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Some of the first Americans may have been Australians. A new study of Brazilian skulls ranging from 11,000 to 7,500 years old has revealed that they have more in common with Aboriginal Australians and Melanesians than modern Native Americans.
"The earliest Americans are very different from nowadays Indians or later archaeological material," says Walter Neves of the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, co-author of the study that is being published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "We are proposing that the Americas were populated by waves of humans."
Neves and his colleague Mark Hubbe studied skulls found in the Lagoa Santa region of central Brazil, an area riddled with caves. Since 1842, at least 250 ancient human skeletons ranging from ancient to nearly modern have turned up there. The scientists dated 22 of the oldest specimens by measuring their isotopes and found them to be between 8,500 and 7,500 years old.
The researchers then enlarged this sample by including all remains buried in a similar fashion--in shallow graves covered with small blocks of limestone or quartz--which they presume to hail from the same time period as the dated material. They ended up with 55 well preserved skulls that fit the criteria and compared them with standardized skull measurements of more than 2,500 modern humans. By comparing the size and shape of the skulls as well as their noses and eye sockets, Neves found that the oldest Brazilian specimens most closely resembled the skulls of the Tolai people of New Britain in Papua New Guinea, followed by other Australo-Melanesians. The closest match among modern Native Americans are Eskimos. "Eskimos get close because they are one of the few American Indians to have a long skull," Neves explains.
This broader skull data seems to support Neves' theory that two distinct waves of people populated the Americas, perhaps both crossing the Bering Strait during different periods. But recent genetic studies have been interpreted to indicate only one such migration. "DNA lineages are often lost during the course of evolution, even in short periods of time," Neves counters. "Today, no South American native group presents the X [mitochondrial DNA] lineage, which is universal among North American native groups. However, DNA extracted a few years ago from human skeletons from the Brazilian Amazon, dated to only a couple thousand years ago, showed clearly that the X lineage was present in South America."....... https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/skulls-suggest-differing/
|Posted on March 31, 2022 at 8:35 AM||comments (0)|
37 Cantonment Hospitals to start Ayurveda clinics from May 01, 2022
Posted On: 30 MAR 2022 6:03PM by PIB Delhi
With a view to provide benefits of Indian traditional Ayurveda System of medicine to a wider clientele, Ministry of Defence has decided to operationalise Ayurveda Centres at 37 Cantonment Hospitals across the country from May 01, 2022.
The decision was taken at a recent high level meeting held between the Defence Secretary Dr Ajay Kumar and the Secretary Ministry of AYUSH, Vaidya Rakesh Kotecha. The move will make available well-established and time-tested therapies of Ayurveda to the residents of Cantonments including Armed Forces personnel, their families and civilians availing health services from these hospitals.
To support this initiative, Ministry of AYUSH is providing skilled AYUSH Doctors and Pharmacists to these 37 Cantonment Hospitals. It has also been decided that officials of Directorate General of Defence Estates (DGDE), Ministry of Defence and Ministry of AYUSH would work in close collaboration to make these 37 Ayurveda Centres functional......
Indexed for Ministry of Ayush India, by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
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There may be Negrito DNA in local populations, but the signal is insignificant and cannot be used as the foundation for any claims of “blood” and ethnicity. There are no living Negritos on Taiwan and thus, they cannot be the locus of anyone’s nationalist beliefs.
By the same token, the Negrito groups are long thought to have moved across the southern part of the Asian supercontinent, to southeast Asia, and then spreading north and south. They did not enter Taiwan from the west and what is now China, but from the south. Hence, they adumbrate the pro-China view that Taiwan is linked to China because one way or another it is origin of everyone who has lived in Taiwan.
The Negritos were here first, and they were here for tens of thousands of years before anyone else.
Not out of China..........
|Posted on February 23, 2022 at 7:40 AM||comments (0)|
Zealandia illustrates that the large and the obvious in natural science can be overlooked. Based on various lines of geological and geophysical evidence, particularly those accumulated in the last two decades, we argue that Zealandia is not a collection of partly submerged continental fragments but is a coherent 4.9 Mkm2 continent (Fig. 1). Currently used conventions and definitions of continental crust, continents, and microcontinents require no modification to accommodate Zealandia.
Satellite gravity data sets, New Zealand’s UNCLOS program, and marine geological expeditions have been major influences in promoting the big picture view necessary to define and recognize Zealandia (Fig. 2). Zealandia is approximately the area of greater India and, like India, Australia, Antarctica, Africa, and South America, was a former part of the Gondwana supercontinent (Figs. 3 and 5). As well as being the seventh largest geological continent (Fig. 1), Zealandia is the youngest, thinnest, and most submerged (Fig. 4). The scientific value of classifying Zealandia as a continent is much more than just an extra name on a list. That a continent can be so submerged yet unfragmented makes it a useful and thought-provoking geodynamic end member in exploring the cohesion and breakup of continental crust.
We thank Belinda Smith Lyttle for GIS work and Patti Durance, Ron Hackney, and Brendan Murphy for comments. Formal reviews by Peter Cawood, Jerry Dickens, and an anonymous referee greatly improved the focus and content. This paper is based on work supported by New Zealand Government core funding grants to GNS Science.
Adams, C.J., and Griffin, W.L., 2012, Rodinian detrital zircons in Late Cretaceous sandstones indicate a possible Precambrian basement under southern Zealandia: Precambrian Research, v. 212–213, p. 13–20, doi: 10.1016/j.precamres.2012.04.003.
Bache, F., Mortimer, N., Sutherland, R., Collot, J., Rouillard, P., Stagpoole, V.M., and Nicol, A., 2014, Seismic stratigraphic record of transition from Mesozoic subduction to continental breakup in the Zealandia sector of eastern Gondwana: Gondwana Research, v. 26, p. 1060–1078, doi: 10.1016/j.gr.2013.08.012.
Beggs, J.M., Challis, G.A., and Cook, R.A., 1990, Basement geology of the Campbell Plateau: Implications for correlation of the Campbell Magnetic Anomaly System: New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, v. 33, p. 401–404, doi: 10.1080/00288306.1990.10425696.
Bird, P., 2003, An updated digital model of plate boundaries: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, v. 4, p 1027, doi: 10.1029/2001GC000252.
Blewett, R.S., editor, 2012, Shaping a Nation:
A Geology of Australia: Canberra, Geoscience Australia and ANU Press, 571 .......
Indexed for Geological Society Of America by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on February 23, 2022 at 7:35 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on February 23, 2022 at 7:20 AM||comments (0)|
The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context1,2. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum). The CM site contains spiral-fractured bone and molar fragments, indicating that breakage occured while fresh. Several of these fragments also preserve evidence of percussion. The occurrence and distribution of bone, molar and stone refits suggest that breakage occurred at the site of burial. Five large cobbles (hammerstones and anvils) in the CM bone bed display use-wear and impact marks, and are hydraulically anomalous relative to the low-energy context of the enclosing sandy silt stratum. 230Th/U radiometric analysis of multiple bone specimens using diffusion–adsorption–decay dating models indicates a burial date of 130.7 ± 9.4 thousand years ago. These findings confirm the presence of an unidentified species of Homo at the CM site during the last interglacial period (MIS 5e; early late Pleistocene), indicating that humans with manual dexterity and the experiential knowledge to use hammerstones and anvils processed mastodon limb bones for marrow extraction and/or raw material for tool production. Systematic proboscidean bone reduction, evident at the CM site, fits within a broader pattern of Palaeolithic bone percussion technology in Africa3,4,5,6, Eurasia7,8,9 and North America10,11,12. The CM site is, to our knowledge, the oldest in situ, well-documented archaeological site in North America and, as such, substantially revises the timing of arrival of Homo into the Americas.
Indexed for Nature Journal/Magazine by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on February 23, 2022 at 6:55 AM||comments (0)|
Archaeological research by Niède Guidon
The rock art of the Serra da Capivara National Park in the north east of Brazil, with research led by archaeologist Niède Guidon, helped establish it as a World Heritage Site in 1991.
The best known archaeological site of Serra da Capivara is Pedra Furada, a rock art shelter with over 1,150 images and thousands of artifacts. Her theories about the archaeology and the rock art are controversial, as she questions the putative dates for the relatively recent occupation of the Americas by anatomically modern humans, proposing a date in excess of 45,000 years ago, based on her archaeological research at the sites.....