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150,000-Year-Old Pipes (Or Giant Tree Roots) Baffle Scientists in China: Out of Place in Time? --- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on December 30, 2020 at 6:45 AM Comments comments (0)

..........geological theory that in certain temperatures and under certain chemical conditions, tree roots can undergo diagenesis (transformation of soil into rock) and other processes that can produce iron formations............

Oopart (out of place artifact) is a term applied to dozens of prehistoric objects found in various places around the world that seem to show a level of technological advancement incongruous with the times in which they were made. Ooparts often frustrate conventional scientists, delight adventurous investigators open to alternative theories, and spark debate.


In a mysterious pyramid in China’s Qinghai Province near Mount Baigong are three caves filled with pipes leading to a nearby salt-water lake. There are also pipes under the lake bed and on the shore. The iron pipes range in size, with some smaller than a toothpick. The strangest part is that they may be about 150,000 years old.


Dating done by the Beijing Institute of Geology determined these iron pipes were smelted about 150,000 years ago, if they were indeed made by humans, according to Brian Dunning of Skeptoid.com.


And if they were made by humans, history as it is commonly viewed would have to be re-evaluated.


The dating was done using thermoluminescence, a technique that determines how long ago crystalline mineral was exposed to sunlight or heated. Humans are only thought to have inhabited the region for the past 30,000 years. Even within the known history of the area, the only humans to inhabit the region were nomads whose lifestyle would not leave any such structures behind.


The state-run news agency Xinhua in China reported on the pyramid, the pipes, and the research began by a team scientists sent to investigate in 2002.


Though some have since tried to explain the pipes as a natural phenomenon, Yang Ji, a research fellow at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, told Xinhua the pyramid may have been built by intelligent beings. He did not dismiss the theory that ancient extraterrestrials may be responsible, saying this theory is “understandable and worth looking into … but scientific means must be employed to prove whether or not it is true.”


Another theory is that it was built by prehistoric humans with techniques lost to humans of a later period.


The pipes lead into a salty lake, though a twin lake nearby contains freshwater. The surrounding landscape is strewn with what Xinhua described as “strangely shaped stones.” Rocks protrude from the ground like broken pillars.


The head of the publicity department at the local Delingha government told Xinhua the pipes were analyzed at a local smeltery and 8 percent of the material could not be identified. The rest was made up of ferric oxide, silicon dioxide, and calcium oxide. The silicon dioxide and calcium oxide are products of long interaction between the iron and surrounding sandstone, showing the ancient age of the pipes. Liu Shaolin, the engineer who did the analysis, told Xinhua: “This result has made the site even more mysterious.”


To further add to the mystery, Zheng Jiandong, a geology research fellow from the China Earthquake Administration told state-run newspaper People’s Daily in 2007 that some of the pipes were found to be highly radioactive.


Other Theories

Jiandong said iron-rich magma may have risen from deep in the Earth, bringing the iron into fissures where it would solidify into tubes. Though he admitted, “There is indeed something mysterious about these pipes.” He cited the radioactivity as an example of the strange qualities of the pipes.


Others have said iron sediments may have washed into the fissures, carried with water during floods.


Though Xinhua and other publications in China have referred to a pyramid or even a mysterious pyramid in which the pipes were found, some have said it was a pyramid-shaped natural formation.


Another theory is that the pipes are fossilized tree roots. Xinmin Weekly reported in 2003 that scientists found plant matter in an analysis of the pipes, and they also found what looked like tree rings. The article related the finding to a geological theory that in certain temperatures and under certain chemical conditions, tree roots can undergo diagenesis (transformation of soil into rock) and other processes that can produce iron formations.

What is this strange link between Mudfossil University, Italy Appennine Colossus and Greek, Libyan, Morrocco History?

Posted on December 28, 2020 at 8:05 AM Comments comments (0)

Appennine Colossus

Antaeus, in Greek mythology, a giant of Libya, the son of the sea god Poseidon and the Earth goddess Gaea. He compelled all strangers who were passing through the country to wrestle with him. Whenever Antaeus touched the Earth (his mother), his strength was renewed, so that even if thrown to the ground, he was invincible.

The Giant Antaeus, from 'The Divine Comedy' (Inferno) by Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) c.1868 (engraving) by Gustave Doré (1832-83)


Credit: Private Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library

Gigantic Bones

The ancient Greeks told stories of giants, describing them as flesh-and-blood creatures who lived and died--and whose bones could be found coming out of the ground where they were buried long ago. Indeed, even today large and surprisingly human-like bones can be found in Greece. Modern scientists understand such bones to be the remains of mammoths, mastodons, and woolly rhinoceroses that once lived in the region.


But ancient Greeks were largely unfamiliar with these massive animals, and many believed that the enormous bones they found were the remains of human-like giants. Any nonhuman traits in the bones were thought to be due to the grotesque anatomical features of giants.


At A Glance: Giant

From Paul Bunyan of American folklore to the Norse creator-god Ymir, human-like giants populate the myths of many cultures.


The long bones of elephant relatives and humans are similar enough to be confused.

Geological events tend to destroy the skulls of prehistoric elephant relatives, leaving only enormous, human-like long bones, ribs, and vertebrae.

Ancient authors often reported finding the remains of giants hundreds of feet tall--much bigger than an elephant or any other animal. These reports may represent attempts to reconstruct the bones of several animals found jumbled together as a single giant.

The Battle With the Gods

According to Greek myth, the giants were the children of Uranus (the Sky) and Gaia (the Earth) but were almost never born. Afraid the giants would be too powerful, Uranus would not allow them to be born, imprisoning them in Gaia's womb. Uncomfortable, Gaia convinced her older son Kronos to attack Uranus; he did and the blood that spilled on Gaia released the giants from their prison.


Kronos took power, but was soon overthrown by the god Zeus. The giants were enraged by the defeat of their savior and brother, and they took up trees as clubs and boulders as missiles, waging war on Zeus and the other Greek gods in an epic battle--the Gigantomachy. But the giants were ultimately defeated and buried under mountains, where their tormented shivers were said to cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.


Seeing Is Believing

The people of Tingis (modern-day Tangier, Morocco) once boasted that their city's founder was a giant named Antaeus who was buried in a mound south of town. To test the claim, Roman soldiers dug into the mound in 81 BC. Much to their surprise, an enormous skeleton surfaced--which they then reburied with great honors. Modern scientists confirm that ancient elephant fossils are common in the area.

Spiritual Recovery: Sour mood getting you down? Get back to nature! Research suggests that mood disorders can be lifted by spending more time outdoors. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 9, 2020 at 7:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Sour mood getting you down? Get back to nature

Research suggests that mood disorders can be lifted by spending more time outdoors.



Image: © Sidekick/Getty Images


Looking for a simple way to help reduce stress, anxiety, and depression, and maybe even improve your memory? Take a walk in the woods.


"Many men are at higher risk for mood disorders as they age, from dealing with sudden life changes like health issues, the loss of loved ones, and even the new world of retirement," says Dr. Jason Strauss, director of geriatric psychiatry at Harvard-affiliated Cambridge Health Alliance. "They may not want to turn to medication or therapy for help, and for many, interacting with nature is one of the best self-improvement tools they can use."


Your brain and nature

Research in a growing scientific field called ecotherapy has shown a strong connection between time spent in nature and reduced stress, anxiety, and depression.


It's not clear exactly why outdoor excursions have such a positive mental effect. Yet, in a 2015 study, researchers compared the brain activity of healthy people after they walked for 90 minutes in either a natural setting or an urban one. They found that those who did a nature walk had lower activity in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region that is active during rumination — defined as repetitive thoughts that focus on negative emotions.


"When people are depressed or under high levels of stress, this part of the brain malfunctions, and people experience a continuous loop of negative thoughts," says Dr. Strauss.


Digging a bit deeper, it appears that interacting with natural spaces offers other therapeutic benefits. For instance, calming nature sounds and even outdoor silence can lower blood pressure and levels of the stress hormone cortisol, which calms the body's fight-or-flight response.


The visual aspects of nature can also have a soothing effect, according to Dr. Strauss. "Having something pleasant to focus on like trees and greenery helps distract your mind from negative thinking, so your thoughts become less filled with worry."


Bringing the outdoors inside

If you can't make it outside, listening to nature sounds can have a similar effect, suggests a report published online March 27, 2017, by Scientific Reports. Researchers used an MRI scanner to measure brain activity in people as they listened to sounds recorded from either natural or artificial environments.


Listening to natural sounds caused the listeners' brain connectivity to reflect an outward-directed focus of attention, a process that occurs during wakeful rest periods like daydreaming. Listening to artificial sounds created an inward-directed focus, which occurs during states of anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression. Even looking at pictures of nature settings, your favorite spot, or a place you want to visit can help.


Find your space

How much time with nature is enough? "Anything from 20 to 30 minutes, three days a week, to regular three-day weekends in the woods is helpful," says Dr. Strauss. "The point is to make your interactions a part of your normal lifestyle."


Your time with nature could be something as simple as a daily walk in a park or a Saturday afternoon on a local trail. "You can even try to combine your nature outings with your regular exercise by power walking or cycling outdoors," says Dr. Strauss.


The type of nature setting doesn't matter, either. "Focus on places you find the most pleasing," says Dr. Strauss. "The goal is to get away from stimulating urban settings and surround yourself with a natural environment."


And don't feel you have to go it alone. A 2014 study found that group nature walks were just as effective as solo treks in terms of lowering depression and stress and improving overall mental outlook.


In fact, the researchers noted that people who had recently experienced stressful life events like a serious illness, death of a loved one, or unemployment had the greatest mental boost from a group nature outing. "Nature can have a powerful effect on our mental state," says Dr. Strauss, "and there are many ways to tap into it."

Indexed for Harvard Health by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Spiritual Recovery: The Role of Natural Soundscape in Nature-Based Rehabilitation: A Patient Perspective. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 1:20 PM Comments comments (0)

The Role of Soundscape in Nature-Based Rehabilitation: A Patient Perspective

Gunnar Cerwén, Eja Pedersen, and Anna María Pálsdóttir


Additional article information



Nature-based rehabilitation (NBR) has convincing support in research, yet the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study sought to increase understanding of the role of soundscapes in NBR, an aspect paid little attention thus far. Transcribed interviews with 59 patients suffering from stress-related mental disorders and undergoing a 12-week therapy programme in the rehabilitation garden in Alnarp, Sweden, were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis (IPA). Described sounds were categorised as natural, technological or human. The results showed that patients frequently referred to natural sounds as being part of a pleasant and “quiet” experience that supported recovery and induced “soft fascination”. Technological sounds were experienced as disturbing, while perception of human sounds varied depending on loudness and the social context. The study further uncovered how sound influenced patients’ behaviour and experiences in the garden, through examination of three cross-theme dimensions that materialised in the study; sound in relation to overall perception, sound in relation to garden usage, and increased susceptibility to sound. The findings are discussed in relation to NBR; the need for a more nuanced understanding of susceptibility to sound among people suffering from mental fatigue was identified and design considerations for future rehabilitation gardens were formulated.


Keywords: garden therapy, soundscape, design, health, mental restoration, nature-based rehabilitation, soft fascination, horticulture therapy, therapeutic landscape

1. Introduction

1.1. Soundscape Research

Research on soundscapes—as in the study of the experience of the acoustic environment [1,2]—was first initiated in the late 1960s [3,4]. In recent years, there have been substantial developments in the field [5,6]. There is now an increased understanding of the contextual experience of sound, and also of how the sonic environment can be influenced in a strategic manner to improve the overall soundscape. Previously, such environmental considerations had been limited to a “defensive” approach [7,8]. In a defensive strategy, the main intention is to protect human beings from unwanted sounds (noise). However, while the defensive strategy has been a dominant and useful approach in environmental planning for many years, it has failed to pay attention to the actual experience of sound. In the opposite and more positive approach to sound, sometimes referred to as “offensive”, the focus shifts from noise to consideration of what people want to hear. These approaches, together with a third (“creative” approach), may be used interchangeably in order to improve the sonic environment [9]. In such a holistic soundscape approach, consideration of unwanted sounds (noise abatement) is combined with consideration of wanted sounds for improved experience and/or masking effects [10]. For instance, soundscapes can be influenced through noise screening [11], localisation of functions [12], creation of biotopes for birds [13], consideration of walking material [14], introduction of water features [15,16], rustling vegetation [17] or sound art [8,18].


The relationship between sound and mental health has mainly been studied from the perspective of the adverse effects of noise on humans, either directly or through stress reactions induced by negative associations [19,20,21]. There are clear indications of an enhanced risk of impaired mental health after long-term noise exposure. It has been suggested that greenery could mitigate the negative impact, so that the sound is perceived as less annoying if green urban areas are provided. Several studies have found that this is the case sometimes, but not always [22,23]. The provision of sound in green environments intended for psycho-physiological restoration purposes and whether this has an impact on the link between the physical environment and possible curative effects is less well studied, but an increasing number of recent studies point to such connections. In an investigation in which subjects were exposed to a psychological stressor [24], it was shown that stress recovery was faster during exposure to nature sounds at 50 dBA rather than to three different types of noises (40–80 dBA). Similar findings were reported in a study [25] where subjects exposed to virtual reality nature (including sound) recovered faster after stress than subjects exposed to virtual reality without sound. It has also been shown that sounds perceived as pleasant (most typically birdsong, music and ocean sounds) can reduce skin conductance level for subjects at rest [26]. In healthcare, studies have shown that sounds of nature from speakers can have positive effects during difficult procedures, reducing stress and anxiety [27,28] as well as experienced pain [29].


In order to understand the experiential dimension of sound, it is necessary to go beyond measurements of sound pressure levels [9]. Soundscape research provides a platform for discussing perception of sound in terms other than annoyance, as well as opening up new possibilities for design and management of sounds. A soundscape includes all types of sounds in an environment, with emphasis on how they are experienced in a context [1,5,6].


1.2. Nature-Based Rehabilitation and Stress

Problems relating to mental health are estimated to be among major reasons for work disabilities globally [30,31], and can have severe negative effects on everyday lifestyle [32] and in the long run lead to physical and mental depletion [33]. There have been reports that nature and nature-like environments can assist in mental recovery [34]. It has also been shown that by spending time in natural environments, concentration ability and directed attention can be improved [35,36], and perceived stress relieved [37].


In nature-based rehabilitation (NBR), it has been found that sensory stimuli of outdoor nature experiences can play an important role in treatment of stress-related mental conditions such as exhaustion disorder [35,38,39,40]. Caregivers in NBR claim that the connection to nature through sensory impressions can help patients “open up” to treatment [38]. The role of sensory experience in NBR could possibly also be related to the notion of ‘soft fascination’ in attention restoration theory (ART) [41], an important form of experience that is useful for mental recovery. According to ART, soft fascination occurs when people experience things without a focus or specific demands. This recovery allegedly occurs in nature or nature-like environments, where the subject is free and able to discover, recover and relax.


A less well studied sensory input in the NBR context is sound, although this was indicated to be a potentially important aspect in a semi-structured interview study conducted previously with 59 former participants at Alnarp Rehabilitation Garden, where the role of nature as a supportive environment was explored [42]. A new aspect of NBR for individuals recovering from stress-related mental disorders was identified, i.e., social quietness, referring to the need for solitary encounters with nature without disturbance by others. Perception of sound in the rehabilitation garden was not a specific topic in that study, but the participants mentioned sound as an important hindering or supportive factor in a therapeutic environment. This finding suggested the need for a follow up analysis, in which sound was given more thorough attention.


The aim of the present study, consequently, is to examine the role of sound in NBR for individuals with stress-related mental disorders and to identify essential aspects for the future design of restorative spaces for mental recovery. .... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5201370/

Spiritual Recovery: Testosterone is a nuclear androgen receptor ligand that controls multiple pathways in brain. In addition to the active biosynthesis of steroids in classic steroidogenic organs such as gonads, adrenals and placenta, testosterone also pr

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 1:20 PM Comments comments (0)

Testosterone is a nuclear androgen receptor ligand that controls multiple pathways in brain. In addition to the active biosynthesis of steroids in classic steroidogenic organs such as gonads, adrenals and placenta, testosterone also produced in astrocyte cells of brain. Testosterone and its level must be regulated in brain; because, it directly and indirectly affects memory and several key behavioral characteristics. The significance of sound waves on key enzymes that regulate levels of testosterone in brain has not been investigated. The aim of our study was to examine physical stress of such as sound on induction behavioral changes in animal models. According to the current study, sound waves with 528 Hz frequency in 100 dB intensity induce testosterone production in brain by enhancing StAR and SF-1 and reducing P450 aromatase gene expression. Frequency of 528 Hz also reduces total concentration of reactive oxidative species in brain tissue. Prolonged exposure to this sound wave showed reduction of anxiety related behaviors in rats. The results reveal that reduced anxiety is related to increased concentration of testosterone in brain. This study may lead to ascertain a possible therapy in which sounds may be utilized to reduce anxiety in individual.


Keywords: 528 Hz frequency; Astrocyte; P450 aromatase; SF-1; StAR; Testosterone

Indexed by Dragonfly Kingdom Library for NIH.gov

Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: Prehistoric Americas First Americans were Australian. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 4:30 AM Comments comments (0)

Prehistoric Americas

First Americans were Australian

Edited from BBC News, 26 August 1999

Evidence was presented in 1999 that the first Americans were descended from Australian aborigines. The evidence was to be included in a new BBC documentary entitled Ancient Voices.


It would show that the dimensions of prehistoric skulls which had been found in Brazil matched those of the aboriginal peoples of Australia and Melanesia. Other evidence suggested that these first Americans were later massacred by invaders from Asia - the ancestors of all later native Americans.


Asian migrants used the ice age land bridge between Siberia and Alaska to reach North America, from where they could migrated further across the whole of the two continents. With the ending of the ice age, the land bridge was gradually flooded until it was cut off entirely.


However, the new evidence showed that these people did not arrive into an empty wilderness. Stone tools and charcoal from the site in Brazil showed evidence of human habitation as long ago as 50,000 years.


The site was at Serra Da Capivara in remote north-eastern Brazil. This area is now inhabited by the descendants of European settlers and African slaves who arrived just five hundred years ago. But cave paintings found here provided the first clue to the existence of a much older people.


Ancient animals


Images of giant armadillos, which died out before the last ice age, show that the artists who drew them lived here before the Asian-descended natives who greeted the Europeans. The Asian descendants have facial features which have been described as mongoloid. However, skulls dug from a depth which equates to dates between 10,000-7000 BC are very different.



First Humans in the Americas



Early Cultures



This is the face of the earliest known American, Lucia




Native AmericansNative Americans

A detailed set of features & king lists focussing on these complex peoples.



Native Americans


Walter Neves, an archaeologist from the University of Sao Paolo, took extensive skull measurements from dozens of skulls, including the oldest, a young woman who was named Lucia. The next step was to reconstruct a face from Lucia's skull. First, a CAT scan of the skull was carried out to allow an accurate working model to be made.


Then a forensic artist, Richard Neave from the University of Manchester, UK, created a face for Lucia. The result was surprising - it had all the features of a negroid face.


Boat people


The skull dimensions and facial features matched most closely to the native people of Australia and Melanesia. These people date back at least 60,000 years, and were themselves descended from the first humans to leave Africa in a permanent migratory wave, around 70,000-80,000 years ago.


Rock art

The costumes and rituals shown in rock art survived in Terra del Fuego


But how could the early Australians have travelled more than 13,500 kilometres (8,450 miles) at that time? The answer came from more cave paintings, this time from the Kimberley, a region at the northern tip of Western Australia. Here, Grahame Walsh, an expert on Australian rock art, found the oldest painting of a boat anywhere in the world. The style of the art meant that it was at least 17,000 years old, but could be much older.


The crucial detail was in the high prow of the boat. This would have been unnecessary for boats used in calm, inland waters. The design suggests that it was used on the open ocean. Archaeologists speculated that such an incredible sea voyage, from Australia to Brazil, would not have been undertaken knowingly but was instead accidental.


In 1996, five African fishermen were caught in a storm and a few weeks later were washed up on the shores of South America. Two of the fishermen died, but three made it alive - more than enough to prove that such a voyage was possible.



Lucia's skull is 12,000 years old



Hominid Chronology




But if the first Americans had drifted from Australia, where are their descendants now? Again, the skulls suggested an answer.


The shape of the skulls changed between 7,000 BC and 5,000 BC from being exclusively negroid to exclusively mongoloid. Combined with rock art evidence of increasing violence at this time, it appears that the mongoloid (Asian) people from the north invaded and wiped out the original Americans.


The only evidence of any survivors comes from Terra del Fuego, the islands at the remotest southern tip of South America. The pre-European Fuegeans, who lived stone age-style lives until the twentieth century, show hybrid skull features which could have resulted from intermarrying between mongoloid and negroid peoples. Their rituals and traditions also bear some resemblance to the ancient rock art in Brazil.


The identity of the first Americans is an emotive and controversial question. But the evidence from Brazil, and a handful of people who still live at the very tip of South America, suggests that the Americas have been home to a greater diversity of humans than previously thought - and for much longer.


Cristina Calderon

Fuegean Cristina Calderon may be one of the few surviving descendants of the first Americans



Text copyright © Channel 4 Television or affiliates. Reproduction is made on a 'fair dealing' basis for the purpose of disseminating relevant information to a specific audience. No breach of copyright is intended or inferred

History Files UK

Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: Native Americans living in the Amazon bear an unexpected genetic connection to indigenous people in Australasia. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 12:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Native Americans living in the Amazon bear an unexpected genetic connection to indigenous people in Australasia, suggesting a previously unknown wave of migration to the Americas thousands of years ago, a new study has found.


"It's incredibly surprising," said David Reich, Harvard Medical School professor of genetics and senior author of the study. "There's a strong working model in archaeology and genetics, of which I have been a proponent, that most Native Americans today extend from a single pulse of expansion south of the ice sheets--and that's wrong. We missed something very important in the original data."


Previous research had shown that Native Americans from the Arctic to the southern tip of South America can trace their ancestry to a single "founding population" called the First Americans, who came across the Bering land bridge about 15,000 years ago. In 2012, Reich and colleagues enriched this history by showing that certain indigenous groups in northern Canada inherited DNA from at least two subsequent waves of migration.


The new study, published July 21 in Nature, indicates that there's more to the story.



Pontus Skoglund, first author of the paper and a postdoctoral researcher in the Reich lab, was studying genetic data gathered as part of the 2012 study when he noticed a strange similarity between one or two Native American groups in Brazil and indigenous groups in Australia, New Guinea and the Andaman Islands.


"That was an unexpected and somewhat confusing result," said Reich, who is also an associate member of the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT and a Howard Hughes Medical Investigator. "We spent a really long time trying to make this result go away and it just got stronger."


Skoglund and colleagues from HMS, the Broad and several universities in Brazil analyzed publicly available genetic information from 21 Native American populations from Central and South America. They also collected and analyzed DNA from nine additional populations in Brazil to make sure the link they saw hadn't been an artifact of how the first set of genomes had been collected. The team then compared those genomes to the genomes of people from about 200 non-American populations.


People Power forces government to protect Brazil's most threatened tribe

Indigenous people of Brazil



The link persisted. The Tupí-speaking Suruí and Karitiana and the Ge-speaking Xavante of the Amazon had a genetic ancestor more closely related to indigenous Australasians than to any other present-day population. This ancestor doesn't appear to have left measurable traces in other Native American groups in South, Central or North America.


The genetic markers from this ancestor don't match any population known to have contributed ancestry to Native Americans, and the geographic pattern can't be explained by post-Columbian European, African or Polynesian mixture with Native Americans, the authors said. They believe the ancestry is much older--perhaps as old as the First Americans.


In the ensuing millennia, the ancestral group has disappeared.


"We've done a lot of sampling in East Asia and nobody looks like this," said Skoglund. "It's an unknown group that doesn't exist anymore." (?)


The team named the mysterious ancestor Population Y, after the Tupí word for ancestor, "Ypykuéra."


Reich, Skoglund and colleagues propose that Population Y and First Americans came down from the ice sheets to become the two founding populations of the Americas.


"We don't know the order, the time separation or the geographical patterns," said Skoglund.


Researchers do know that the DNA of First Americans looked similar to that of Native Americans today. Population Y is more of a mystery.


"About 2 percent of the ancestry of Amazonians today comes from this Australasian lineage that's not present in the same way elsewhere in the Americas," said Reich.


Australian Aboriginal


Australian Aboriginal ( Steve Evans / Flickr )


However, that doesn't establish how much of their ancestry comes from Population Y. If Population Y were 100 percent Australasian, that would indeed mean they contributed 2 percent of the DNA of today's Amazonians. But if Population Y mixed with other groups such as the First Americans before they reached the Americas, the amount of DNA they contributed to today's Amazonians could be much higher--up to 85 percent.


To answer that question, researchers would need to sample DNA from the remains of a person who belonged to Population Y. Such DNA hasn't been obtained yet. One place to look might be in the skeletons of early Native Americans whose skulls some researchers say have Australasian features. The majority of these skeletons were found in Brazil.


Reich and Skoglund think that some of the most interesting open questions about Native American population history are about the relationships among groups after the initial migrations.


"We have a broad view of the deep origins of Native American ancestry, but within that diversity we know very little about the history of how those populations relate to each other," said Reich.



Source: Harvard Medical School. "Genetic studies link indigenous peoples in the Amazon and Australasia." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 July 2015.


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Did Denisovan ancestry reach European megalith builders? Source: adrenalinapura / Adobe Stock

25 APRIL, 2020 - 13:59 ANDREW COLLINS

The Far-Reaching Realms of Denisovan Ancestry Stretch to Iceland

This week it was announced that a new genetic study published in the journal Nature shows that the genomes of over 27,000 Icelanders display an admixture of modern human and Neanderthal DNA, along...



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Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: Megaliths Discovered in Brazil May Be an Amazonian Stonehenge Created By an Advanced Ancient Civilization. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 12:15 AM Comments comments (0)


Megaliths Discovered in Brazil May Be an Amazonian Stonehenge Created By an Advanced Ancient Civilization


Megaliths Discovered in Brazil May Be an Amazonian Stonehenge Created By an Advanced Ancient Civilization

A group of scientists and researchers have found evidence that a highly advanced ancient civilization could have existed in Brazil. Almost 500 years before the European colonization of the Americas began, the natives that inhabited the Brazilian Amazon were possibly creating an impressive arrangement of immense towering granite blocks .


Experts Try to Explain the Purpose of the Amazon’s “Stonehenge”

Scientists today speculate that these massive stones – which some people say resemble Stonehenge – were also an ancient astronomical observatory. The structure consisted of 27 blocks of granite, each up to 4 meters (13.12 ft.) tall, standing upright in a circle measuring over 30 (98.43 ft.) meters in diameter. In other words, almost a thousand years ago an ancient civilization of native peoples was flourishing in the area.


According to The New York Times , detailed radiocarbon tests and site measurements during the winter solstice shed light on the ancient civilizations that inhabited the Amazon. From the new evidence, archaeologists have concluded that the indigenous peoples who lived in the area had developed a more advanced civilization than most Western observers previously thought.


Did the Portuguese Have Secret Knowledge about Brazil Before the Treaty of Tordesillas?


These megaliths are joined by other recent archaeological discoveries in Brazil— including giant land carvings and remains of fortified settlements. Altogether these new findings are challenging the common perception that the Amazon was relatively untouched in the past by humans except for small, nomadic tribes.


As Mariana Cabral, an archaeologist at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, who (along with her archaeologist husband) has studied the Rego Grande site for the last decade, told The New York Times, “We’re starting to piece together the puzzle of the Amazon Basin’s human history, and what we’re finding in Amapá is absolutely fascinating,” She added that the other less elaborate megalithic sites found near the area could have served as markers for hunters or fishermen.



More Evidence is needed

However, there’s a significant number of scientists and archaeologists who claim that more information and evidence will be needed about Rego Grande to lift it into the realm of prehistoric places clearly conceived for astronomical observations. Jarita Holbrook, a scholar of physics and cultural astronomy at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa, explained why more evidence and new findings about Rego Grande’s characteristics are necessary, “We’ve seen a lot of similar claims, but it takes more than a circle of standing stones to get to a Stonehenge.”


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Discovery of ancient stone tools in Brazil challenges belief about human arrival in the Americas




Further, John McKim Malville, a solar physicist at the University of Colorado, points out how the stones might not have been used exclusively for astronomical functions, but also for religious ceremonies and rituals, “The stones of Rego Grande are quite extraordinary and in their irregularity may have their own unique meaning, different from other megalithic sites around the world,” he said , speculating that Rego Grande might reflect the significance of animism (the attribution of a soul to entities in nature and even inanimate objects) in Amazonian cultures.


It’s also important to note that since the day archaeologists began excavations at the Amazonian Stonehenge in 2005, they have discovered hand-made ceramic burial urns, which possibly means that part of the area could have served as a cemetery at some point. Also, the stones appear to have been placed in the light of the Sun’s path in the winter solstice - when the star is at its lowest point, something that implies that the site could have also been used as a place of worship instead of an astronomical observatory. As Dr. Malville put it , “We can only speculate (for now) what its stones mean.

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Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: Ancient Amazon: Discovery of 81 New Archaeological Sites Rewrites History of Americas Before Columbus. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 12:15 AM Comments comments (0)


Ancient Amazon: Discovery of 81 New Archaeological Sites Rewrites History of Americas Before Columbus




For a decade, archaeologists have been racing to study deep mysterious trenches slashed through the soil of the Amazon. Rings, squares and hexagons have pointed to long-forgotten human settlements in a region previously neglected by researchers.


Now, the discovery of 81 new archaeological sites has confirmed that up to a million people lived in an area spanning just 7 percent of the basin before the arrival of Europeans.


Old estimates of up to two million inhabitants across the whole of the Amazon need to be thrown out the window, the researchers wrote in a study published in Nature Communications,


3_27_Amazon Settlement ZMt04

This aerial photo shows site ZMt04, which contains the two largest enclosures (360 to 400 yard diameter) identified during the survey.

Buried Under a Forest Canopy

Archaeologists used to think pre-Columbian human populations were spread out in pockets around the major floodplains of the rainforest. But, recent deforestation has revealed huge geometric shapes in the ground from Bolivia to Brazil.


Vast soil glyphs suggest complex societies that manipulated their land with canals, roads, water reserves, and causeways.


In the present study, researchers used satellite image surveys to search for undiscovered soil glyphs across the Upper Tapajós Basin in Brazil. The team found 104 earthworks in more than 81 new archaeological sites. Descending upon 24, they discovered hard evidence of pre-Columbian human habitation; ceramics, stone axes, fertilized soil known as "dark earth" and even old garbage dumps.



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Extrapolating from earthwork evidence, the authors estimate that people lived throughout the Southern Rim of the Amazon—a region spanning some 150,000 miles². The total population may have reached somewhere between 500,000 and one million in late pre-Columbian times.


Even at the lower end of the team's estimates, the research "definitively discredits" old estimates of some 1.5 to 2 million inhabitants of the entire basin, authors wrote.


Read more: Bizarre Amazon Rainforest Bird Species Discovered to Be Extremely Rare Hybrid

The research rewrites the history of this part of the Amazon. Humans weren't just sprinkled in small floodplain settlements, but spread across the region. These people had a major impact, quite literally, on the land.


"There is a common misconception that the Amazon is an untouched landscape, home to scattered, nomadic communities. This is not the case," study author Jonas Gregorio de Souza, from the University of Exeter, U.K., said in a statement. "We have found that some populations away from the major rivers are much larger than previously thought, and these people had an impact on the environment which we can still find today."


Understanding the past, the researchers think, will help governments prepare for the future. "An understanding of the historical role of humans in shaping Amazonian landscapes, and to what extent these forests were resilient to historical disturbance is critical to making informed policy decisions on sustainable futures," they wrote in the paper.



Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: Forget small nomadic tribes and pristine jungle: the southern Amazon was likely covered in a network of large villages and ceremonial centers before Columbus. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 8, 2020 at 12:05 AM Comments comments (0)

PUBLISHED March 27, 2018


Before Spanish invaders conquered South America, sparse groups of nomadic people clustered around the Amazon River, leaving the surrounding rain forest pristine and untouched.


Or did they?


New research suggests a very different story—an Amazonian region peppered with rain forest villages, ceremonial earthworks, and a much larger population than previously thought.


The research, funded in part by the National Geographic Society and published today in the journal Nature Communications, challenges a common perception of the pre-Columbian Amazon rain forest as sparsely populated. That perception has endured despite 16th-century accounts of large, interconnected villages that go against modern assumptions.


“Many people have the image that it’s an untouched paradise,” says Jonas Gregorio de Souza, an archaeologist at the University of Exeter who collaborated on the project. Much of the region is unexplored and covered in dense forest, so it’s been inaccessible to archaeologists interested in learning more about life away from the mighty river.


Until now. The team used satellite imagery to try to identify ancient geoglyphs—earthworks likely used for ceremonies—in previously unexplored parts of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso.


Then, armed with the coordinates of likely geoglyphs, they headed to the field—sometimes literally, since large swaths of land in the region are used for agriculture. Sure enough, each of the 24 targets they visited was the real deal. “Everything made sense,” says de Souza. “We knew we were in a special area.”


At one site, the team went deeper. They located ceramics and charcoal suggesting a village that dated to about 1410 A.D.


Back in the office, they used their findings to predict where other sites might be located, creating a computer model that took everything from elevation to soil pH to precipitation into account. It showed that people would likely have built geoglyphs in higher-elevation areas with big variations in seasons and temperatures.


The model also showed that people wouldn’t necessarily have built close to rivers, an idea which runs counter to modern assumptions. It revealed that there are likely 1,300 geoglyphs and villages in a 154,000 square-mile swath of Southern Amazonia—two-thirds of which haven’t been found yet.


The computer model also predicted population densities that were much larger than expected. The team now thinks that between 500,000 and 1 million people once lived in just seven percent of the Amazon basin. That flies in the face of previous estimates that only about 2 million people lived in the entire Amazon basin.


The distribution of the potential sites suggests an interconnected, advanced series of fortified villages spanning over 1,100 miles that flourished between 1200 and 1500 A.D. “We need to re-evaluate the history of the Amazon,” said José Iriarte, archaeologist at the University of Exeter, National Geographic Explorer, and the paper’s primary author, in a press release.


So what happened to the rain forest-dwelling people? De Souza says they died out after the European conquest of the region. Disease and genocide wiped out entire villages, and many others abandoned agriculture altogether. “They had to be on the move constantly,” he says. But the traces they left behind mean there’s still more to learn about their now-vanished civilization.....

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Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: Indians Africans Dravidians..... A comparison of Fulani and Nadar HLA. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 7, 2020 at 2:05 PM Comments comments (0)

Indian Journal of Human Genetics

Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

A comparison of Fulani and Nadar HLA

Clyde Winters


Additional article information



Here recent studies of Nadar and Fulani HLA-A and HLA-B were compared to determine if these populations were related. The analysis revealed that the Nadar and Fulani populations share a number of unique alleles including A*101, A*0211, A*03011, A*3303, B*3501, B*3701, and B*51011. The study suggests a former residence of these diverse populations in same geographical area.


Keywords: Dravidian, Fulani, human leukocyte antigen, Nadar, polymorphic DNA


Aravanan[1–3] and Sergent[4] are sure that the Dravidian speakers originated in Africa. These researchers and others use linguistic, anthropological, and archaeological evidences to support this idea.[1–7] The Dravidian speakers are the dominant linguistic groups in South India. These languages are also spoken in Iran and Russia.[8]


Upadhyaya and Upadhyaya[6] claimed that the Fulani and Dravidiacn languages are related. The Fulani live in West Africa.


Aravanan[2,3] and Winters[8] have pointed out that in addition to shared phenotypical features the Fulani and Dravidian tribal groups such as the Kadaro and other tribal groups such as the Irula and Pularya have the sickle cell trait.[2,3,9]


The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele distribution has been studied in India and West Africa. The HLA system provides us with a means to define the relatedness of varying ethnic groups. Polymorphic DNA variants allow us to make inferences about prehistoric interactions among populations. Using HLA we can determine the relatedness of populations.


The HLA system is an excellent tool in anthropology because it can determine the genetic relatedness of different populations. In this paper, we will compare Fulani and Nadar HLA systems to determine if Africans and Indians are related.


Materials and Methods

In this analysis of Nadar and Fulani HLA, we will examine studies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci related to the Nadar and Fulani populations. Each study was analyzed to discover the HLA genotype and allele frequency of each molecular marker among each ethnic group in the study.



The Nadar is an Indian tribal group that lives in South India.[10,11] Tribal groups like the Nadar are very conservative and many researchers believe that they represent the purest form of Dravidian.[12,13]


The Fulani live in Africa. They are a nomadic people who are spread from North Africa. They are spread from North Africa and Chad into the Senegal region.[14]


Shankarkumar et al.[15] have done an extensive analysis of the Nadar HLA. Ellis et al.[15] have studied the Fulani HLA system.


In Table 1, we list the shared HLA-A and HLA-B alleles shared by the Nadar and Fulani. The Nadaro and Fulani share a number of HLA alleles. The congruent HLA alleles include A*101, A*0211, A*3303, and B*370 at low frequency. The HLA with the greatest frequency between both groups was A*03011, B*3501, and B*51011.


Table 1

Table 1

Nadaro and Fulani HLAs


The presence of shared HLA genome indicates that a genetic relationship may exist between the Nadar and Fulani peoples. This finding supported the linguistic[2–4,6–8] and arcaheological[4,7,8] evidences.


The present study provides some interesting findings. There are several shared Fulani and Nadar HLAs such as A*0301, B*3501, and B*51011, which are unique to the Nadar, but absent in other Indian populations.[14] This comparison of HLA systems make it clear that these alleles unique to the Nadar are relatively high among the Fulani.[15]



The finding of this study suggests that some Fulani and Nadar demonstrate an indistinguishable HLA profile. The shared HLA genomics appear to indicate a former habitat in which both groups thrived. The close relationship between the Dravidian and Fulani languages leads to the inference that these populations were formerly in close contact and the separation of the Nadar and Fulani does not date back to the original exist of AMH from Africa.


If this relationship does not date back to the exit of AMH from Africa when did this separation probably take place? There is one climatic event that had a significant impact on population movements in Africa. This event was the change of the Sahara from a fertile savanna to a harsh desert.


Lal[16] and Singh[17] have discovered archaeological evidence that link the South Indian Megalitic and Indian civilizations generally to the C-Group people of Nubia. This suggests that the ancestors of the Nadar and Fulani probably emigrated to West Africa and India after the rise of a hyperarid environment in the Saharan region and Sahel of Middle Africa.



Source of Support: Nil


Conflict of Interest: None declared.


Article information

Indian J Hum Genet. 2012 Jan-Apr; 18(1): 137–138.

doi: 10.4103/0971-6866.96686

PMCID: PMC3385173

PMID: 22754242

Clyde Winters

Governors State University, University Park, IL 60484, USA

Address for correspondence: Dr. Clyde Winters, Governors State University, University Park, IL 60484, USA, E-mail: ude.tsvog@sretniw-c

Copyright : © Indian Journal of Human Genetics

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Articles from Indian Journal of Human Genetics are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications


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Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: DNA genetic analysis proves link between Ancient Polynesians and Indigenous South Americans. Source: Ruben Ramos-Mendoza / Nature. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 7, 2020 at 1:15 PM Comments comments (0)

DNA genetic analysis proves link between Ancient Polynesians and Indigenous South Americans. Source: Ruben Ramos-Mendoza / Nature

8 JULY, 2020 - 22:59 ED WHELAN

Genetic Analysis Shows Early Contact Between South Americans and Polynesians

New evidence is emerging about the links between Polynesian and South American populations in the Pacific before the arrival of the Europeans. The theory that South Americans first colonized Easter Island, and other islands, was often considered to be faintly ridiculous. However new genetic studies show that it may be partly true. It appears that Polynesians met South Americans around 1150 AD. This could radically transform the history of the Pacific and also that of Latin America.


In 1947 the famous Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl, in his craft the Kon-Tiki, sailed from Peru to Polynesia. This was a remarkable journey and made Heyerdahl world famous. This journey was also an attempt to prove his migration theory. The Norwegian argued that “Polynesia was initially populated by South Americans,” according to Nature. For decades, this idea has not been taken seriously in the academic community.



Evidence of Pre-Colombian Contact

However, evidence has emerged that appears to prove that there were some pre-Columbian contacts between South America and Polynesia. Scientists found that the sweet potatoes found on many Pacific Islands originated on the continent of America. They then made their way across Polynesia roughly a millennium ago. The National Geographic reports that “the Polynesian name for the root vegetable— kuumala—resembles its names in the Andean Quechua language: kumara and cumal.” On the other hand, the birdman competition that used to take place on Rapa Nui, another name for Easter Island, has similarities to cultic practices from South America. These similarities persuaded a team of geneticists to examine if there was any genetic link between the two populations separated by thousands of miles of Pacific Ocean .


An earlier 2014 study had found that some inhabitants of Rapa Nui had genes that were inherited from indigenous South Americans . However, the latest study decided to collect samples from seventeen Pacific island communities and fifteen Native American populations from the Pacific coast of South America to detect any genetic signatures to demonstrate historic contacts with Latin America. The National Geographic quotes Andrés Moreno-Estrada, a Mexican geneticist, as saying that “previous studies have been only focusing on the possibility of [Rapa Nui] being the point of contact” and his team wanted to explore other possibilities.


Genetic analysis appears to prove that Polynesians have genetic roots tracing back to diverse regions across the Pacific and the Americas, denoting the mixed origin of the population. (Ruben Ramos-Mendoza / Nature)


Genetic analysis appears to prove that Polynesians have genetic roots tracing back to diverse regions across the Pacific and the Americas, denoting the mixed origin of the population. (Ruben Ramos-Mendoza / Nature)


Genetic Analysis: Relationship Between Polynesians and Native South Americans

According to Nature News and Views , the teams' research involved comparing the “dominant Polynesian DNA markers with those of people from other regions.” Their findings were analyzed using ADMIXTURE software which allowed them to identify the genes of a person and their geographic origins. What they discovered was amazing.


Genetic analysis of genetic evidence appears to prove that Polynesians are related to present-day Indigenous people, especially from the coast of Colombia and Ecuador. Interestingly, the DNA study concludes that the earliest contact was on Fatu Hiva, an island in the South Marquesas islands, sometime around 1150 AD, and not Rapa Nui which is much closer to the coast of South America . “Their model suggests that the mixed population then spread from central-eastern Polynesia around AD 1200,” explains Nature News and Views in discussing the research conducted by Ioannidis et al..



Moai statues at the Rano Raraku site on Easter Island (Javier Blanco / Nature)


Did Contact First Occur on Easter Island?

It appears that Rapa Nui, or Easter Island, itself was not the initial point of contact between the two populations. This is surprising because Rapa Nua is far closer to South America. However, “That’s where the winds and currents will take you if you’re drifting,” explains one of the study’s lead authors, Alexander Ioannidis of Stanford University, in the Smithsonian. It is possible that they were cast ashore on Fata Hiva where they either met Polynesians who already lived there or who arrived after them.


Nature News and Views reports that genetic evidence points to “another independent connection with Native South Americans took place on Rapa Nui” sometime in the 14 th century. This is an important finding as it coincides with the development of new stone working styles and the emergence of monumental works on the island. The genetic evidence would seem to confirm earlier theories that there was cultural contact between South Americans and Polynesians.


DNA Study reveals connection between Brazil and Polynesia. Well, how?

However, the authors are cautious about such a theory. Their article in Nature explains that the admixture evident “is likely to have originated from a contact event, not on Rapa Nui, but somewhere upstream in the Polynesian settlement process.” Therefore, the genetic admixture seen in Easter Islanders was as a result of the mixture of Polynesians and Native American genes rather than direct contact. The Smithsonian quotes Paul Wallin, who examined the study’s results, as saying that “the surprising thing is that the Rapa Nui admixture happened later, although the cultural impact might have been stronger there than in other parts of East Polynesia.”


Polynesian Visitors of South America

This research raises the question of whether the Polynesians, who were amazing navigators, reached the coast of Latin America or did South Americans travelled west. Ioannidis states that “I favor the Polynesian theory since we know that the Polynesians were intentionally exploring the ocean and discovering some of the most distant Pacific islands around exactly the time of contact”, reports the Jerusalem Post . This argument suggests that the ancestors of modern-day Pacific Islanders visited coastal Ecuador or Columbia. It is possible that “a group of Polynesian people voyaged to northern South America and returned together with some Native American individuals, or with Native American admixture,” explain the researchers in Nature.




The latest findings would seem to be aligned with the various linguistic and other evidence that supports the theory of contact between Polynesians and Native Americans. More archaeological and other studies are needed to prove and to clarify the links. What is apparent is that we need to rethink our understanding of the history of the Pacific.


The full paper is available from Nature.


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Pukao Study Claims Easter Island had a Cooperative Community Not A Warrior Culture

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Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: Hidden treasures: North America's Rainforests. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on November 7, 2020 at 11:50 AM Comments comments (0)

Hidden treasures: America’s rainforests

Contrary to what you might assume, you don’t have to travel to another country to see an authentic rainforest. Check out these rainforests right here in the U.S.

If you are like most Americans, the word “rainforest” probably conjures up images of the Congo or Amazon—teeming jungles far from home. However, we have several rainforests right here in the United States, including one of the largest in the world, and they are pretty amazing in their own right.


Though the term is not well-defined, rainforests are vegetated areas that are mostly covered with trees and (obviously) receive lots of precipitation—generally at least 75 inches of rain per year. They are known for harboring a great diversity of plant and animal life, despite the fact that many contain relatively “poor” soil (most of the nutrients in tropical rainforests tend to be quickly sucked up by abundant and specially adapted plantlife; temperate rainforests fare better in this respect).


But whatever defines rainforests specifically, nature-lovers are fascinated by their dense, green scenery and the myriad life that inhabits it.


Hiker in Tongass National Forest, Alaska

Tongass National Forest, Alaska


The massive Tongass National Forest, in southeast Alaska, is the nation’s largest rainforest by a long shot—in fact, it is the largest national forest, period, covering some 16.9 million acres and spanning much of the famous “Inside Passage” that includes Glacier Bay National Park.


Mostly made up of Sitka spruce, western hemlock and western red cedar, Tongass National Forest accounts for nearly one-third of all the old-growth temperate rainforest left on earth, an unusually rich habitat type. About 5.7 million acres of the forest is protected as wilderness, including habitat for grizzly bears, moose, river otters, harbor seals, wolves and much more. The waterways of Tongass National Forest produce a huge numbers of pink, sockeye, coho and king salmon that help sustain local fishing communities.


Sadly, Tongass National Forest is one of America's most exploited forests, with decades of forestry clearcut scars to prove it. The Wilderness Society has engaged in efforts to protect the forest from excessive logging and help local communities transition to sustainable second-growth timber harvesting.


Olympic National Forest, WA

Olympic National Park is a famously diverse gem, including rocky beaches, subalpine forests and wildflower-filled meadows. The vast majority of the park is federally protected as wilderness; Olympic Wilderness—the largest in the state—contains 48 miles of beautiful Pacific coastline. However, Olympic National Park is best-known for its cool green old-growth trees, which provide habitat and shelter to wildlife including the largest unmanaged herd of Roosevelt elk in the Pacific Northwest.


Thanks to the region’s notorious weather, Olympic National Park’s rainforests—in the Hoh, Quinault, Queets and Bogachiel valleys—live up to their name, receiving as much as 14 feet of precipitation per year. Sitka spruce, western hemlock and other conifers are the dominant trees, as in many other temperate rainforests, but the ferns, mosses and other epiphytes growing on their dank trunks and branches provide more of a traditional jungle atmosphere.


Olympic National Park contains some of the best hiking anywhere in the nation. Another great reason to visit: Hoh Rainforest, the most famous rainforest in the lower 48 states, has recently gained attention as perhaps “the quietest place in the U.S.”—the perfect remedy to noisy modern life.


Chugach National Forest, AK

While Chugach National Forest is only one-third as large as Tongass National Forest, it is still one of the biggest national forests in the country (almost the size of New Hampshire). Despite lying only about 500 miles south of the Arctic Circle, Chugach National Forest encompasses a variety of vibrant, living landscapes including brilliant blue glaciers, wetlands and, naturally, forests. The latter are chiefly made up of mighty Sitka spruce and mountain and western hemlock, providing habitat for moose, bald eagles and other wildlife. Rivers in Chugach National Forest are major salmon producers as well.


Stretching from Prince William Sound to Kenai Peninsula, Chugach National Forest also boasts great cultural significance. Indigenous tribes trace their connection to the land back thousands of years, and Chugach Eskimo, Eyak Indians, Kenaitze and other Athabascan Indian groups still call it home. The forest reserve that was eventually designated as Chugach National Forest by President Theodore Roosevelt was one of the first of its kind in this country, and the forest is part of the Iditarod National Historic Trail, a cherished Alaskan tradition. In 2015, Chugach National Forest even provided the U.S. Capitol Christmas tree.


El Yunque National Forest, PR

While we do have rainforests in the U.S., almost all of them are temperate. The only tropical rainforest managed by the U.S. Forest Service is El Yunque National Forest in northern Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the U.S., and Puerto Ricans are American citizens). Here, you’ll see palms, dwarf broadleaf trees and colorful orchids instead of spruce, and many wildlife species you won’t find anywhere in the contiguous U.S, such as rare fruit bats, small tree frogs called coquí and the endangered Puerto Rican amazon (a type of parrot).


El Yunque National Forest was first protected as a federal forest reserve more than 110 years ago, and it is now a very popular spot for tourists, drawing about 1.2 million visitors each year. The scenery is tremendous, from the so-called “dwarf forest,” where diminutive trees blanket the mist-shrouded mountain slopes; to cool waterfalls; to throngs of brilliant tropical birds (per local legend, you can even occasionally spot U.F.O.s overhead).


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Spiritual Recovery: / Remnants of Gondwana: The Over 600 Million Years Origins Of Yoga: Ancient Gondwanaland

Posted on November 7, 2020 at 11:20 AM Comments comments (1)

Gondwana, historic region in central India, comprising portions of Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra states. It is inhabited by the Gonds, a group of Dravidian-speaking peoples exceeding three million in population, who are among the officially designated Scheduled Tribes.


Gondwana (ancient supercontinent)

Gondwana, ancient supercontinent that incorporated present-day South America, Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, India, Australia, and Antarctica. It was fully assembled by Late Precambrian time, some 600 million years ago, and the first stage of its breakup began in the Early Jurassic Period, about 180


Gondwana province (region, Antarctica)

Antarctica: Structural framework: …long, stable Precambrian shield in East Antarctica and a much younger Mesozoic and Cenozoic mobile belt in West Antarctica—separated by the fault-block belt, or horst, of the Transantarctic Mountains. East and West Antarctica have come to be known respectively as the Gondwana and Andean provinces, indicating general affinities of each…


Gondwana sequence (geological feature)

planation surface: …oldest surfaces he recognized, termed Gondwana, were Mesozoic in age and related to the ancient landmass of Pangaea and its subsequent breakup during the Mesozoic. A younger surface, called the African or Moorland, developed during the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic by the stripping of weathered materials from the ancient…


Gondwana System (geological region, India)

Gondwana: …System in South Africa, the Gondwana System in India, and the Santa Catharina System in South America. It also occurs in the Maitland Group of eastern Australia as well as in the Whiteout conglomerate and Polarstar formations of Antarctica. Though the concept of Gondwana was widely accepted by scientists from…


Gondwanagaricites magnificus (fossil mushroom)

Agaricales: …oldest known fossilized Agaricales mushroom, Gondwanagaricites magnificus, which was unearthed in northeast Brazil and dates to the Aptian Stage of the Lower Cretaceous Series (125 million to 113 million years ago).


Gondwanaland (ancient supercontinent)

Gondwana, ancient supercontinent that incorporated present-day South America, Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, India, Australia, and Antarctica. It was fully assembled by Late Precambrian time, some 600 million years ago, and the first stage of its breakup began in the Early Jurassic Period, about 180

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Spiritual Recovery: therapeutic value of yoga in neurological disorders. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library / Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency / Bright Star Apothecary Complimentary & Integrative Medicine / Underground Intelligence Music & Multim

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The therapeutic value of yoga in neurological disorders

Shri K. Mishra, Parampreet Singh, [...], and Ray Zhang


Additional article information




The ancient mind and body healing methods of yoga recently sparked fervor in the scientific community as an alternative and complementary means of therapy. Since the World Health Organization officially began promoting yoga in developing countries in 1978, yoga has been cited for its therapeutic potential and has been widely recognized in Western culture. However, as an increasing number of people practice yoga for remedial purposes, researchers raise two important questions: 1) Is yoga a valid complementary management and rehabilitation treatment modality? 2) What conditions show promise of treatment with this intervention?.



This review article uses comprehensive scientific, evidence-based studies to analyze the efficacy of various basic and applied aspects of yoga in disease prevention and health promotion. It specifically intends to expose the effects of yoga in neurological disorders, particularly epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, peripheral nervous system disease, and fibromyalgia.


Materials and Methods:

Information was gathered from various resources including PubMed, Ovid, MD-Consult, USC, and U.C.L.A. libraries. Studies were selected and reviewed on the basis of sample size, control, randomization, double-blinding, and statistical analysis of results.



The pratice of yoga and meditation demonstrates statistically encouraging physiological and psychological improvements in the aforementioned neurological disorders. However, there were certain flaws and inadequacies in the study designs employed to evaluate the same. A critical analysis of these studies is presented.



With the aim to focus attention on this widespread yet largely unexamined treatment modality, this paper seeks to provide direction and support for further research necessary to validate yoga as an integrative, alternative, and complementary therapy.


Keywords: Neurology, physiology and treatments, yoga


Yoga started roughly 5,000 years ago in the Indian subcontinent as part of the Ayurvedic healing science. According to one 2008 yogajournal.com report, 15.8 million Americans practice yoga. “yoga” derives from the Sanskrit word ‘yukti’ meaning “union,” aiming to unify spirit (consciousness) with super spirit (God). The ancient Yogis recognized that to accomplish this highest state of yoga, a healthy body is essential. Yoga is a spiritual practice that utilizes mind (meditation) and body (exercises) to balance our systems. It explores the mind's abilities to affect the senses and the body. The National Center for Complementary Alternative Medicine thus classifies yoga as mind-body medicine.

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Yogi DJ Producer Marco Andre Becomes A certified Crystal Healer/Energy Medicine Practicioner. -- Marco The Nature Yogi of Dragonfly Kingdom Library/Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency/Bright Star Apothecary Complimentary Integrative Medicine/Un

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Been on that Grind all week. Published my experimental album for distribution, 3 Continuing Education Certificates from the NIH & as of today a Certified Crystal Healer/Energy Medicine Practicioner, then completed The Heartfulness Meditation Master Class Series offered by Daaji.

Resume, Skills, Qualifications & Certificate Details at https://www.linkedin.com/in/DJMarcoAndre ;

How are you helping others while bettering yourself physically, mentally & spiritually?

Spiritual Recovery: Pratyahara - RECLAIM YOUR ATTENTION! An Unfocused Mind Brings Unhappiness --- Dragonfly Kingdom Library / Bright Star Apothecary Complimentary & Integrative Medicine / Dragonfly Kingdom International Service Agency

Posted on November 7, 2020 at 9:25 AM Comments comments (0)


Kamlesh D. Patel

Aug 28·5 min read


Dear friends,

Back in 1971, Herbert Simon was anticipating the emergence of that precious human resource — attention. He said, “In an information-rich world, the wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.”

Attention Hacking

On an average day, how much of your attention do you think you own? And what is hacking your attention? Attention hacking is now a commonly-used term to describe the business model of social media. Facebook’s market capitalization has reached over $500 billion dollars; Google’s market capitalization has reached over $800 billion dollars. The search for information has become one of our most valuable commodities, up there with staples like food and clothing, and in terms of capitalization, many times more valuable than petroleum.

If time management has traditionally been seen as the skill to have, today’s lifestyle has given pride of place to attention management. Marketing teams know this well — they have taken marketing to a whole new level with all sorts of attention-hacking practices. Everyone is vying for a piece of the pie. So it is worthwhile asking: What sustainable attention education is available? What are worthwhile sustainable attention practices? And what sustainable attention policies exist that are conducive to our individual and collective well-being?

The unfocused mind leads to Unhappiness

Let’s explore the findings of some scientific research on this topic. Matthew Killingsworth has been conducting an ongoing experiment at Harvard University using a mobile application to measure the quality of attention of people. The app contacts participants at random moments during their waking hours, asking them to report in real-time the status of their thoughts, feelings, and actions during their daily activities. The database currently contains nearly a quarter of a million samples from about 5,000 people from 83 different countries, who range in age from 18 to 88, and who collectively represent every one of the 86 major occupational categories.

Killingsworth found out that mind wandering occurred on average 47% of the time, and that people were less happy when their minds were wandering than when they were not. It is not only that unhappiness makes us unfocused, but also that a lack of focus leads to unhappiness.

What does this mean for each one of us? Do we spend our attention capital the way we want, in a sustainable and fulfilling fashion, or are we at the mercy of outside influences? And most importantly, how can we change the status quo so that we reclaim our attention?

Reclaiming your attention

Actually, the methods and practices are already there. They have been there for thousands of years, but in the last century, they have become accessible to everyone in the world over. These methods are the ancient practices for the mind, which are usually called meditation or Raja Yoga. The purpose of these methods is to withdraw thoughts from all sides and orient them towards the source of all existence so that the power from that source starts flowing into the person meditating. Through these meditative practices, attention is very simply reclaimed.

What is the first step in this process? It is to bring our attention inwards towards the cherished goal — this we know as Pratyahara in Yoga. Then we learn to regulate thoughts, by distilling the essence of thinking from scattered, chaotic multi-directional thinking to single-pointed thinking, in an effortless way. We reduce the constant background chatter of the mind. That in itself is a wonderful skill, but it is also not yet meditation, only the prelude to meditation that we know as Dharana in Yoga.

The effortless focus of our thinking then needs to be given a direction — meditation on our chosen object of attention. In Heartfulness Meditation, attention is directed gently towards the infinite center of our being, the divine light in the heart. In the process, as we dive inwards, we first connect with the intuitive world of feeling. This, in turn, helps us to dive deeper still, so that we experience inner being. And eventually, inner identity dissolves so that there is a state of oneness with everyone and everything. We access universal states of consciousness and go beyond consciousness. Through this journey, we start to understand the real purpose of human life. And it is all made possible by simple meditation on the heart, supported by yogic Transmission, which helps to uncover our human potential and birthright. As we start imbibing this yogic Transmission, we start resonating with the source of the Transmission. This in turn triggers the ripple effect of spreading wherever there is receptivity.

As a result, the mind becomes a useful instrument for everyday living. We reclaim our attention. And, let’s face it; attention is what is constantly being hacked in our digital age. Managing attention has become more vital than managing time. So regaining mastery over attention through meditation is a great gift.

But having focused attention, concentration, and a super mind do not in themselves make us happy and fulfilled. It is when we bring the heart into the picture that we really uncover the key to human existence. Giving due attention to feelings, aspirations, and potential, through the heart, provides us with the inner anchor to spend our attention on purposeful and needed information. There is a shift in paradigm, from randomly taking in whatever is on offer in our environment, to consciously nurturing a very precious resource: heartful attention. We learn to listen to the heart, use intuitive intelligence, make wise decisions, and find clarity and purpose in life.



Dear friends,

Human beings have a very wonderful characteristic when it comes to observing and looking after our health. When nothing is wrong we remain carefree and oblivious to our bodily health, because our body does not give us any signals, but when something is wrong the body definitely gives us signs.

For example, if our breathing is healthy and normal, we are not even aware that we are breathing, but if we have a cold or bronchitis we will be very much aware of our breathing. The same is true with our mental well-being: when everything is healthy, we are not in the least aware of our mental processes. We feel balanced and content within. In contrast, when things are out of balance, our heart gives us a clear warning that something is wrong. …

Read more · ...... https://kamlesh-patel.medium.com/reclaim-your-attention-7ab2127acc0c