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study of Brazilian skulls ranging from 11,000 to 7,500 years old has revealed that they have more in common with Aboriginal Australians and Melanesians than modern Native Americans

Posted on April 8, 2022 at 8:45 AM Comments comments ()

Some of the first Americans may have been Australians. A new study of Brazilian skulls ranging from 11,000 to 7,500 years old has revealed that they have more in common with Aboriginal Australians and Melanesians than modern Native Americans.

"The earliest Americans are very different from nowadays Indians or later archaeological material," says Walter Neves of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, co-author of the study that is being published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "We are proposing that the Americas were populated by waves of humans."


Neves and his colleague Mark Hubbe studied skulls found in the Lagoa Santa region of central Brazil, an area riddled with caves. Since 1842, at least 250 ancient human skeletons ranging from ancient to nearly modern have turned up there. The scientists dated 22 of the oldest specimens by measuring their isotopes and found them to be between 8,500 and 7,500 years old.


The researchers then enlarged this sample by including all remains buried in a similar fashion--in shallow graves covered with small blocks of limestone or quartz--which they presume to hail from the same time period as the dated material. They ended up with 55 well preserved skulls that fit the criteria and compared them with standardized skull measurements of more than 2,500 modern humans. By comparing the size and shape of the skulls as well as their noses and eye sockets, Neves found that the oldest Brazilian specimens most closely resembled the skulls of the Tolai people of New Britain in Papua New Guinea, followed by other Australo-Melanesians. The closest match among modern Native Americans are Eskimos. "Eskimos get close because they are one of the few American Indians to have a long skull," Neves explains.

This broader skull data seems to support Neves' theory that two distinct waves of people populated the Americas, perhaps both crossing the Bering Strait during different periods. But recent genetic studies have been interpreted to indicate only one such migration. "DNA lineages are often lost during the course of evolution, even in short periods of time," Neves counters. "Today, no South American native group presents the X [mitochondrial DNA] lineage, which is universal among North American native groups. However, DNA extracted a few years ago from human skeletons from the Brazilian Amazon, dated to only a couple thousand years ago, showed clearly that the X lineage was present in South America."....... https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/skulls-suggest-differing/

India: Ministry of Defence has decided to operationalise Ayurveda Centres at 37 Cantonment Hospitals

Posted on March 31, 2022 at 8:35 AM Comments comments ()


37 Cantonment Hospitals to start Ayurveda clinics from May 01, 2022

Posted On: 30 MAR 2022 6:03PM by PIB Delhi

With a view to provide benefits of Indian traditional Ayurveda System of medicine to a wider clientele, Ministry of Defence has decided to operationalise Ayurveda Centres at 37 Cantonment Hospitals across the country from May 01, 2022.


The decision was taken at a recent high level meeting held between the Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar and the Secretary Ministry of AYUSH, Vaidya Rakesh Kotecha. The move will make available well-established and time-tested therapies of Ayurveda to the residents of Cantonments including Armed Forces personnel, their families and civilians availing health services from these hospitals.


To support this initiative, Ministry of AYUSH is providing skilled AYUSH Doctors and Pharmacists to these 37 Cantonment Hospitals. It has also been decided that officials of Directorate General of Defence Estates (DGDE), Ministry of Defence and Ministry of AYUSH would work in close collaboration to make these 37 Ayurveda Centres functional......

Indexed for Ministry of Ayush India, by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


Mysterious link between people from South America and Australia

Posted on March 9, 2022 at 7:40 AM Comments comments ()

Two DNA studies show that South Americans have an unexpected link to indigenous people of Australia and Melanesia, but disagree on how and when the Americas were populated....... https://sciencenordic.com/ancient-dna-denmark-gene-research/mysterious-link-between-people-from-south-america-and-australia/1420544

North America may have once been attached to Australia, according to research

Posted on March 9, 2022 at 7:40 AM Comments comments ()

North America is a key component in reconstructions of many former supercontinents, and there are strong geological associations between the western United States and Australia, which is one of the world’s leading mineral producers.

In this study, Jones and others synthesized mineral age data from ancient sedimentary rocks in the Trampas and Yankee Joe basins of Arizona and New Mexico. They found that the ages of many zircon crystals—mineral grains that were eroded from other rocks and embedded in the sedimentary deposits—were approximately 1.6 to 1.5 billion years old, an age range that does not match any known geologic age provinces in the entire western United States.

This surprising result actually mirrors previous studies of the Belt-Purcell basin (located in Montana, Idaho and parts of British Columbia, Canada) and a recently recognized basin in western Yukon, Canada, in which many zircon ages between 1.6 and 1.5 billion years old are common despite the absence of matching potential source rocks of this age.

However, the distinctive zircon ages in all three study locations do match the well known ages of districts in Australia and, to a slightly lesser known extent, Antarctica.

This publication marks the first time a complete detrital mineral age dataset has been compiled to compare the Belt basin deposits to strata of similar age in the southwestern United States. “Though the basins eventually evolved along very different trajectories, they have a shared history when they were first formed,” said Jones. “That history gives us clues as to what continents bordered western North America 1.5 billion years ago.”........

Indexed for USGS by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Researchers Find a Chunk of North America Stuck to Australia

Posted on March 9, 2022 at 7:30 AM Comments comments ()

Anyone who's taken the epic plane flight from North America to Australia knows that Oz is very, very far away. But that wasn't always the case. And a new study suggests that the northern tip of Queensland, Australia was actually once a hunk of North America, reports Naaman Zhou at The Guardian.

Geologists from Curtin University in Perth, Australia, examined rock samples from the area around Georgetown in northern Queensland. Their analysis suggests that these rocks have chemical signatures very different from rocks found in the rest of Australia, and are quite similar to rocks found in Canada.......

Indexed for Smithsonian Magazine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

An Asian Origin for Human Ancestors? Myanmar fossil suggests our earliest predecessors may not have come from Africa

Posted on March 9, 2022 at 7:10 AM Comments comments ()
Researchers agree that our immediate ancestors, the upright walking apes, arose in Africa. But the discovery of a new primate that lived about 37 million years ago in the ancient swamplands of Myanmar bolsters the idea that the deep primate family tree that gave rise to humans is rooted in Asia. If true, the discovery suggests that the ancestors of all monkeys, apes, and humans—known as the anthropoids—arose in Asia and made the arduous journey to the island continent of Africa almost 40 million years ago.

Until 18 years ago, fossils of every suspected early anthropoid were found in Egypt and dated to about 30 million years ago. Then, starting in the 1990s, researchers began discovering the remains of petite primates that lived 37 million to 45 million years ago in China, Myanmar, and other Asian nations. This suggested that anthropoids may have actually arisen in Asia and then migrated to Africa a few million years later. But paleontologists have lacked the fossils to show when and how these anthropoids trekked from Asia to Africa, says paleontologist K. Christopher Beard of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

In 2005, Beard and an international team of researchers sifting fossils of early fish, turtle, and ancestral hippo teeth from fossil beds near the village of Nyaungpinle in Myanmar found a molar the size of a kernel of popcorn. The tooth, dated to about 38 million years ago, belonged to a new species of ancient primate, which would have been the size of a small chipmunk. After several more years of arduous fieldwork, the team has collected just four molars of this primitive anthropoid, which they named Afrasia djijidae. "It's a difficult place to work; it took us 6 years to find four teeth," says Beard.

The four molars were enough to show Beard and team leader Jean-Jacques Jaeger of the University of Poitiers in France that Afrasia was closely related to another primitive anthropoid that lived at about the same time, but in Africa—Afrotarsius libycus from Libya. When the researchers examined the teeth from the two primates under a microscope, they were so similar in size, shape, and age that they could have belonged to the same species of primate, says Beard. Such close resemblance between an Asian and African fossil anthropoid has "never been demonstrated previously," the authors write online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

On closer examination, however, the team noticed that the new molars from the Asian Afrasia were more primitive than those of Afrotarsius from Libya, particularly in the larger size of a tiny bulge at the back of its last lower molar. These primitive traits, as well as the greater diversity and age of early, or "stem," anthropoids in Asia rather than Africa suggest that this group arose in Asia and migrated to Africa 37 million to 39 million years ago. "Anthropoids didn't arrive in Africa until right before we find their fossils in Libya," says Jaeger.

The Out-of-Asia scenario may have been complex. The team proposes that more than one species of anthropoid migrated from Asia to Africa at about this time, because there are at least two other types of early anthropoids alive at about the same time as Afrotarsius in Libya, yet they are not closely related to Afrotarsius or Afrasia. This may be because once they got to Africa, they found ideal lush conditions with few carnivores and underwent a "starburst of evolution," says Beard, rapidly giving rise to a number of new species.

Others agree that if both the new species of primates from Myanmar and Libya are indeed early anthropoids, they would greatly strengthen the case for the Asian origins of anthropoids. "If proven, the biogeographical significance of these results is profound," says paleontologist Richard Kay of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. It would show that there was a major migration of primates and probably other mammals between the two continents at a time when it was not easy to get across the ancient Tethys Sea that divided Africa from Asia. And for humans, it would suggest that our deepest primate roots were in Asia, not Africa.

Still, the similarity between the species rests on just four molars of Afrasia, Kay notes, although teeth are the most reliable way to measure relatedness. And some researchers have yet to be convinced that Afrotarsius in Libya is a stem anthropoid rather than an ancestor of tarsiers, primates that are not anthropoids and, thus, are more distant relatives. Kay, however, says the scales are tipping toward an Asian origin. "We've all heard about Out-of-Africa for human origins," adds Beard. "Now we think there was an Out-of-Asia migration into Africa first."

Indexed for Science.org by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

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Native Indian Languages of Louisiana Linked to the Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Posted on March 9, 2022 at 5:55 AM Comments comments ()
Native Indian languages, Atakapa, Chitimacha and Tunica of the Choctaw family are found to be very similar to ancient Egyptian. A comparison of glossaries shows that they are related more to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs than to one another.


In a study of comparative linguistics of three Native Indian languages from Louisiana (Atakapa, Chitmacha and Tunica), Charles William Johnson of https://www.earthmatrix.com, Science in Ancient Artwork, has identified certain correspondences between these languages and the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. Johnson considered that if the earth mounds of Louisiana shared perhaps a common geodesic grid system with the pyramids of Giza, then possibly the languages of these peoples may be related as well.

In a previous study, Johnson demonstrated how Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs of Mexico, related directly to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs by eliminating the letter "L" in the Nahuatl words. Now, with the three cited languages of the Choctaw family, another direct relationship of linguistic correspondence makes its appearance in his new book, "The Sound of Meaning: Comparative Linguistics of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs with Atakapa, Chitmacha and Tunica."

For the comparison, Johnson utilizes a glossary of words in Atakapa, Chitimacha and Tunica, three Native Indian peoples who lived, and still live, mainly in Louisiana (Texas and Mississippi). The glossary is from a 1919 study by John R. Swanton published by the Smithsonian Institution, in which Swanton showed that the three Choctaw languages were related to one another through linguistic correspondence.

In comparing this glossary to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, Johnson finds numerous correspondences, even some cognates. Consider the different words for grains or seeds in the three languages. The word for seed in Tunica is "uxsu," in ancient Egyptian it is "usheb-t." The word for seed in Chitimacha is "tcaca," while in ancient Egyptian "tchab" means a kind of seed. In Atakapa the word "ots" means seed, while "utit" in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs means grain or seed.

The Native Indian languages appear more related to ancient Egyptian than among themselves. The entire list of words studied by Johnson reveals numerous linguistic correspondences of this nature between the Native Indian languages of Louisiana and the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, suggesting some kind of shared history.

The historical and archaeological records do not offer any evidence of a relationship between these ancient peoples. In Johnson’s view, the languages themselves may offer proof of a common historical past. As more Native Indian languages of the Americas are studied and compared to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs within the Earth/matriX project, additional examples of linguistic correspondence may arise, giving need to re-examine history itself. The linguistic correspondence of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs with the languages studied to date (Maya, Nahuatl, Tunica, Chitimacha and Atakapa) may represent only the tip of the iceberg.

Recent research has confirmed skeletal remains of Negrito populations in Taiwan, laying a blow to both Taiwanese and Chinese nationalists

Posted on March 9, 2022 at 4:00 AM Comments comments ()

See also: The First Chinese Were Black 

Negrito populations have long been hinted at in Taiwan. For as long as researchers have collected local legends on Taiwan, they have encountered stories of small dark people among the local aborigines. The widely-known Saisiyat “Festival of the Short People” commemorates the deaths of the last of them at Saisiyat hands. But other local Aboriginal groups have legends as well. DNA work also suggests the existence of Negrito populations in Taiwan, but the evidence is murky.

It was thus with great pleasure that I read “Female craniometrics support the ‘two-layer model’ of human dispersal in Eastern Eurasia” by Matsumura et al, which came out last month in Nature Scientific Reports. The authors of that paper pulled the skeleton from Xiaoma Cave out of its closet in 2016 and held it up to the light. They observed: “The short stature, short limbs and small cranial size of the Xiaoma individual indicate a close affinity to Negrito (Ayta) groups in the Philippines.”

They then performed an analysis of the cranium and compared it to a large database of crania from around the world.

“PCA analysis revealed that, in respect to overall cranial size, Xiaoma is very small (PC 1), and comparable to Negrito crania from the Philippines, San from South Africa and Veddah from Sri Lanka,” the authors wrote.

They explicitly link the shortness of the skeleton and smallness of the head to the legends found among the existing aboriginal peoples of Taiwan: [the statistical analysis] “supports many Formosan Austronesian oral traditions about the former existence of small and dark-skinned people in Taiwan.”

There you have it. The first confirmed skeletal remains of Negrito populations in Taiwan.

(Stay tuned, I’ve heard other interesting things about this find and about Negritos in Taiwan that I hope to write about in the coming months.)

That skeleton sat in the museum at NTU without being cleaned or reconstructed for nearly thirty years. That neglect seems a crime to me, but I asked an anthropologist about it, and he observed that archaeologists aren’t nearly as interested in skeletons as they are in the relics of cultures. It is just not their thing, he said.


Like all human domains, history is the realm of realpolitik. For years the Austronesians in Taiwan have been the locus of efforts by both pro-China and pro-Taiwan groups to exploit their status as Taiwan’s oldest residents and authenticate their respective nationalisms.

Pro-China types have tended to emphasize that the Austronesians came originally from what is now China. This of course emphasizes a very early link between “Taiwan” and “China.”

Conversely, there is a strain of Taiwanese nationalism that emphasizes Taiwanese identity as a biological construct rooted in intermixing of settlers from China and local Aboriginal peoples, essentializing “Taiwaneseness” and ethnicity in the DNA.

Marie Lin (林媽利), the well-known hematologist and medical researcher, is the most vocal proponent of this position. She has claimed that Taiwanese are “ethnically distinct” from the Han and that 85 percent of Hakka and Hoklo have aboriginal genetic markers. These claims are nonsensical, but they resonate with many (Mark Munsterhjelm’s brilliant Living Dead in the Pacific has an unexcelled critique of Lin’s claims).

These claims run in tandem with another argument that links Taiwaneseness to descent from the Pingpu people, the Aboriginal peoples of the western plains. This view is based on bogus ideas of “blood” and descent that nevertheless run deep in Taiwan’s ideas of citizenship and identity.

The best answer to the pro-China claims and blood-based descent views of Taiwan’s aborigines is an identity rooted in civic nationalism, which does away with the whole idea of ethnicity as something biologically-rooted. Ironically, the Negrito skeleton may help, for it does an end run around both these political views.

There may be Negrito DNA in local populations, but the signal is insignificant and cannot be used as the foundation for any claims of “blood” and ethnicity. There are no living Negritos on Taiwan and thus, they cannot be the locus of anyone’s nationalist beliefs.


By the same token, the Negrito groups are long thought to have moved across the southern part of the Asian supercontinent, to southeast Asia, and then spreading north and south. They did not enter Taiwan from the west and what is now China, but from the south. Hence, they adumbrate the pro-China view that Taiwan is linked to China because one way or another it is origin of everyone who has lived in Taiwan.


The Negritos were here first, and they were here for tens of thousands of years before anyone else.


Not out of China..........