to only a couple thousand years ago, showed clearly that the X lineage was present in South America."....... https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/skulls-suggest-differing/

Recent research has confirmed skeletal remains of Negrito populations in Taiwan, laying a blow to both Taiwanese and Chinese nationalists

Posted on March 9, 2022 at 4:00 AM Comments comments (0)

See also: The First Chinese Were Black 

Negrito populations have long been hinted at in Taiwan. For as long as researchers have collected local legends on Taiwan, they have encountered stories of small dark people among the local aborigines. The widely-known Saisiyat “Festival of the Short People” commemorates the deaths of the last of them at Saisiyat hands. But other local Aboriginal groups have legends as well. DNA work also suggests the existence of Negrito populations in Taiwan, but the evidence is murky.

It was thus with great pleasure that I read “Female craniometrics support the ‘two-layer model’ of human dispersal in Eastern Eurasia” by Matsumura et al, which came out last month in Nature Scientific Reports. The authors of that paper pulled the skeleton from Xiaoma Cave out of its closet in 2016 and held it up to the light. They observed: “The short stature, short limbs and small cranial size of the Xiaoma individual indicate a close affinity to Negrito (Ayta) groups in the Philippines.”

They then performed an analysis of the cranium and compared it to a large database of crania from around the world.

“PCA analysis revealed that, in respect to overall cranial size, Xiaoma is very small (PC 1), and comparable to Negrito crania from the Philippines, San from South Africa and Veddah from Sri Lanka,” the authors wrote.

They explicitly link the shortness of the skeleton and smallness of the head to the legends found among the existing aboriginal peoples of Taiwan: [the statistical analysis] “supports many Formosan Austronesian oral traditions about the former existence of small and dark-skinned people in Taiwan.”

There you have it. The first confirmed skeletal remains of Negrito populations in Taiwan.

(Stay tuned, I’ve heard other interesting things about this find and about Negritos in Taiwan that I hope to write about in the coming months.)

That skeleton sat in the museum at NTU without being cleaned or reconstructed for nearly thirty years. That neglect seems a crime to me, but I asked an anthropologist about it, and he observed that archaeologists aren’t nearly as interested in skeletons as they are in the relics of cultures. It is just not their thing, he said.


Like all human domains, history is the realm of realpolitik. For years the Austronesians in Taiwan have been the locus of efforts by both pro-China and pro-Taiwan groups to exploit their status as Taiwan’s oldest residents and authenticate their respective nationalisms.

Pro-China types have tended to emphasize that the Austronesians came originally from what is now China. This of course emphasizes a very early link between “Taiwan” and “China.”

Conversely, there is a strain of Taiwanese nationalism that emphasizes Taiwanese identity as a biological construct rooted in intermixing of settlers from China and local Aboriginal peoples, essentializing “Taiwaneseness” and ethnicity in the DNA.

Marie Lin (林媽利), the well-known hematologist and medical researcher, is the most vocal proponent of this position. She has claimed that Taiwanese are “ethnically distinct” from the Han and that 85 percent of Hakka and Hoklo have aboriginal genetic markers. These claims are nonsensical, but they resonate with many (Mark Munsterhjelm’s brilliant Living Dead in the Pacific has an unexcelled critique of Lin’s claims).

These claims run in tandem with another argument that links Taiwaneseness to descent from the Pingpu people, the Aboriginal peoples of the western plains. This view is based on bogus ideas of “blood” and descent that nevertheless run deep in Taiwan’s ideas of citizenship and identity.

The best answer to the pro-China claims and blood-based descent views of Taiwan’s aborigines is an identity rooted in civic nationalism, which does away with the whole idea of ethnicity as something biologically-rooted. Ironically, the Negrito skeleton may help, for it does an end run around both these political views.

There may be Negrito DNA in local populations, but the signal is insignificant and cannot be used as the foundation for any claims of “blood” and ethnicity. There are no living Negritos on Taiwan and thus, they cannot be the locus of anyone’s nationalist beliefs.


By the same token, the Negrito groups are long thought to have moved across the southern part of the Asian supercontinent, to southeast Asia, and then spreading north and south. They did not enter Taiwan from the west and what is now China, but from the south. Hence, they adumbrate the pro-China view that Taiwan is linked to China because one way or another it is origin of everyone who has lived in Taiwan.


The Negritos were here first, and they were here for tens of thousands of years before anyone else.


Not out of China..........


'Havana syndrome' likely caused by directed microwaves - US report

Posted on March 8, 2022 at 7:35 AM Comments comments (0)


The US initially suspected "sonic attacks" had been launched against its embassy in Havana

Mystery illness suffered by US diplomats in Cuba was most likely caused by directed microwave radiation, a US government report has found.


The report by the National Academies of Sciences does not attribute blame for the directed energy waves.


But it said research into the effects of pulsed radio frequency energy was carried out by the Soviet Union more than 50 years ago.


The illnesses first affected people at the US embassy in Havana in 2016-17.


Staff and some of their relatives complained of symptoms ranging from dizziness, loss of balance, hearing loss, anxiety and something they described as "cognitive fog". It became known as "Havana syndrome".


The US accused Cuba of carrying out "sonic attacks", which it strongly denied, and the incident led to increased tension between the two nations.


A 2019 US academic study found "brain abnormalities" in the diplomats who had fallen ill, but Cuba dismissed the report.


What is a covert sonic weapon?

US expels two Cuban UN diplomats

Canada also cut its embassy staff in Cuba after at least 14 of its citizens reported similar symptoms.


The latest study was carried out by a team of medical and scientific experts who examined the symptoms of about 40 government employees.


Many have suffered longstanding and debilitating effects, the report said.


"The committee felt that many of the distinctive and acute signs, symptoms and observations reported by (government) employees are consistent with the effects of directed, pulsed radio frequency (RF) energy," the report reads.


"Studies published in the open literature more than a half-century ago and over the subsequent decades by Western and Soviet sources provide circumstantial support for this possible mechanism."


Staff at the US consulate in Guangzhou, China, also reported strange symptoms

It noted there had been "significant research in Russia/USSR into the effects of pulsed, rather than continuous wave [radio frequency] exposures". It said that military personnel in "Eurasian communist countries" had been exposed to non-thermal radiation.


Cuba was not the only posting where US diplomats have reported the unusual symptoms.


In 2018, the US removed several officials from China after employees working in the southern city of Guangzhou reported "subtle and vague, but abnormal, sensations of sound and pressure". One US official was diagnosed with mild brain trauma.

Indexed for BBC News by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Are some cases of psychosis caused by microbial agents? A review of the evidence

Posted on March 8, 2022 at 7:10 AM Comments comments (0)


The infectious theory of psychosis, prominent early in the twentieth century, has recently received renewed scientific support. Evidence has accumulated that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex diseases in which many predisposing genes interact with one or more environmental agents to cause symptoms. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and cytomegalovirus are discussed as examples of infectious agents that have been linked to schizophrenia and in which genes and infectious agents interact. Such infections may occur early in life and are thus consistent with neurodevelopmental as well as genetic theories of psychosis. The outstanding questions regarding infectious theories concern timing and causality. Attempts are underway to address the former by examining sera of individuals prior to the onset of illness and to address the latter by using antiinfective medications to treat individuals with psychosis. The identification of infectious agents associated with the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia might lead to new methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this disorder........

Indexed for Springer Nature/Journal by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Low serum concentrations of vitamin B6 and iron are related to panic attack and hyperventilation attack

Posted on March 8, 2022 at 3:55 AM Comments comments (0)


Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCL) Powder

We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group.

Collitis natural treatment

Candida Natural Treatment


Colitis Natural Treatment


Reclaim Your Health & Freedom, The Biogetica Way

There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences.

Indexed for NIH Pubmed/National Library of Medicine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Can we make deforestation illegal? Exploring safe, effective, non-toxic, climate/eco-friendly building materials.

Posted on February 24, 2022 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Can we make deforestation illegal? Exploring safe, effective, non-toxic, climate/eco-friendly building materials.












Climate Homeostasis: Clean Fresh Air, Water & Soil. Nature Yogi Marco Andre joins American Forests in support of Trillion Trees Campaign.


Zealandia: Earth's Hidden Continent, and like India, Australia, Antarctica, Africa, and South America, was a former part of Gondwana

Posted on February 23, 2022 at 7:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Zealandia illustrates that the large and the obvious in natural science can be overlooked. Based on various lines of geological and geophysical evidence, particularly those accumulated in the last two decades, we argue that Zealandia is not a collection of partly submerged continental fragments but is a coherent 4.9 Mkm2 continent (Fig. 1). Currently used conventions and definitions of continental crust, continents, and microcontinents require no modification to accommodate Zealandia.


Satellite gravity data sets, New Zealand’s UNCLOS program, and marine geological expeditions have been major influences in promoting the big picture view necessary to define and recognize Zealandia (Fig. 2). Zealandia is approximately the area of greater India and, like India, Australia, Antarctica, Africa, and South America, was a former part of the Gondwana supercontinent (Figs. 3 and 5). As well as being the seventh largest geological continent (Fig. 1), Zealandia is the youngest, thinnest, and most submerged (Fig. 4). The scientific value of classifying Zealandia as a continent is much more than just an extra name on a list. That a continent can be so submerged yet unfragmented makes it a useful and thought-provoking geodynamic end member in exploring the cohesion and breakup of continental crust.



We thank Belinda Smith Lyttle for GIS work and Patti Durance, Ron Hackney, and Brendan Murphy for comments. Formal reviews by Peter Cawood, Jerry Dickens, and an anonymous referee greatly improved the focus and content. This paper is based on work supported by New Zealand Government core funding grants to GNS Science.


References Cited:

Adams, C.J., and Griffin, W.L., 2012, Rodinian detrital zircons in Late Cretaceous sandstones indicate a possible Precambrian basement under southern Zealandia: Precambrian Research, v. 212–213, p. 13–20, doi: 10.1016/j.precamres.2012.04.003.

Bache, F., Mortimer, N., Sutherland, R., Collot, J., Rouillard, P., Stagpoole, V.M., and Nicol, A., 2014, Seismic stratigraphic record of transition from Mesozoic subduction to continental breakup in the Zealandia sector of eastern Gondwana: Gondwana Research, v. 26, p. 1060–1078, doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2013.08.012.

Beggs, J.M., Challis, G.A., and Cook, R.A., 1990, Basement geology of the Campbell Plateau: Implications for correlation of the Campbell Magnetic Anomaly System: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 33, p. 401–404, doi: 10.1080/00288306.1990.10425696.

Bird, P., 2003, An updated digital model of plate boundaries: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, v. 4, p 1027, doi: 10.1029/2001GC000252.

Blewett, R.S., editor, 2012, Shaping a Nation:

A Geology of Australia: Canberra, Geoscience Australia and ANU Press, 571 .......

Indexed for Geological Society Of America by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


A 130,000-year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA substantially revises the timing of arrival of Humans into the Americas.

Posted on February 23, 2022 at 7:20 AM Comments comments (0)


The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context1,2. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum). The CM site contains spiral-fractured bone and molar fragments, indicating that breakage occured while fresh. Several of these fragments also preserve evidence of percussion. The occurrence and distribution of bone, molar and stone refits suggest that breakage occurred at the site of burial. Five large cobbles (hammerstones and anvils) in the CM bone bed display use-wear and impact marks, and are hydraulically anomalous relative to the low-energy context of the enclosing sandy silt stratum. 230Th/U radiometric analysis of multiple bone specimens using diffusion–adsorption–decay dating models indicates a burial date of 130.7 ± 9.4 thousand years ago. These findings confirm the presence of an unidentified species of Homo at the CM site during the last interglacial period (MIS 5e; early late Pleistocene), indicating that humans with manual dexterity and the experiential knowledge to use hammerstones and anvils processed mastodon limb bones for marrow extraction and/or raw material for tool production. Systematic proboscidean bone reduction, evident at the CM site, fits within a broader pattern of Palaeolithic bone percussion technology in Africa3,4,5,6, Eurasia7,8,9 and North America10,11,12. The CM site is, to our knowledge, the oldest in situ, well-documented archaeological site in North America and, as such, substantially revises the timing of arrival of Homo into the Americas.

Indexed for Nature Journal/Magazine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


When alien species invade and take over communities, they may not come alone -- many plant species are host to a whole suite of microorganisms

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 6:15 AM Comments comments (0)

Invasive species are among the world's greatest threats to native species and biodiversity. Once invasive plants become established, they can alter soil chemistry and shift nutrient cycling in an ecosystem. This can have important impacts not only on plant composition, diversity, and succession within a community, but also in the cycling of critical elements like carbon and nitrogen on a larger, potentially even global, scale. Clearly, both native and exotic plants form intimate relationships with bacteria in the soil that facilitate the extraction and conversion of elements to biologically usable forms. Yet an unanswered question with regard to plant invasions remains: could the changes in soil biogeochemistry be due to an advantage that invasive plants get from interacting with their microbiome?

When alien species invade and take over communities, they may not come alone -- many plant species are host to a whole suite of microorganisms that not only live in plant cells, but also in the soil surrounding the plants' roots. These microbes form close, often mutualistic, associations with their plant hosts. Some convert atmospheric nitrogen into bioavailable forms that are then exchanged for carbon from the plant. Bioavailable nitrogen is frequently limiting in soils, yet many invaded ecosystems have more carbon and nitrogen in plant tissues and soils compared with systems dominated by native plants. Since changes in the soil nitrogen cycle are driven by microbes, could bacteria associated with invasive species not only be responsible for the observed changes in soil nutrient concentrations, but also for enabling the continued growth and persistence of the invader species?


These were the kinds of questions that started percolating for Marnie Rout (University of North Texas Health Science Center) after she drove by a remnant tallgrass prairie in North Central Texas as a beginning graduate student. She was particularly struck by the obvious and drastic changes the native prairie was undergoing due to the invasion of an exotic grass.


"It literally looked like someone had drawn a line down the field," Rout explained. "On one side was the native prairie, the other side had this towering monoculture of invasive Sorghum. The plant looked like it was invading in a military fashion, forming this distinct line that was clearly visible."


Subsequent literature searches led to the discovery that sugar cane, an agriculturally important crop, is a nitrogen fixer that contains bacterial endophytes, and Rout became curious if the microbes she and her colleague Tom Chrzanowski (The University of Texas Arlington) discovered in invasive Sorghum might be providing similar benefits to this invasive plant.


Rout combined forces with colleagues from The University of Montana, The University of Texas Arlington, and University of Washington to investigate whether the differences in soil nutrient concentrations found in an invaded prairie could be due to metabolic processes of the bacterial microbiome associated with the invasive grass, and to determine whether these microbial agents facilitate the perpetuation and spread of this invasive grass. They published their findings in a Special Section in the American Journal of Botany on Rhizosphere Interactions: The Root Biome.




"Things attributed to plant-plant interactions like competition and facilitation are likely under more microbial regulation than we have been giving them credit," Rout commented. "Studying disruptions to ecosystems like those seen in plant invasions provides a window into something -- specifically the process of co-evolution -- that we normally don't get to observe in a single human lifetime."


Indeed, the alarming rate -- almost 0.5 meters a year -- at which the invasive grass Sorghum halepense has invaded the tallgrass prairie, formerly dominated by the native little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), over the last 25 years, and the complete dominance of that invasive was the ideal situation in which Rout could test her ideas.


Rout and colleagues first confirmed that the invaded soils of the prairie did indeed have higher levels of nitrogen, phosphorous, and iron-derived chemicals compared with the non-invaded prairie soils still dominated by native plants. They then tested whether the interactions between the dominant invasive grass and the soil biota could be responsible for the observed changes in the soil nutrient concentrations.


By isolating five bacterial strains of endophytes found inside S. halepense rhizomes (subterranean stems used for storage and vegetative reproduction) and growing them in the lab in different mixtures of substrates, the authors determined that these microbes were able to fix and mobilize nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. All three are important elements associated with plant growth; however, some were produced in excess of what would be needed for plant growth. Indeed, perhaps somewhat alarmingly, the amount of iron that was produced reached levels that are toxic to many crops -- and may even inhibit establishment of native species.


Furthermore, the authors were able to show that not only can this invasive plant acquire microbes from the environment, but that it is also capable of passing them on to the next generation via seeds. Using a sophisticated series of intricate experiments involving growing seedlings from surface sterilized seeds in nitrogen- deprived or nitrogen-augmented soils and slurries with different suites of soil microbes, Rout and colleagues showed that these microbes enabled the grass to produce 5-fold increases in rhizomes, a primary mechanism driving invasions of this species.......... https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130926131631.htm

These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 6:05 AM Comments comments (0)

 ISSN: 2641-3094

 Global Journal of Ecology

Open Access Peer-Reviewed

Soil abiotic and microbial legacies jointly contribute to growth of invasive Solidago canadensis


The invasion success of exotic plants strongly depends on soil properties of new ranges, however, little is known about the joint contribution of soil abiotic and biotic legacies to this success. To address the role of soil abiotic and microbial properties in plant invasions and associated mechanisms, we conducted two complementary experiments. In the first experiment, we grew invasive Solidago canadensis in regular soils from its different invasion stages and measured plant growth to address the joint contribution of soil abiotic and microbial properties. In a second experiment, we set up four sterilization × three sites treatments and measured plant growth to address the influence of different soil microbes on S. canadensis. The growth of S. canadensis was constrained by soil N and bacteria, and was positively correlated to its leaf area and root area, but not its leaf chlorophyll contents and root hydraulic conductivity. Bactericide had no effects on S. canadensis growth, and the decreased growth was greater in the presence of bactericide and fungicide together than in the presence of fungicide alone. The effects of microbial removal varied with microbial groups and sites. These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.


The successful invasion of exotic plants can be ascribed to multiple possible mechanisms [1,2]. Of all the mechanisms, the properties of soils alone (e.g. nutrient availability and enemies) and plant-soil interactions (e.g. positive or negative feedback) have been increasingly recognized as key mechanisms determining invasion success [2-7]. In other words, the initial regimes of soil abiotic and biotic properties and their changes induced by invader-soil interactions play a crucial role in plant invasions (see below). Accordingly, increasing attention focusing on plant invasions has been paid to soil legacy effects [8-10].

The importance of soil abiotic properties (i.e. soil abiotic legacy) in plant invasions at least encompasses two mechanisms: resources and conditions. For example, soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) determine the growth of invasive plants because they usually grow rapidly and thus need large quantities of soil N and P [1,2,11], soil pH, as a condition, influences soil nutrient availability and soil microbial composition and structure [12,13]. The importance of soil microbes (i.e. soil microbial legacy) in plant invasions also at least covers two mechanisms: beneficial and detrimental effects. For example, the releases of soil-borne enemies or enhanced mutualisms benefit invasive plants whereas accumulated pathogens harm native plants [3,4,6,14,15]. However, it should be noted that invasive plants commonly interact with their surrounding soils [16,17]. This interaction can dramatically alter soil abiotic and biotic legacies, thereby influencing the performance of invasive plants (Gaggini et al. 2017)..........

Indexed for Global Journal of Ecology