|Posted on April 10, 2021 at 5:45 AM||comments (0)|
William Scott-Elliot – The Lost Lemuria
|Posted on April 7, 2021 at 5:45 AM||comments (0)|
Hanuman’s popularity covers the entire country from the Himalayas in the North to the peninsular tip in the South. It spills over to the neighbouring countries in South East Asia and the worship of this deity is of immense antiquity.
“As a god of good fortune he held his ground as Thoth (the god of wisdom) among the Egyptian pantheon; he appeared here as a dog-headed baboon (cynocephalus). He was a symbol of wisdom in ancient Greece, associated with magic, sorcery and witchcraft. In the Maya civilisation, he was the only form that could survive the wrath of the gods,” Vedic scholar S K Ramachandra Rao has written in his book Hanuman Kosa.
There are ape statues from Babylonia, ancient figurines from Egypt and little silver and lapis-lazuli icons from Iraq (Khafaje) that remind one of Hanuman. Finds in the remains of the Aztec, South Babylonia, Egyptian, the Chinese civilisations suggest that the monkey-god was feared or adored by the people.
There are stories, myths and legends relating to the exploits of this God in all these countries with regional variations in the theme and content (like the Chinese Golden Monkey-sun), writes Professor Rao.
American aviator Charles Lindberg during one of his flights over the jungles of Mosquitia in Hondurus, is believed to have caught a glimpse of what he thought was the ‘Lost City of the Monkey God‘ where, local people worshipped huge ‘Monkey Sculptures’ (Source: Book Facts). ..... Full Article at https://www.softpowermag.com/hanumans-south-american-connection-lokadevata-invoked-today-for-medical-aid/
|Posted on April 7, 2021 at 5:15 AM||comments (0)|
ANCIENT 'PINDO-RAMA'. TODAY'S BRAZIL -THE RAMAYANA CONNECT AND A BIT ABOUT BRAZILIAN INSCRIPTIONS & THEIR LINK TO 'INDUS VALLEY SCRIPT'
The native name for Brazil is PindoRama and though it is said that Pindo Rama translates as 'Land of Palms' from Tupi, an ancient American-Indian language, there is much evidence that indicates that Sri Rama, the God-King of Ayodhya was worshipped in that part of the world.
In the Vedic tradition 'pinda' (पिण्ड) is a very meaningful word. It often appears in mantras and sutras. For example the Upanashid says 'yatha pindi tatha bramhanda'. 'As is the body so is the universe', or the body is a smaller version of the entire universe.
In Sanskrit, 'pinda' is the 'body', it is the body as the reflection of the 'world'. It is the body as the mirror of the whole universe.The significance of the term Pinda according to Upanasids is 'an organised whole, a unity of diversities'. Pindarama is 'Rama's Universe' or 'Rama as someone who is the universe'.
In the Krittivasi Ramayana, Ahiravan (Ahiravan or Mahiravan), brother of Ravana, was a rakshasa who secretly carried away Rama and his brother Lakshmana to the nether-world, consulted his friends and decided to sacrifice the life of the two divine brothers at the altar of his chosen deity, goddess Mahamaya. But Hanuman saved their life by killing Ahiravan and his army.The nether-world or 'patala' is often identified as the South American land-mass.
In the Valmiki Ramayana, after the abduction of Sita, Sugreeva - the 'vanara' commander, orders his chiefs to 'go round the earth and fetch all the monkey champions on earth'. The chiefs go to various mountains, rivers, oceans, and forests and motivate all monkeys to reach Sugreeva at once'. Valmiki Ramayana, Kishkinda Kand, Chapter 37).
Once the 'vanaras' assimilate, Sugreeva gives detailed instructions about the route that each of the search parties is to take in search of the abducted Sita. The route-map is so detailed, and mentions mountains and rivers, seas and oceans and the travel time involved, that it is absurd to deduct that Sugreeva was only detailing regions within India or had no knowledge of the world beyondpresent day India. Refer to Chapters 37, 40, 41, 42 and 43 of the Kishkinda Kand. That they reached Peru is substantiated by the mention of the ancient Paracas Trident of Peru in the Ramayana. For more on this click here.
Archaeology and ancient reliefs indicate that Ramayana, Sri Rama, Hanuman, Goddess Sita etc. were not unknown in Brazil, Honduras, Peru, Bolivia, Guatemala and Mexico.
There is archaeological support to the fact that Hanuman was not unknown in that part of the world.
An ancient sculpture of the 'Howler Monkey God'
of Copan, Honduros is linked to the Vedic Hanuman
The ancient name of Brazil, that is Pindorama, is also related to an ancient tribe of Brazil by the name 'RamaRama'. The RamaRama were a Tupi speaking group of considerable size living in the Brazilian Amazonian area in a place called Rondonia. When the Spanish rubber-collector's poured into Rondonia in 1880s they brought death and disease to the tribe so that it is now extinct as a culture.
Ancient civilizations such as the Maori's of New Zealand also had a tribe by the name RamaRama. There is a place by the name RamaRama in New Zealand which is 40 km away from the city of Auckland.
Researching the path of ancient sea-farers from India, Frank Joseph states in his book 'Archaeological Discoveries of Ancient America', "A general population spread, from India into Pacific and beyond the shores of South America, may begin with native Maori oral history in New Zealand. Folk tradition recounts that 161 generations ago (approximately 1500 BC), Maori ancestors migrated en-masse from a hot country called Iriha in the wake of war.... The Maoris' ancient 'Iriha' is an obvious variation of Vrihia, an ancient name for India...".
Joseph adds, "...archaeological digs throughout the Pacific suggest the Vedic mariners colonized areas as far eastward as Samoa and Tonga including Fiji.. and further on...".
Joseph also states that the names Kuru and Pandava finds its way into Peruvian ancient books as Urus and Puruha and is remembered by Peru's Ayamara tribes. The mixed descendants of some Urus still live on floating reed beds at Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Recently archaeologists have discovered huge amounts of gold artifacts in the lake Titicaca region which are at the least 4000 years old, indicating that civilization was not unknown in this part of the world in antiquity.
Not far from Lake Titicaca the Incan's celebrated the Inti Rayami festival (also called Rama-Sitva) which researchers have linked with the celebration of the winter Solstice. Sir William Jones (1744 - 1794) stated in his papers published by the the Asiatic Society that the Incan festival 'Rama-Sitva' celebrated on the Winter Solstice Day gets its name from the Hindu God King, Sri Rama and his wife, Goddess Sita. The Winter Solstice Day is celebrated in June in Peru. (Peru lies in the southern Hemisphere and the winter solstice day falls in June).
But now, back to Brazil. In his book, Mysteries of Ancient South America, author Harold T. Wilkins writes about the findings of an expedition in the 1920s lead by Colonel P.H. Fawcett into the woods of the Brazilian Amazon where he chanced upon an ancient city and some rock inscriptions, about which Wilkins says, "... those strange writings are something more remarkable... they are of an esoteric Hindu cult." (page 63).
Writing about the inscriptions, he further adds," I have myself discovered some queer links between these strange letters of old Brazil, and characters found in Tibet and Vedic Hindostan". (Page 118).
For example the inscriptions on the Inga stone of Brazil have been compared to RongoRongo (the ancient script of Easter island located in the South Pacific ocean) which itself bears a close resemblance to the Indus Valley script.
Indexed for Vedic Cafe by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on April 7, 2021 at 3:50 AM||comments (0)|
Scientists have unveiled an extraordinary new analysis of thousands of stone tools found at a site called Attirampakkam in India, northwest of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Thanks to new dating techniques, a team led by archaeologist Shanti Pappu determined that most of the tools are between 385,000 and 172,000 years old. What makes these dates noteworthy is that they upend the idea that tool-making was transformed in India after an influx of modern Homo sapiens came from Africa starting about 130,000 years ago.
|Posted on April 6, 2021 at 4:00 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on April 6, 2021 at 3:35 AM||comments (0)|
Painstaking excavations of Chiquihuite Cave, located in a mountainous area in northern Mexico controlled by drugs cartels, uncovered nearly 2000 stone tools from a small section of the high-altitude cave.
Archaeological analysis of the tools and DNA analysis of the sediment in the cave uncovered a new story of the colonisation of the Americas which now traces evidence of the first Americans back to 25,000-30,000 years ago.
The results, which have been published in Nature today (July 22 2020), challenge the commonly held theory that the Clovis people were the first human inhabitants of the Americas 15,000 years ago.
DNA scientist Professor Eske Willerslev, of St John's College, University of Cambridge, and director of The Lundbeck Foundation GeoGenetics Centre, University of Copenhagen, led the study with archaeologist Dr Ciprian Ardelean, of the University of Zacatecas in Mexico.
Professor Willerslev said: "For decades people have passionately debated when the first humans entered the Americas. Chiquihuite Cave will create a lot more debate as it is the first site that dates the arrival of people to the continent to around 30,000 years ago -- 15,000 years earlier than previously thought. These early visitors didn't occupy the cave continuously, we think people spent part of the year there using it as a winter or summer shelter, or as a base to hunt during migration. This could be the Americas oldest ever hotel."
The 10-year long research project raises more questions about the early humans who lived in the Americas than it solves......... Indexed for Science Daily by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on April 6, 2021 at 3:20 AM||comments (0)|
HIGHLAND PARK, N. J. — Last February, a Smithsonian Institution team reported finding two “Negro male skeletons”—the men died in their late 30's—in a grave in the United States Virgin Islands. This grave had been used and abandoned by native Indians long before the coming of Columbus. Soil from the earth layers in which the skeletons were found was dated to A.D. 1250.
A study of the teeth showed a type of “dental mutilation characteristic of early African cultures,” and clamped around the wrist of one of the skeletons was a clay vessel of pre‐Columbian Indian design.
This is no isolated find. Skulls that, according to the physical anthropologist Ernest Hooton, “closely resemble crania of Negro groups coming from parts of Africa” have been found in pre‐Columbian layers in the valley of the Pecos River, in northern Mexico and Texas, which empties into the Gulf of Mexico.
The historian Frederick Peterson, in his study of ancient Mexico, emphasized “the strong Negroid substratum that intermingled with the [Olmec] magicians.”.............
Indexed for the New York Times 1975 by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on April 4, 2021 at 8:15 AM||comments (0)|
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|Posted on April 4, 2021 at 6:35 AM||comments (0)|
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|Posted on March 22, 2021 at 12:40 AM||comments (0)|
The stratigraphic debate at Hueyatlaco, Valsequillo, Mexico
|Posted on March 21, 2021 at 10:10 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on March 21, 2021 at 7:30 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on March 21, 2021 at 6:25 AM||comments (0)|
|Posted on March 21, 2021 at 6:10 AM||comments (0)|
South American rock art and prehistory with all its controversies is a rich site for exploring the processes of territorialization through which humans shape their understanding of the world in their earliest movements through the environment, and also for examining how narratives of prehistory are woven. The paper examines the debate over the Cerutti Mastodon and why Serra da Capivara, one of the largest rock art complexes in the world, remains in analytic limbo. It suggests that rethinking these two examples may offer a possible way out of some of the analytic difficulties in South American prehistory through a decolonizing approach to understanding the reasons for the rejection of the Cerutti Mastodon, and the lack of recognition of Serra da Capivara’s most important site – Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF).
A arte rupestre e pré-história da América do Sul com todas as suas controvérsias é um local rico para explorar os processos de territorialização através dos quais os humanos moldam sua compreensão do mundo em seus primeiros movimentos através do ambiente e também para examinar como as narrativas da pré-história são tecidas. O artigo examina o debate sobre o Cerutti Mastodon e por que a Serra da Capivara, um dos maiores complexos de arte rupestre do mundo, permanece no limbo analítico. Sugere que repensar esses dois exemplos pode oferecer uma saída possível para algumas das dificuldades analíticas na pré-história da América do Sul, por meio de uma abordagem descolonizante para entender as razões da rejeição do Cerutti Mastodon e a falta de reconhecimento dos mais importantes da Serra da Capivara. local – Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF).
El arte rupestre y la prehistoria sudamericanos con todas sus controversias son un sitio rico para explorar los procesos de territorialización a través de los cuales los humanos dan forma a su comprensión del mundo en sus primeros movimientos a través del medio ambiente, y también para examinar cómo se tejen las narraciones de la prehistoria. El artículo examina el debate sobre el Cerutti Mastodon y por qué Serra da Capivara, uno de los complejos de arte rupestre más grandes del mundo, permanece en el limbo analítico. Sugiere que repensar estos dos ejemplos puede ofrecer una posible salida a algunas de las dificultades analíticas en la prehistoria sudamericana a través de un enfoque descolonizador, para comprender las razones del rechazo del Cerutti Mastodon, y la falta de reconocimiento del sitio más importante de Serra da Capivara – Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF).
KEYWORDS: Serra da Capivararock artnarratives of prehistoryperformativitytheater of knowledge
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Serra da Capivaraarte do rocknarrativas da pré-históriaperformatividadeteatro do conhecimento
PALABRAS CLAVE: Serra da Capivaraarte en piedranarrativas de la prehistoriaperformatividadteatro del conocimiento
We … live in a multiverse world where there are many levels of simultaneous existence and these understandings predate time … Movement is part of us. Explanation is not necessary – only stories, which remind, acknowledge and honour the force of movement. People have moved from place to place and have joined and separated again throughout our past, and we have incorporated it into our songs, stories and myths because we must continuously remember that, without movement, there is no life. (Naranjo 1995, 250)
History must be rewritten if it’s rationalizing consistency throughout generations of colonial domination is to be challenged. (Wylie 1995, 261)
It matters what matters we use to think other matters with; it matters what stories we tell to tell other stories with; it matters what knots knot knots, what thoughts think thoughts, what ties tie ties. It matters what stories make worlds, what worlds make stories. (Haraway 2016, 12)
The landscape tells – or rather is – a story … we know as we go. (Ingold 2000, 189, 229)
Science Technology and Society (STS), the interdisciplinary research area that explores scientific knowledge production in its broad social, historical, and philosophical contexts, was heavily Euro/US centric in its origins. Though it has come a long way in spreading its cultural and geographical ambit, its temporal/historical reach has been mostly limited to the modern period, showing very little concern with the earliest forms of technology and knowledge production.1 South American rock art and prehistory, with all its controversies, is a rich site for exploring the ways in which humans shape their understanding of the world, both now, and in their earliest movements through the environment.
Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF) is the most important rock art site amongst a vast complex of rock art sites in and around the Serra da Capivara National Park in Piaui, N.E. Brazil. Yet despite being claimed as one of the largest in the world (Buco 2013), and having some of the most lively and unusual images of human activity, it remains relatively little known outside Brazil, seemingly stuck in analytic “limbo” (Parenti 2014, 5853). This paper suggests a possible way to move beyond this point of conflict in South American prehistory through a performative approach to understanding the reasons for PBF’s lack of recognition and through seeing it as a very important example of an early “theater of knowledge” in South American prehistory. But to get to that requires, as Walter Mignolo suggests, “thinking with, against and beyond the legacy of Western epistemology” to establish a point of “colonial difference” that will allow an exploration of the arguments and difficulties that beset the wider field of Latin American prehistory and its Anglo/Francocentric forms of territorialization and domination.
Indexed for Guidon and Taylor and Frances by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on March 21, 2021 at 5:55 AM||comments (0)|
The initial colonization of the Americas remains a highly debated topic1, and the exact timing of the first arrivals is unknown. The earliest archaeological record of Mexico—which holds a key geographical position in the Americas—is poorly known and understudied. Historically, the region has remained on the periphery of research focused on the first American populations2. However, recent investigations provide reliable evidence of a human presence in the northwest region of Mexico3,4, the Chiapas Highlands5, Central Mexico6 and the Caribbean coast7,8,9 during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene epochs. Here we present results of recent excavations at Chiquihuite Cave—a high-altitude site in central-northern Mexico—that corroborate previous findings in the Americas10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17of cultural evidence that dates to the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500–19,000 years ago)18, and which push back dates for human dispersal to the region possibly as early as 33,000–31,000 years ago. The site yielded about 1,900 stone artefacts within a 3-m-deep stratified sequence, revealing a previously unknown lithic industry that underwent only minor changes over millennia. More than 50 radiocarbon and luminescence dates provide chronological control, and genetic, palaeoenvironmental and chemical data document the changing environments in which the occupants lived. Our results provide new evidence for the antiquity of humans in the Americas, illustrate the cultural diversity of the earliest dispersal groups (which predate those of the Clovis culture) and open new directions of research.
Indexed for Nature Journal by Dragonfly Kingdom Library
|Posted on March 20, 2021 at 11:00 AM||comments (0)|
Aerobic exercise induces many adaptive changes in the whole body and improves metabolic characteristics. Klotho, an anti-aging gene, is mainly expressed in the brain and kidney. The roles of Klotho in the brain and kidney during aerobic exercise remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to determine whether aerobic exercise could influence the expression of Klotho, decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prolong life span. Sprague Dawley rats were exercised on a motor treadmill. Klotho mRNA and protein expression levels in rat brain and kidney tissues were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. ROS production was detected following intermittent aerobic exercise (IAE) or continuous aerobic exercise (CAE). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis demonstrated that aerobic exercise significantly improved rat survival (P<0.001). The ROS levels in rat brain and kidney tissues were decreased in the aerobic exercise groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Klotho mRNA and protein expression levels were increased significantly following aerobic exercise compared with controls (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the IAE and CAE groups in any experiments (P>0.05). These results suggest that aerobic exercise-stimulated Klotho upregulation extends the life span by attenuating the excess production of ROS in the brain and kidney. As Klotho exhibits a potential anti-aging effect, promoting Klotho expression through aerobic exercise may be a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of aging and aging-related diseases.
Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library