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Is diet quality associated with risk of erectile dysfunction?
In this cohort study among 21 469 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, higher diet quality based on adherence to either a Mediterranean or Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 diet, which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, and fish or other sources of long-chain (n-3) fats, as well as avoidance of red and processed meats, was found to be associated with a lower risk of developing erectile dysfunction.
These findings suggest that a healthy dietary pattern may play a role in maintaining erectile function in men.
Erectile dysfunction, especially in younger men, is an early sign of cardiovascular disease and may decrease quality of life. Men may be motivated to adopt a healthy dietary pattern if it lowers their risk of erectile dysfunction.
To assess the association between adherence to a diet quality index based on healthy dietary patterns and erectile dysfunction in men.
Design, Setting, and Participants
This population-based prospective cohort study included men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study with follow-up from January 1, 1998, through January 1, 2014. Participants included US male health professionals aged 40 to 75 years at enrollment. Men with erectile dysfunction or a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, diabetes, stroke, or genitourinary cancer at baseline were excluded. Analyses were completed in February 2020.
A food frequency questionnaire was used to determine nutrient and food intake every 4 years.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Diet quality was assessed by Mediterranean Diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 score, with higher scores indicating healthier diet. Dietary index scores were cumulatively updated from 1986 until men developed erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, died, or were lost to follow-up. Incident erectile dysfunction was assessed with questionnaires in 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) by prespecified categories or quintiles of dietary index scores were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses stratified by age.
Among 21 469 men included in analysis, mean (SD) age at baseline was 62 (8.4) years. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10.8 (5.4) years and 232 522 person-years, there were 968 incident erectile dysfunction cases among men younger than 60 years, 3703 cases among men aged 60 to less than 70 years, and 4793 cases among men aged 70 years or older. Men younger than 60 years and in the highest category of the Mediterranean Diet score had the lowest relative risk of incident erectile dysfunction compared with men in the lowest category (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92). Higher Mediterranean diet scores were also inversely associated with incident erectile dysfunction among older men (age 60 to <70 years: HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.89; age ≥70 years: HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00). Men scoring in the highest quintile of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 also had a lower risk of incident erectile dysfunction, particularly among men age younger than 60 years (quintile 5 vs quintile 1: HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.97).
Conclusions and Relevance
This cohort study found that adherence to healthy dietary patterns was associated with a lower risk for erectile dysfunction, suggesting that a healthy dietary pattern may play a role in maintaining erectile health.......
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|Posted on September 30, 2021 at 8:40 AM||comments (0)|
The calcium channel of sperm—CatSper—is vital for male fertility. CatSper is activated by the hormone progesterone, but its pharmacological profile is not well studied. By exploring steroid selectivity of CatSper activation, we found one additional agonist—pregnenolone sulfate—and the two plant-derived inhibitors pristimerin and lupeol. By averting sperm hyperactivation, both inhibitors can prevent fertilization, thus acting as contraceptive agents. Additionally, by exploring CatSper regulation by endogenous steroids, we explain why CatSper is silent within the male reproductive tract and is only activated in close proximity to the egg. Interestingly, both testosterone and hydrocortisone antagonize the action of progesterone at physiological concentrations, which may explain why elevated levels of these steroids in the female organism affect fertility.
The calcium channel of sperm (CatSper) is essential for sperm hyperactivated motility and fertility. The steroid hormone progesterone activates CatSper of human sperm via binding to the serine hydrolase ABHD2. However, steroid specificity of ABHD2 has not been evaluated. Here, we explored whether steroid hormones to which human spermatozoa are exposed in the male and female genital tract influence CatSper activation via modulation of ABHD2. The results show that testosterone, estrogen, and hydrocortisone did not alter basal CatSper currents, whereas the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate exerted similar effects as progesterone, likely binding to the same site. However, physiological concentrations of testosterone and hydrocortisone inhibited CatSper activation by progesterone.
Additionally, testosterone antagonized the effect of pregnenolone sulfate. We have also explored whether steroid-like molecules, such as the plant triterpenoids pristimerin and lupeol, affect sperm fertility. Interestingly, both compounds competed with progesterone and pregnenolone sulfate and significantly reduced CatSper activation by either steroid. Furthermore, pristimerin and lupeol considerably diminished hyperactivation of capacitated spermatozoa. These results indicate that (i) pregnenolone sulfate together with progesterone are the main steroids that activate CatSper and (ii) pristimerin and lupeol can act as contraceptive compounds by averting sperm hyperactivation, thus preventing fertilization.
Indexed for PNAS by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on September 30, 2021 at 8:35 AM||comments (0)|
Some medical evidence does suggest that regular moderate exercise can have a positive effect on sexuality, although the relationship is not fully understood. Exercise may improve an individual's libido and overall sexual satisfaction.
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on September 30, 2021 at 8:10 AM||comments (0)|
The effects of 9 months of aerobic exercise on aerobic work capacity (physical fitness), coronary heart disease risk factors, and sexuality were studied in 78 sedentary but healthy men (mean age, 48 years). The men exercised in supervised groups 60 min per day, 3.5 days per week on average. Peak sustained exercise intensity was targeted at 75-80% of maximum aerobic working capacity. A control group of 17 men (mean age, 44 years) participated in organized walking at a moderate pace 60 min per day, 4.1 days per week on average. Each subject maintained a daily diary of exercise, diet, smoking, and sexuality during the first and last months of the program. Beneficial effects of chronic, vigorous exercise on fitness and coronary heart disease risk factors were obtained in close agreement with prior studies. Analysis of diary entries revealed significantly greater sexuality enhancements in the exercise group (frequency of various intimate activities, reliability of adequate functioning during sex, percentage of satisfying orgasms, etc.). Moreover, the degree of sexuality enhancement among exercisers was correlated with the degree of their individual improvement in fitness.
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|Posted on September 30, 2021 at 8:05 AM||comments (0)|
In laboratory studies, exercise immediately before sexual stimuli improved sexual arousal of women taking antidepressants . We evaluated if exercise improves sexual desire, orgasm, and global sexual functioning in women experiencing antidepressant-induced sexual side effects.
Fifty-two women who were reporting antidepressant sexual side effects were followed for 3 weeks of sexual activity only. They were randomized to complete either three weeks of exercise immediately before sexual activity (3×/week) or 3 weeks of exercise separate from sexual activity (3×/week). At the end of the first exercise arm, participants crossed to the other. We measured sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, depression, and physical health.
Exercise immediately prior to sexual activity significantly improved sexual desire and, for women with sexual dysfunction at baseline, global sexual function. Scheduling regular sexual activity significantly improved orgasm function; exercise did not increase this benefit. Neither regular sexual activity nor exercise significantly changed sexual satisfaction.
Scheduling regular sexual activity and exercise may be an effective tool for the behavioral management of sexual side effects of antidepressants.
Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on September 30, 2021 at 7:55 AM||comments (0)|
The leading cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is arterial dysfunction, with cardiovascular disease as the most common comorbidity. Therefore, ED is typically linked to a web of closely interrelated cardiovascular risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or manifest cardiovascular diseases.
To provide recommendations of levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases.
In accord with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed of research articles specifically investigating PA as a possible treatment of ED. The review included research on ED from physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases. All available studies from 2006 through 2016 were checked for the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria to analyze the levels of PA needed to decrease ED.
10 articles met the inclusion criteria, all suggesting various levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with relevant risk factors for ED. The results of the review provided sufficient research evidence for conclusions regarding the levels of PA necessary to decrease ED.
Recommendations of PA to decrease ED should include supervised training consisting of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise of moderate to vigorous intensity 4 times per week. Overall, weekly exercise of 160 minutes for 6 months contributes to decreasing erectile problems in men with ED caused by physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases.
Gerbild H, Larsen CM, Graugaard C, Areskoug Josefsson K. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies. Sex Med 2018;6:75–89........
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|Posted on September 30, 2021 at 7:45 AM||comments (0)|
Health journalist Robert J. Davis and celebrity trainer Brad Kolowich, Jr. share one more excellent reason to break a sweat.
You’ve likely heard that regular exercise can reduce the risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, or osteoporosis. But a growing body of research shows it may have another, more surprising effect: improving your sex life.......
Indexed for Health by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
Full article at https://www.health.com/sex/exercise-and-sex
|Posted on June 14, 2021 at 12:00 AM||comments (0)|
Several observations made during the course of studies on stealth-adapted viruses are explainable by a pervasive, energy-rich, ether environment. Activation of an alternative cellular energy (ACE) pathway provides stealth virus damaged cells with a repair mechanism that is independent of the cellular immune response. ACE activation can also assist in the systemic healing of infections caused by conventional viruses such as Herpes simplex virus, Herpes zoster virus and human papillomavirus. ACE pigments convert conventional forms of physical energies into a biological cell healing energy, the nature of which is still uncertain.
More recent studies suggest that ACE pigments may also capture etheric energy. In addition to cellular repair, ACE pigment activation can lead to the biogenesis of lipid-like chemical structures. ACE pigment and virus culture healing activities were also seen with several natural products, including a homeopathic formulation. A colloidal silver solution appeared to facilitate the transmission of ACE and to enhance its biosynthetic activity. These results open a window into a greater understanding of a fundamental force of nature of potential therapeutic importance.
Indexed for NIH Pubmed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
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Most likely you have heard about “Empaths” lately. Empaths are people who are highly sensitive towards other people’s emotions and energies they are sending out. Empaths often have the special gift of observation and connection. However, not many are aware that they are highly intuitive. All they are aware of are the consequences: feeling exhausted for no reason, other’s draining your energy, feeling overwhelmed and frustrated on a regular basis, often feeling anxious, even depressed. Being an Empath in today’s world is no easy task because we are being bombarded with toxins, other people’s stuff through personal interaction or all media channels.
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Apr 03, 2013, 18:22 IST
Para and Apara vidya
Blog by Dr Rekha Ramankutty
There are two categories of knowledge, declares the Rishi of Mundaka Upanishad- knowledge of the world and knowledge of the inner world, material knowledge (apara vidya) and spiritual knowledge (para vidya). The same thing has again been taken up in the Chandogya Upanishad by sage Narada Muni and Sanatkumara. In fact both ought to be acquired and both are equally important. Nor are they mutually exclusive. One is incomplete without the other. This has been very strongly emphasized by the Isa Upanishad.]
“The higher (para) and the lower knowledge (apara), or the knowledge of the spirit and the knowledge of matter, both ought to be acquired, so say those who know Brahman (Supreme Spirit),” declared the sage Angirasa to Saunaka when the latter approached him as a disciple.
All the Vedas, grammar, philosophy, astronomy, astrology and all such knowledge falls in the category of apara or lower learning. That knowledge by which Brahman (Supreme Soul) is known, that by which, the unseen and the unknown, the one eternal all-pervasive Being is known, is the para or higher learning.
Narada once approached the sage Sanatkumara and requested him to show the path of knowledge. Sanatkumara said, “Let me first know what you have already learnt. I shall then teach you something further than that.”
Narada then said, “Sir, I have learnt the Rg-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharva-Veda, history and traditional stories which are together called the fifth Veda, the method of remembering and repeating the Vedas, the technique of Shraddha ceremony, grammar, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, science of augury, jugglery, logic, ethics, information about different gods who represent different forces or powers, science of animals, science of war, and so on. But, Sir, I feel that I merely know the Mantras or potent words but I do not know the Atman or the soul or the spirit of things. I have heard from men like you that he who knows the Atman goes beyond all sorrow. Sir, I am full of sorrow and grief and remorse. I hope and believe that you will be able to lead me out of all these by favouring me with real knowledge.”
“Dear Narada, all that you have known is but mere name and verbiage, mere words. You can by your present knowledge achieve only what words can achieve and nothing more.”
“What is it that is greater than name and words? Please teach me that,” said Narada.
“Yes, the power of speech is greater than words. If there had been no power of speech there would have been no words, no Vedas, no truth or untruth, no religion or irreligion, no good or bad.”
“Is there anything still greater than the power of speech?” queried Narada
“Certainly. Mind is greater. It is the mind that is conscious of both the word and the power of speech. When a man decided that he should learn the Mantras, he learns them. Otherwise not. When he thinks he ought to do a thing, he does it, not otherwise.
“Is there anything greater than the mind?”
“Why not? The will is greater than the mind. If there is no will, nothing happens. It is the will that holds all things together.”
“What is greater than the will?”
“Consciousness is greater than the will. It is consciousness that begets mental activity. Then there is the will that impels the mind to think. Speech follows and words take shape. If a man’s consciousness is not concentrated, he is not alert and he cannot do things.”
“Dear Sir, is there anything that is greater than consciousness?”
“Of course, there is. Meditation is greater than mere consciousness. Even the earth and the sky and the mountains are, as it were, meditating and therefore standing firm and steady. If there were no meditation, nothing would stand firm and steady.”
“Please tell me if there is something which is greater than meditation.”
“Yes, the power of understanding is greater than meditation. Good and bad, truth and untruth, the Vedas and Puranas, this world and the next, all these can be known only if there is the power of understanding.”
“Is there anything still greater than understanding?”
“Yes, dear friend. Power is greater than mere understanding. A single powerful man inspires fear into a hundred men with brains and understanding. When a man with physical power gets up and goes about, when he becomes learned, when he becomes a seer, a thinker, a doer of things, becomes a man of understanding, he is greater than all. It is power that supports the earth, the sky, the mountains, the beasts and men and gods and everything that exists on earth or in heaven.”
“Is there anything that is greater than physical power?”
“Yes, food is greater. If a man does not eat ten days he may die, or even if he lives, he may lose his powers of speech, of action, of hearing, and of thinking. When he begins to take food his powers return to him.”
“Is there anything greater than food?”
“Yes, water is greater. If there are no rains then no food grows. For want of water all living beings would fade away. When there are rains all animals are quite happy.”
“What is greater than water?”
“Heat or light is greater. If there were no heat, the water from the earth would not evaporate and there would be no rain without evaporation.”
“What is greater than heat?”
“Akasha or space is greater. It is in akasha or space that all things happen. The sun and the moon and the worlds float about in space. Space is the cause of sound waves that makes hearing possible.”
“What is greater than space?”
“Well, there is the Atman, the spirit. That is the substratum of everything else.”
“Man is always impelled to do things on account of the joy or the pleasure that he gets out of the things that he does. No one acts or does anything unless by some kind of pleasure or joy. And joy consists in abundance, not in want. It is infinity and not limitation that can give joy. That infinity can be realized only by living a unitary life and not by living a life impeded by a sense of separation or isolation or limitation.
When a man sees not anything but One, hears not and knows not anything but the one Atman, he is experiencing infinity. When a man only sees and knows merely things other than the Atman, it is misery and sorrow that follow. The abundant and the infinite are immortal while things limited are mortal. The spirit lives by its own power and exists by its own support and greatness. Those who have realized the spirit are great on account of self-possession and not on account of the possession of houses and cows, servants and lands.
“The spirit pervades the four quarters. It is up above as well as down below. It is called the Atman. He who knows this Atman is absorbed in it. He sports with it, he enjoys its company as that of a mate. He is full of joy. He is his own monarch and fully self-possessed and self-controlled.
“This realization of the spirit can dawn upon us when our mind is clean and pure. Our minds would be clean and pure when we feed upon pure food. A clean and pure mind alone can concentrate upon truth. Truth then will shine in the heart of hearts like the rising sun.”
That is para vidya or spiritual realization that bestows immortality and eternal bliss.
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|Posted on April 6, 2021 at 10:25 AM||comments (0)|
The Doctrine of Dependent Origination as Basis for a Paradigm of Human-Nature Relationship of Responsibility and Accountability
|Posted on April 6, 2021 at 7:40 AM||comments (0)|
The Elements, in many philosophies and religious views, are said to be the simplest essential parts and principles of which everything consists. In ancient thought (such as the Greek, Hindu and Buddhist) there is reference to four elements (Earth, Water, Air, and Fire), sometimes including a fifth element or quintessence called Aether or Akasa (space). The Chinese had a somewhat different series of elements, namely Fire, Earth, Metal, Water and Wood, which were understood as different types of energy in a state of constant interaction and flux with one another, rather than the notion of different kinds of material. In the Theosophical literature there is mention to one ultimate element that differentiate in seven, although only four are completely manifested at this stage of evolution.
1 Elements in Theosophy
1.1 The One Element
1.2 Manifestation of the elements
2 In Hinduism
3 In Buddhism
3.1 The element or "dhatu"
4 In Greek philosophy
5 In Chinese philosophy
Elements in Theosophy
The Theosophical view maintains that there are seven fundamental elements in nature, which are differentiations of the one element. These seven elements do not manifest on all the planes simultaneously, but progressively as evolution goes on.
The One Element
In The Mahatma Letters, Master KH writes about one element, which is the homogeneous basis of all:
There is but one element and it is impossible to comprehend our system before a correct conception of it is firmly fixed in one's mind. You must therefore pardon me if I dwell on the subject longer than really seems necessary. But unless this great primary fact is firmly grasped the rest will appear unintelligible. This element then is the — to speak metaphysically — one sub-stratum or permanent cause of all manifestations in the phenomenal universe.
This element is sometimes called Svābhāvat:
You will have first of all to view the eternal Essence, the Swabavat, not as a compound element you call spirit-matter, but as the one element for which the English has no name. It is both passive and active, pure Spirit Essence in its absoluteness, and repose, pure matter in its finite and conditioned state
The one element penetrates the whole space and, in fact, is space itself:
We recognise but one element in Nature (whether spiritual or physical) outside which there can be no Nature since it is Nature itself, and which as the akasa pervades our solar system, every atom being part of itself pervades throughout space and is space in fact, which pulsates as in profound sleep during the pralayas, and [is] the universal Proteus, the ever active Nature during the manwantaras. . . . Consequently spirit and matter are one, being but a differentiation of states not essences.
The great difficulty in grasping the idea in the above process lies in the liability to form more or less incomplete mental conceptions of the working of the one element, of its inevitable presence in every imponderable atom, and its subsequent ceaseless and almost illimitable multiplication of new centres of activity without affecting in the least its own original quantity.
The one element not only fills space and is space, but interpenetrates every atom of cosmic matter.
This one element is the origin of the different elements known by the ancients:
If the student bears in mind that there is but One Universal Element, which is infinite, unborn, and undying, and that all the rest — as in the world of phenomena — are but so many various differentiated aspects and transformations (correlations, they are now called) of that One, from Cosmical down to microcosmical effects, from super-human down to human and sub-human beings, the totality, in short, of objective existence — then the first and chief difficulty will disappear and Occult Cosmology may be mastered.
Metaphysically and esoterically there is but One ELEMENT in nature, and at the root of it is the Deity; and the so-called seven elements, of which five have already manifested and asserted their existence, are the garment, the veil, of that deity; direct from the essence whereof comes MAN, whether physically, psychically, mentally or spiritually considered.
The ancients speak of the five cognizable elements of ether, air, water, fire, earth, and of the one incognizable element (to the uninitiates) the 6th principle of the universe — call it Purush Sakti, while to speak of the seventh outside the sanctuary was punishable with death. But these five are but the differentiated aspects of the one.
Manifestation of the elements
The process of cosmic manifestation proceeds gradually, manifesting six of these elements one after the other. Stanza VI.3 says:
Of the Seven (elements)—first one manifested, six concealed; two manifested—five concealed; three manifested—four concealed; four produced—three hidden; four and one tsan (fraction) revealed—two and one half concealed; six to be manifested—one laid aside.
Mme. Blavatsky applies this sloka to the manifestation of the elements on the lowest plane, one at a time, with the succession of Rounds:
Although these Stanzas refer to the whole Universe after a Mahapralaya (universal destruction), yet this sentence, as any student of Occultism may see, refers also by analogy to the evolution and final formation of the primitive (though compound) Seven Elements on our Earth. Of these, four elements are now fully manifested, while the fifth—Ether—is only partially so, as we are hardly in the second half of the Fourth Round, and consequently the fifth Element will manifest fully only in the Fifth Round.
Occult Science recognises Seven Cosmical Elements—four entirely physical, and the fifth (Ether) semi-material, as it will become visible in the air towards the end of our Fourth Round, to reign supreme over the others during the whole of the Fifth. The remaining two are as yet absolutely beyond the range of human perception. These latter will, however, appear as presentments during the 6th and 7th Races of this Round, and will become known in the 6th and 7th Rounds respectively. These seven elements with their numberless Sub-Elements far more numerous than those known to Science) are simply conditional modifications and aspects of the ONE and only Element.
Four elements only are generally spoken of in later antiquity, five admitted only in philosophy. For the body of ether is not fully manifested yet, and its noumenon is still “the Omnipotent Father—Æther, the synthesis of the rest.”
The succession of primary aspects of Nature with which the succession of Rounds is concerned, has to do, as already indicated, with the development of the “Elements” (in the Occult sense)—Fire, Air, Water, Earth. We are only in the fourth Round, and our catalogue so far stops short.
The ordering of the elements mentioned by Mme. Blavatsky coincides with the degree of their spiritual quality. In a letter to Alfred Percy Sinnett, Mahatma K.H. wrote about:
. . . the principles of earth, water, air, fire and ether (akasa) following the order of their spirituality and beginning with the lowest.
The elements can also be seen as the objective aspect of the seven Dhyani-Buddhas:
“These Brâhmanas (the Rishi Prajâpati?), the creators of the world, are born here (on earth) again and again. Whatever is produced from them is dissolved in due time in those very five great elements (the five, or rather seven, Dhyani Buddhas, also called “Elements” of Mankind), like billows in the ocean. These great elements are in every way beyond the elements that make up the world (the gross elements). And he who is released even from these five elements (the tanmâtras) goes to the highest goal.”
Hindus believe that all of creation, including the human body, is made up of these five essential elements (Mahābhūtas) and that upon death, the human body dissolves into these five elements of nature, thereby balancing the cycle of nature. These "five great elements" (panchamahābhūtas) are (in order of increasing subtlety):
1- Earth (pṛithvī or bhūmi)
2- Water (apa or jala)
3- Fire (tejas or agni)
4- Air or wind (vāyu)
5- Aether or space (akash).
The five great elements originate from the five tanmatra (subtle essences).
The element or "dhatu"
The teaching about the existence of one single element, eternal and immutable, is not prevalent within Buddhism, which generally postulates Śūnyatā (emptiness) as the ultimate reality. However, as David Reigle has shown, the Jonangpa school of Tibetan Buddhism holds this teaching. He writes:
The key term in Maitreya's Ratna-gotra-vihhaga is dhātu, or element. It is described in the following important verse:
It is not born, does not die, is not afflicted, and does not grow old, because it is permanent (nitya/rtag-pa), stable (dhruva/brtan-pa), quiescent (siva/zhi-ba), and eternal (sasvata/g.yung-drung). Ratna-gotra-vibhaga or Uttara-tantra, by Maitreya, verse 80.
As noted earlier, this one thing, dhatu or element, may be called tathagata-garbha or Buddha-nature when obscured, and dharma-kaya or body of the law when unobscured.....
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