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Paleontology, physical geography and geology, equally with the ascertained distribution of living animals and plants, offer thus their concurrent testimony to the former close connection of Africa and India. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 10, 2021 at 5:45 AM Comments comments (0)

William Scott-Elliot – The Lost Lemuria

The Lost Lemuria
William Scott-Elliott

 

 

 

 

William Scott-Elliot (1904)

The object of this paper is not so much to bring forward startling information about the lost continent of Lemuria and its inhabitants, as to establish by the evidence obtainable from geology and from the study of the relative distribution of living and extinct animals and plants, as well as from the observed processes of physical evolution in the lower kingdoms, the facts stated in The Secret Doctrine and in other works with reference to these now submerged lands.

It is generally recognized by science that what is now dry land, on the surface of our globe, was once the ocean floor, and that what is now the ocean floor was once dry land. Geologists have in some cases been able to specify the exact portions of the earth’s surface where these subsidences and upheavals have taken place, and although the lost continent of Atlantis has so far received scant recognition from the world of science, the general consensus of opinion has for long pointed to the existence, at some prehistoric time, of a vast southern continent to which the name of Lemuria has been assigned.

Evidence supplied by Geology and by the relative distribution of living and extinct Animals and Plants

“The history of the earth’s development shows us that the distribution of land and water on its surface is ever and continually changing. In consequence of geological changes of the earth’s crust, elevations and depressions of the ground take place everywhere, sometimes more strongly marked in one place, sometimes in another. Even if they happen so slowly that in the course of

centuries the seashore rises or sinks only a few inches, or even only a few lines, still they nevertheless effect great results in the course of long periods of time. And long – immeasurably long – periods of time have not been wanting in the earth’s history. During the course of many millions of years, ever since organic life existed on the earth, land and water have perpetually struggled for supremacy. Continents and islands have sunk into the sea, and new ones have arisen out of its bosom. Lakes and seas have been slowly raised and dried up, and new water basins have arisen by the sinking of the ground. Peninsulas have become islands by the narrow neck of land which connected them with the mainland sinking into the water. The islands of an archipelago have become the peaks of a continuous chain of mountains by the whole floor of their sea being considerably raised.

“Thus the Mediterranean at one time was an inland sea, when in the place of the Straits of Gibraltar, an isthmus connected Africa with Spain. England even during the more recent history of the earth, when man already existed, has repeatedly been connected with the European continent and been repeatedly separated from it. Nay, even Europe and North America have been directly connected. The South Sea at one time formed a large Pacific Continent, and the numerous little islands which now lie scattered in it were simply the highest peaks of the mountains covering that continent. The Indian Ocean formed a continent which extended from the Sunda Islands along the southern coast of Asia to the east coast of Africa. This large continent of former times Sclater, an Englishman, has called Lemuria, from the monkey-like animals which inhabited it, and it is at the same time of great importance from being the probable cradle of the human race, which in all likelihood here first developed out of anthropoid apes. (Haeckel is correct enough in his surmise that Lemuria was the cradle of the human race as it now exists, but it was not out of Anthropoid apes that mankind developed. A reference will be made later on to the position in nature which the Anthropoid apes really occupy.)

The important proof which Alfred Wallace has furnished, by the help of chronological facts, that the present Malayan Archipelago consists in reality of two completely different divisions, is particularly interesting. The western division, the Indo-Malayan Archipelago, comprising the large islands of Borneo, Java and Sumatra, was formerly connected by Malacca with the Asiatic continent, and probably also with the Lemurian continent just mentioned. The eastern division on the other hand, the Austro-Malayan Archipelago, comprising Celebes, the Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon’s Islands, etc., was formerly directly connected with Australia. Both divisions were formerly two continents separated by a strait, but they have now for the most part sunk below the level of the sea. Wallace, solely on the ground of his accurate chronological observations, has been able in the most accurate manner to determine the position of this former strait, the south end of which passes between Balij and Lombok.

“Thus, ever since liquid water existed on the earth, the boundaries of water and land have eternally changed, and we may assert that the outlines of continents and islands have never remained for an hour, nay, even for a minute, exactly the same. For the waves eternally and perpetually break on the edge of the coast, and whatever the land in these places loses in extent, it gains in other places by the accumulation of mud, which condenses into solid stone and again rises above the level of the sea as new land. Nothing can be more erroneous than the idea of a firm and unchangeable outline of our continents, such as is impressed upon us in early youth by defective lessons on geography, which are devoid of a geological basis.” (Ernst Haeckel’s History of Creation, 2nd ed., 1876, Vol. I., pp. 360-62.)

The name Lemuria, as above stated, was originally adopted by Mr. Sclater in recognition of the fact that it was probably on this continent that animals of the Lemuroid type were developed.

“This,“ writes A. R. Wallace, “is undoubtedly a legitimate and highly probable supposition, and it is an example of the way in which a study of the geographical distribution of animals may enable us to reconstruct the geography of a bygone age…. It [this continent] represents what was probably a primary zoological region in some past geological epoch; but what that epoch was and what were the limits of the region in question, we are quite unable to say. If we are to suppose that it comprised the whole area now inhabited by Lemuroid animals, we must make it extend from West Africa to Burmah, South China and Celebes, an area which it possibly did once occupy.” (Alfred Russell Wallace’s The Geographical Distribution of Animals – with a study of the relations of living and extinct Faunas as elucidating the past changes of the Earth’s Surface. London: Macmillan & Co., 1876. Vol. I., pp. 76-7.)

“We have already had occasion,” he elsewhere writes, “to refer to an ancient connection between this sub-region (the Ethiopian) and Madagascar, in order to explain the distribution of the Lemurine type, and some other curious affinities between the two countries. This view is supported by the geology of India, which shows us Ceylon and South India consisting mainly of granite and old-metamorphic rocks, while the greater part of the peninsula is of tertiary formation, with a few isolated patches of secondary rocks. It is evident, therefore, that during much of the tertiary period, (Ceylon and South India, it is true, have been bounded on the north by a considerable extent of sea, but that was at a much earlier date than the Tertiary period.) Ceylon and South India were bounded on the north by a considerable extent of sea, and probably formed part of an extensive Southern Continent or great island.

The very numerous and remarkable cases of affinity with Malaya, require, however, some closer approximation with these islands, which probably occurred at a later period. When, still later, the great plains and tablelands of Hindustan were formed, and a permanent land communication effected with the rich and highly developed Himalo-Chinese fauna, a rapid immigration of new types took place, and many of the less specialised forms of mammalia and birds became extinct. Among reptiles and insects the competition was less severe, or the older forms were too well adapted to local conditions to be expelled; so that it is among these groups alone that we find any considerable number of what are probably the remains of the ancient fauna of a now submerged Southern Continent.” (Wallace’s Geographical Distribution, etc., ” Vol. I., pp. 328-9.)

After stating that during the whole of the tertiary and perhaps during much of the secondary periods, the great land masses of the earth were probably situated in the Northern Hemisphere, Wallace proceeds, “In the Southern Hemisphere there appear to have been three considerable and very ancient land masses, varying in extent from time to time, but always keeping distinct from each other, and represented more or less completely by Australia, South Africa and South America of our time. Into these flowed successive waves of life as they each in turn became temporarily united with some part of the Northern land.” (Wallace’s Geographical Distribution, etc., Vol. II., p. 155.)

Although, apparently in vindication of some conclusions of his which had been criticized by Dr. Hartlaub, Wallace subsequently denied the necessity of postulating the existence of such a continent, his general recognition of the facts of subsidences and upheavals of great portions of the earth’s surface, as well as the inferences which he draws from the acknowledged relations of living and extinct faunas as above stated, remain of course unaltered.

The following extracts from Mr. H. F. Blandford’s most interesting paper read before a meeting of the Geological Society deals with the subject in still greater detail (H. F. Blandford On the age and correlations of the Plant- bearing series of India and the former existence of an Indo-Oceanic Continent, see Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. XXXI., 1875, pp. 534- 40.):

The affinities between the fossils of both animals and plants of the Beauort group of Africa and those of the Indian Panchets and Kathmis are such as to suggest the former existence of a land connection between the two areas. But the resemblance of the African and Indian fossil faunas does not cease with Permian and Triassic times. The plant beds of the Uitenhage group have furnished eleven forms of plants, two of which Mr. Tate has identified with Indian Rajmahal plants. The Indian Jurassic fossils have yet to be described (with a few exceptions), but it has been stated that Dr. Stoliezka was much struck with the affinities of certain of the Cutch fossils to African forms; and Dr. Stoliezka and Mr. Griesbach have shown that of the Cretaceous fossils of the Umtafuni river in Natal, the majority (22 out of 35 described forms) are identical with species from Southern India. Now the plant-bearing series of India and the Karoo and part of the Uitenhage formation of Africa are in all probability of fresh-water origin, both indicating the existence of a large land area around, from the waste of which these deposits are derived. Was this land continuous between the two regions? And is there anything in the present physical geography of the Indian Ocean which would suggest its probable position?

Further, what was the connection between this land and Australia which we must equally assume to have existed in Permian times? And, lastly, are there any peculiarities in the existing fauna and flora of India, Africa and the intervening islands which would lend support to the idea of a former connection more direct than that which now exists between Africa and South India and the Malay peninsula? The speculation here put forward is no new one. It has long been a subject of thought in the minds of some Indian and European naturalists, among the former of whom I may mention my brother (Mr. Blandford) and Dr. Stoliezka, their speculations being grounded on the relationship and partial identity of the faunas and floras of past times, not less than on that existing community of forms which has led Mr. Andrew Murray, Mr. Searles, V. Wood, jun., and Professor Huxley to infer the existence of a Miocene continent occupying a part of the Indian Ocean. Indeed, all that I can pretend to aim at in this paper is to endeavor to give some additional definition and extension to the conception of its geological aspect.

With regard to the geographical evidence, a glance at the map will show that from the neighbourhood of the West Coast of India to that of the Seychelles, Madagascar, and the Mauritius, extends a line of coral atolls and banks, including Adas bank, the Laccadives, Maldives, the Chagos group and the Saya de Mulha, all indicating the existence of a submerged mountain range or ranges. The Seychelles, too, are mentioned by Mr. Darwin as rising from an extensive and tolerably level bank having a depth of between 30 and 40 fathoms; so that, although now partly encircled by fringing reefs, they may be regarded as a virtual extension of the same submerged axis. Further west the Cosmoledo and Comoro Islands consist of atolls and islands surrounded by barrier reefs; and these bring us pretty close to the present shores of Africa and Madagascar.

It seems at least probable that in this chain of atolls, banks, and barrier reefs we have indicated the position of an ancient mountain chain, which possibly formed the back-bone of a tract of later Paleozoic Mesozoic, and early Tertiary land, being related to it much as the Alpine and Himalayan system is to the Europaeo-Asiatic continent, and the Rocky Mountains and Andes to the two Americas. As it is desirable to designate this Mesozoic land by a name, I would propose that of Indo-Oceana. (The name given to it by Mr. Sclater, viz., Lemuria, is, however, the one which has been most generally adopted.) Professor Huxley has suggested on palaeontological grounds that a land connection existed in this region (or rather between Abyssinia and India) during the Miocene epoch. From what has been said above it will be seen that I infer its existence from a far earlier date. (A reference to the maps will show that Mr. Blandford’s estimate of date is the more correct of the two.)

With regard to its depression, the only present evidence relates to its northern extremity, and shows that it was in this region, later than the great trapflows of the Dakhan. These enormous sheets of volcanic rock are remarkably horizontal to the east of the Ghats and the Sakyadri range, but to the west of this they begin to dip seawards, so that the island of Bombay is composed of the higher parts of the formation. This indicates only that the depression to the westward has taken place in Tertiary times; and to that extent Professor Huxley’s inference, that it was after the Miocene period, is quite consistent with the geological evidence. ”

After proceeding at some length to instance the close relationship of many of the fauna in the lands under consideration (Lion, Hyacna, Jackal, Leopard, Antelope, Gazelle, Sand-grouse, Indian Bustard, many Land Molusca, and notably the Lemur and the Scaly Anteater) the writer proceeds as follows:

“Paleontology, physical geography and geology, equally with the ascertained distribution of living animals and plants, offer thus their concurrent testimony to the former close connection of Africa and India, including the tropical islands of the Indian Ocean. This Indo-Oceanic land appears to have existed from at least early Permian times, probably (as Professor Huxley has pointed out) up to the close of the Miocene epoch; (Parts of the continent of course endured, but the dismemberment of Lemuria is said to have taken place before the beginning of the Eocene Age.) and South Africa and Peninsular India are the existing remnants of that ancient land............

Indexed for Hermetics by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

https://www.hermetics.net/media-library/mysticism/william-scott-elliot-the-lost-lemuria/

Lost City of the Monkey God In Honduras? - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 7, 2021 at 5:45 AM Comments comments (0)

Hanuman’s popularity covers the entire country from the Himalayas in the North to the peninsular tip in the South. It spills over to the neighbouring countries in South East Asia and the worship of this deity is of immense antiquity.

 

“As a god of good fortune he held his ground as Thoth (the god of wisdom) among the Egyptian pantheon; he appeared here as a dog-headed baboon (cynocephalus). He was a symbol of wisdom in ancient Greece, associated with magic, sorcery and witchcraft. In the Maya civilisation, he was the only form that could survive the wrath of the gods,” Vedic scholar S K Ramachandra Rao has written in his book Hanuman Kosa.

 

There are ape statues from Babylonia, ancient figurines from Egypt and little silver and lapis-lazuli icons from Iraq (Khafaje) that remind one of Hanuman. Finds in the remains of the Aztec, South Babylonia, Egyptian, the Chinese civilisations suggest that the monkey-god was feared or adored by the people.

 

There are stories, myths and legends relating to the exploits of this God in all these countries with regional variations in the theme and content (like the Chinese Golden Monkey-sun), writes Professor Rao.

 

American aviator Charles Lindberg during one of his flights over the jungles of Mosquitia in Hondurus, is believed to have caught a glimpse of what he thought was the ‘Lost City of the Monkey God‘ where, local people worshipped huge ‘Monkey Sculptures’ (Source: Book Facts). ..... Full Article at https://www.softpowermag.com/hanumans-south-american-connection-lokadevata-invoked-today-for-medical-aid/

ANCIENT 'PINDO-RAMA'. TODAY'S BRAZIL -THE RAMAYANA CONNECT AND A BIT ABOUT BRAZILIAN INSCRIPTIONS & THEIR LINK TO 'INDUS VALLEY SCRIPT'. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 7, 2021 at 5:15 AM Comments comments (0)

ANCIENT 'PINDO-RAMA'. TODAY'S BRAZIL -THE RAMAYANA CONNECT AND A BIT ABOUT BRAZILIAN INSCRIPTIONS & THEIR LINK TO 'INDUS VALLEY SCRIPT'

The native name for Brazil is PindoRama and though it is said that Pindo Rama translates as 'Land of Palms' from Tupi, an ancient American-Indian language, there is much evidence that indicates that Sri Rama, the God-King of Ayodhya was worshipped in that part of the world.

 

In the Vedic tradition 'pinda' (पिण्ड) is a very meaningful word. It often appears in mantras and sutras. For example the Upanashid says 'yatha pindi tatha bramhanda'. 'As is the body so is the universe', or the body is a smaller version of the entire universe.

 

In Sanskrit, 'pinda' is the 'body', it is the body as the reflection of the 'world'. It is the body as the mirror of the whole universe.The significance of the term Pinda according to Upanasids is 'an organised whole, a unity of diversities'. Pindarama is 'Rama's Universe' or 'Rama as someone who is the universe'.

 

In the Krittivasi Ramayana, Ahiravan (Ahiravan or Mahiravan), brother of Ravana, was a rakshasa who secretly carried away Rama and his brother Lakshmana to the nether-world, consulted his friends and decided to sacrifice the life of the two divine brothers at the altar of his chosen deity, goddess Mahamaya. But Hanuman saved their life by killing Ahiravan and his army.The nether-world or 'patala' is often identified as the South American land-mass.

 

In the Valmiki Ramayana, after the abduction of Sita, Sugreeva - the 'vanara' commander, orders his chiefs to 'go round the earth and fetch all the monkey champions on earth'. The chiefs go to various mountains, rivers, oceans, and forests and motivate all monkeys to reach Sugreeva at once'. Valmiki Ramayana, Kishkinda Kand, Chapter 37).

 

Once the 'vanaras' assimilate, Sugreeva gives detailed instructions about the route that each of the search parties is to take in search of the abducted Sita. The route-map is so detailed, and mentions mountains and rivers, seas and oceans and the travel time involved, that it is absurd to deduct that Sugreeva was only detailing regions within India or had no knowledge of the world beyondpresent day India. Refer to Chapters 37, 40, 41, 42 and 43 of the Kishkinda Kand. That they reached Peru is substantiated by the mention of the ancient Paracas Trident of Peru in the Ramayana. For more on this click here.

 

Archaeology and ancient reliefs indicate that Ramayana, Sri Rama, Hanuman, Goddess Sita etc. were not unknown in Brazil, Honduras, Peru, Bolivia, Guatemala and Mexico.

 

There is archaeological support to the fact that Hanuman was not unknown in that part of the world.

 

 

 

An ancient sculpture of the 'Howler Monkey God'

of Copan, Honduros is linked to the Vedic Hanuman

 

The ancient name of Brazil, that is Pindorama, is also related to an ancient tribe of Brazil by the name 'RamaRama'. The RamaRama were a Tupi speaking group of considerable size living in the Brazilian Amazonian area in a place called Rondonia. When the Spanish rubber-collector's poured into Rondonia in 1880s they brought death and disease to the tribe so that it is now extinct as a culture.

 

Ancient civilizations such as the Maori's of New Zealand also had a tribe by the name RamaRama. There is a place by the name RamaRama in New Zealand which is 40 km away from the city of Auckland.

 

Researching the path of ancient sea-farers from India, Frank Joseph states in his book 'Archaeological Discoveries of Ancient America', "A general population spread, from India into Pacific and beyond the shores of South America, may begin with native Maori oral history in New Zealand. Folk tradition recounts that 161 generations ago (approximately 1500 BC), Maori ancestors migrated en-masse from a hot country called Iriha in the wake of war.... The Maoris' ancient 'Iriha' is an obvious variation of Vrihia, an ancient name for India...".

 

Joseph adds, "...archaeological digs throughout the Pacific suggest the Vedic mariners colonized areas as far eastward as Samoa and Tonga including Fiji.. and further on...".

 

Joseph also states that the names Kuru and Pandava finds its way into Peruvian ancient books as Urus and Puruha and is remembered by Peru's Ayamara tribes. The mixed descendants of some Urus still live on floating reed beds at Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. Recently archaeologists have discovered huge amounts of gold artifacts in the lake Titicaca region which are at the least 4000 years old, indicating that civilization was not unknown in this part of the world in antiquity.

 

Not far from Lake Titicaca the Incan's celebrated the Inti Rayami festival (also called Rama-Sitva) which researchers have linked with the celebration of the winter Solstice. Sir William Jones (1744 - 1794) stated in his papers published by the the Asiatic Society that the Incan festival 'Rama-Sitva' celebrated on the Winter Solstice Day gets its name from the Hindu God King, Sri Rama and his wife, Goddess Sita. The Winter Solstice Day is celebrated in June in Peru. (Peru lies in the southern Hemisphere and the winter solstice day falls in June).

 

But now, back to Brazil. In his book, Mysteries of Ancient South America, author Harold T. Wilkins writes about the findings of an expedition in the 1920s lead by Colonel P.H. Fawcett into the woods of the Brazilian Amazon where he chanced upon an ancient city and some rock inscriptions, about which Wilkins says, "... those strange writings are something more remarkable... they are of an esoteric Hindu cult." (page 63).

 

Writing about the inscriptions, he further adds," I have myself discovered some queer links between these strange letters of old Brazil, and characters found in Tibet and Vedic Hindostan". (Page 118).

 

For example the inscriptions on the Inga stone of Brazil have been compared to RongoRongo (the ancient script of Easter island located in the South Pacific ocean) which itself bears a close resemblance to the Indus Valley script.


Indexed for Vedic Cafe by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

 

385,000-year-old evidence: Ancient tools found in India undermine the "out of Africa" hypothesis. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 7, 2021 at 3:50 AM Comments comments (0)

Scientists have unveiled an extraordinary new analysis of thousands of stone tools found at a site called Attirampakkam in India, northwest of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Thanks to new dating techniques, a team led by archaeologist Shanti Pappu determined that most of the tools are between 385,000 and 172,000 years old. What makes these dates noteworthy is that they upend the idea that tool-making was transformed in India after an influx of modern Homo sapiens came from Africa starting about 130,000 years ago.


According to these findings, hominins in India were making tools that looked an awful lot like what people were making in Africa almost 250,000 years before they encountered modern humans. This is yet another piece of evidence that the "out of Africa" process was a lot messier and more complex than previously thought......... https://arstechnica.com/science/2018/01/new-discoveries-raise-critical-questions-for-out-of-africa-hypothesis/ ;

Indexed for arstechnica by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

We falsely assume that the indigenous populations in the Americas today are direct descendants from the earliest Americans, but now we do not think that is the case.. - Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on April 6, 2021 at 3:35 AM Comments comments (0)

 

Painstaking excavations of Chiquihuite Cave, located in a mountainous area in northern Mexico controlled by drugs cartels, uncovered nearly 2000 stone tools from a small section of the high-altitude cave.

 

Archaeological analysis of the tools and DNA analysis of the sediment in the cave uncovered a new story of the colonisation of the Americas which now traces evidence of the first Americans back to 25,000-30,000 years ago.

 

The results, which have been published in Nature today (July 22 2020), challenge the commonly held theory that the Clovis people were the first human inhabitants of the Americas 15,000 years ago.

 

DNA scientist Professor Eske Willerslev, of St John's College, University of Cambridge, and director of The Lundbeck Foundation GeoGenetics Centre, University of Copenhagen, led the study with archaeologist Dr Ciprian Ardelean, of the University of Zacatecas in Mexico.

 

Professor Willerslev said: "For decades people have passionately debated when the first humans entered the Americas. Chiquihuite Cave will create a lot more debate as it is the first site that dates the arrival of people to the continent to around 30,000 years ago -- 15,000 years earlier than previously thought. These early visitors didn't occupy the cave continuously, we think people spent part of the year there using it as a winter or summer shelter, or as a base to hunt during migration. This could be the Americas oldest ever hotel."

 

The 10-year long research project raises more questions about the early humans who lived in the Americas than it solves......... Indexed for Science Daily by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/07/200722112726.htm

Skulls that â??closely resemble crania of Negro groups coming from parts of Africaâ?� have been found in preâ?�Columbian layers in the valley of the Pecos River, in northern Mexico and Texas

Posted on April 6, 2021 at 3:20 AM Comments comments (0)

HIGHLAND PARK, N. J. — Last February, a Smithsonian Institution team reported finding two “Negro male skeletons”—the men died in their late 30's—in a grave in the United States Virgin Islands. This grave had been used and abandoned by native Indians long before the coming of Columbus. Soil from the earth layers in which the skeletons were found was dated to A.D. 1250.

 

A study of the teeth showed a type of “dental mutilation characteristic of early African cultures,” and clamped around the wrist of one of the skeletons was a clay vessel of pre‐Columbian Indian design.

 

This is no isolated find. Skulls that, according to the physical anthropologist Ernest Hooton, “closely resemble crania of Negro groups coming from parts of Africa” have been found in pre‐Columbian layers in the valley of the Pecos River, in northern Mexico and Texas, which empties into the Gulf of Mexico.

 

The historian Frederick Peterson, in his study of ancient Mexico, emphasized “the strong Negroid substratum that intermingled with the [Olmec] magicians.”.............


Indexed for the New York Times 1975 by Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Marco invited you to earn money hosting campers on Hipcamp. Earn $100+ from your first camper, guaranteed. - Marco's Fitness Travel at

Posted on April 4, 2021 at 8:15 AM Comments comments (0)



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Posted on April 4, 2021 at 6:35 AM Comments comments (0)

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Posted on April 4, 2021 at 6:20 AM Comments comments (0)


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Archaeological Tests Conclude Mexico's Hueyatlaco, could be older than 250,000 years. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 22, 2021 at 12:40 AM Comments comments (0)



The stratigraphic debate at Hueyatlaco, Valsequillo, Mexico



Harold E. Malde, Virginia Steen-McIntyre, Charles W. Naeser,
and Sam L. VanLandingham


ABSTRACT
We review the history of investigations at the Valsequillo archaeological area
south of Puebla, Mexico, from the early 1960s to 2010. Evidence from diatoms, (U-Th)/
He measurements, early uranium-series dates, later zircon fission-track dates, mineral
weathering, tephra hydration dates, and vertebrate fossils imply that the princi-
pal archaeological site, Hueyatlaco, could be older than 250,000 years. Hueyatlaco
rests unconformably on Xalnene Tuff (basaltic ash) dated at 1.3 Ma by whole-rock
argon-argon analysis. This finding differs greatly from a recent interpretation that the
site is 40,000 years old.




Harold E. Malde. (Deceased November 4, 2007.)
Virginia Steen-McIntyre. P.O. Box 1167, Idaho Springs, CO 80452, <dub.ent@ix.netcom.com> (To whom
correspondence should be addressed.)
Charles W. Naeser. 13503 Clear Lake Ct, Herndon, Virginia 20171, USA cnaeser@usgs.gov
Sam L. VanLandingham. 1205 West Washington Ave., Midland, TX 79701, USA,
sambrero@suddenlink.net


KEY WORDS: Archaeology, Early Man; Valsequillo, Mexico; Hueyatlaco stratigraphy; diatoms; U-Th/He
dates; fission-track dates

What Are The Nusaybin Rolls & Behavior Exposed? Legacy of a Lost Civilization: Archaeological Discoveries. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 21, 2021 at 10:10 AM Comments comments (0)

SEP 15, 2014


The Legacy of a Lost Civilization: Archaeological Discoveries


BY LORIS BAGNARA



Esotericism and Politics: the Secret Origins of United Europe
Esotericism and Politics: the Hidden Structure in History

In previous hubs I wrote about Paolo Rumor's book L'altra Europa (2010, Hobby & Work, Varese, Italy), pointing out that its contents concern two subjects apparently different: one of a political-economic kind, and the other one of a mythical-legendary kind. The first subject has already been exposed; now the second is being considered


Paolo Rumor confessed that he would not have reported this part of the memoirs had he not realized, few years ago, the singular correspondences with personalities and situations also present in some recent essays which dealt ― in definitely alternative manners ― with historical, scientific, archaeological, mythological topics (authors such as Giorgio De Santillana, Charles Hapgood, Graham Hancock, Robert Bauval, Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh, Henry Lincoln, Andrew Collins and others belong to this current). His impression was that the source which inspired such essays was already known, and more thoroughly, in the environments frequented long before by his father Giacomo; however, despite many singular assonances, he believes that the most intimate features of what he defined as the “Structure” and its project (refer to this hub) still seems to escape modern researchers. It should be something definitely different from any other coterie appeared in the course of history, as it does not show any other typicalness but to aim, evidently, to a kind of reconstruction of conditions occurred in a definite remote past.


Within the intellectual circle frequented by the first inspirers of the European Union (behind which the Structure loomed), since the time of Restoration, there was the conviction that a plurimillennial historical period was about to end, and another cycle of human evolution was about to start. The idea of the completion of a historical cycle would have been strengthened with the discovery, occurred in two times between the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, of some finds which confirmed and integrated the complex of knowledge (included a chronological member list) that the Structure handed down through centuries. It is from such finds, kept secret because of their extreme importance, that the information contained in Giacomo Rumor's documents would derive.

With the due premise that, at the moment, there is still no evidence of the actual existence of such finds (but, as mentioned, they would be precisely kept secret), let us see what they allegedly should be.

The Nusaybin rolls

Allegedly, at the beginning of the 20th century in the synagogue of Nusaybin (formerly Nisibis, turkish town on the border with Syria) were discovered some long written rolls of copper, part of a larger material which was thought lost; Giacomo Rumor riceived excerpts of their translation from the original Greek, Copt and Syriac languages.



The rolls discovered at Nusaybin are preserved in the Rosslyn Chapel, Scotland.
The rolls presently should be preserved no less than in the Rosslyn Chapel, within some trunks placed « under the south-eastern crypt, interred in the underground mid room, where there is […] Saint Peter holding a square ruler » [quoted verbatim from the memoirs]; and actually there is a statue of Saint Peter in the crypt of the Rosslyn Chapel (built in the 15th century by William Sinclair, whose family is mentioned in the member list of the advisory level of the Structure). As anybody knows who has read or seen The Da Vinci Code, this is a place of paramount importance in the myth of Rennes-le-Château and the Priory of Sion (some elements of such myth are well recognizable within Rumor's documents, as discussed in previous hubs).

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The Nusaybin text should contain the description of a proto-historic age characterized by a high level of social and economic organization, as well as an advanced knowledge which could already be defined scientific and which humanity would have attained again only in the Age of Enlightenment.

According to the rolls, in this remote epoch some urban settlements existed in coastal areas of the Mediterranean and other seas, now submerged by water; afterwards, because of global upheavals and sudden climatic changes, it came a long period of decline, followed by a phase of slow, laborious, partial reconstruction, during which the operate of a group of “Illuminati” was determinant.

It is precisely at this moment that it dates back the foundation of the Structure, whose action continued over millennia to the present day, through a long list of people that the Nusaybin text explicitly reports, and from which derives the partial list reported within the memoirs (referred to the advisory level, as already said); in the oldest part of the such list the members are collectively designated as the “College of the Surveillants” or also the “Guardians”, correspondent to the “Illuminati” mentioned above (not to be confused with the Bavarian Illuminati of Adam Weishaupt).

In the text are mentioned all the locations where the Illuminati had spread, specifying that they are “before the water”, meaning: before they were submerged by the rise of sea level that followed the end of the last glaciation (about 10-11,000 years ago). Some locations are reported in the memoirs: the “island of Galonia” in the Mediterranean Sea (correspondent to Galonia Leta of the Romans), situated in the place of Malta, but larger than this and even connected to Sicily through a long strip of dry land; the "height in the lower course of the Nile", identifiable with the Giza plateau; the “Parthian Gulf, the ancient one”, referring to the valley that in ancient times existed in the place of the present Persian Gulf; the Gulf of Cambay, in the Indian Ocean, which formerly also was mainland; the peninsula of Kumari, with its “fortynine territories”, identifiable with the lost continent of the Tamil legends ― Kumari Kandam ― a strip of landmass connected to the tip of the Indian peninsula and inclusive of the islands of Maldive and Sri Lanka; the “continent of Seille, before reduction”, ie, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) before the sea took a part of it; the “continent of Sondien”, identifiable with a widest region formerly above sea level (the Sunda Shelf), but of which now remain only the archipelagos of Indonesia and of Philippines; the “island of the progenitors of the Jomon, before the ascension of Sosano”, which could refer to the Ryukyu Archipelago (between Taiwan, Okinawa and the southern end of Japan), close to a widest territory now submerged by the waters of the Yellow Sea and of the Korea Bay; the “continent of Kambu or Colba” (identifiable with Cuba), “located fifty days of sailing to the west of the rock of Calpe” (identifiable with Gibraltar); the “archipelago of Vacca, whose name precedes that of Colba, only land left” (thus identifiable with the wide group of landmasses formerly existent in the caraibic region, especially close to the Floridian Peninsula and the Bahama Islands).


The submerged continent of Sunda

In the rolls there are maps which depict ancient territories, now submerged by the seas.
Besides the list of the affiliates and the description of the locations, the Nusaybin text also contains the maps of certain coastal areas depicted in different ages and conditions (such maps were the source of the cartographic sketches included in the original Rumor's documents); furhermore, it reports also a kind of representation, metaphorical and allusive, of the events that fell on the ancient civilization. To such events refer expressions like: “fall of the lights”, “coupling”, “big chill”, “broken pole”, “delay of the sun on the top of the assembly” and “incursions of the star on the regions of the mountain”; this was related to the idea of a punishment that should have hit humanity for the guilt of having « spoiled animals; created the lives which the Spirit and the Order had not wanted; turned on the lights that do not give heat; violated the mother's body and measured its ends; separate the seed of the earth; burned the bad water; counted the souls in their horizons and studied their paths to surprise them upon the exit from the gate of heaven ». Other passages, copied and translated by Paolo Rumor himself, said: « [...] before the move of the fire, when the drill had not yet unhinged; the lion was still sacrificed; the angels had not rebelled; the water of the sea obeyed the abyss and had not started to rise. [...] those who forced the heaven had arrived following a lion [...] the abyss and the stone waves had struck down the people because they had profaned their mother's body by measuring her ends, plundering her veins, revealing her secrets, turning on lights that do not give heat, creating animals that the Spirit had not wanted ». The text also mentioned certain “Giants” who, besides being responsible for the faults as above, « pushed the wheel out of the rut », and in consequence of this « the water contained in its deposits poured on the earth ». Immediately after the Giants the Surveillants came. The language is evidently mythical, but the Nusaybin text expressly states that it is an allegorical representation of actual facts


The Giza Necropolis

The tablets discoveried at Giza tell about a global upheaval that wiped out an ancient civilization.
The Giza tablets
Another passage of the Nusaybin rolls states: « The Surveillants became “Illuminati” when they placed the three raised platforms on the height next to the river, in the spot where the high and the low are balanced, along the waterway that meanders among the reeds, on the point of the major intersection of the network, writing on stone the warnings to be respected ». The so-called “platforms” were completed thousands of years later, according to the original design that there had been deposited, but with some revised orientations dependent on changed space and stellar references; this because of a geophysical event which is referred to with the expression of “slip of the mantle”. This site, also called "the height", is merely Giza.


We have seen in a previous hub that among Rumor's documents there are some diagrams (plans and sections) that represent a system of corridors and underground rooms extended to the entire area of the Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza. These diagrams also indicate the spot where in 1872 were discovered, by a private expedition, some engraved gypsum tablets: an artificial room located in the underground corridor connecting the Sphinx (called the “pointer”) to the pyramid of Khufu (called the “first platform”), under the “belly” of the Sphinx itself.


These engravings (mostly made up of graphic and geometric signs which are familiar to us, but with different numerical symbols) were allegedly interpreted thanks to the famous archaeologist Alexander Thom, along with the Nusaybin text as above, several decades after their discovery. They should state that those who made the “platforms” and dug the “pointer”, would have done so in order to transmit forever, « to those who have the “knowledge” and to the researchers of the “way”, the contents of the warning ».

The so-called “warning” should consist of a series of mathematical-geometric schemes, geographical coordinates, alignments with locations and with celestial bodies (sometimes expressed by means of unknown measurement units of time and space) related to geophysical phenomena: the upset of Earth's rotation balance and the slippage of the more superficial layers of the planet in relation to the more internal ones.


It refers, evidently, to the same kind of disastrous events described in the Nusaybin text: earthquakes (called “rock waves”) and “heavy rains”, floods, marine transgressions (“water steps”) that hit the Earth in two different periods, about 8,000 years ago and also prior to 11,000 years ago, “during the [precessional] age of the Lion”. As a result, the College of Surveillants worked to preserve the knowledge of the civilization preceding such events, creating a so-called “tabernacle” where to keep the « “spiritual essence” of those who had set in motion a new era ». A sort of archive, therefore, formed precisely by the discovered tablets of Giza.

https://discover.hubpages.com/.amp/education/The-Legacy-of-a-Lost-Civilization-Archaeological-Discoveries

Racism In Archaeology: History must be rewritten if it's rationalizing consistency throughout generations of colonial domination is to be challenged. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 21, 2021 at 6:10 AM Comments comments (0)

ABSTRACT



South American rock art and prehistory with all its controversies is a rich site for exploring the processes of territorialization through which humans shape their understanding of the world in their earliest movements through the environment, and also for examining how narratives of prehistory are woven. The paper examines the debate over the Cerutti Mastodon and why Serra da Capivara, one of the largest rock art complexes in the world, remains in analytic limbo. It suggests that rethinking these two examples may offer a possible way out of some of the analytic difficulties in South American prehistory through a decolonizing approach to understanding the reasons for the rejection of the Cerutti Mastodon, and the lack of recognition of Serra da Capivara’s most important site – Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF).

 

ABSTRATO

A arte rupestre e pré-história da América do Sul com todas as suas controvérsias é um local rico para explorar os processos de territorialização através dos quais os humanos moldam sua compreensão do mundo em seus primeiros movimentos através do ambiente e também para examinar como as narrativas da pré-história são tecidas. O artigo examina o debate sobre o Cerutti Mastodon e por que a Serra da Capivara, um dos maiores complexos de arte rupestre do mundo, permanece no limbo analítico. Sugere que repensar esses dois exemplos pode oferecer uma saída possível para algumas das dificuldades analíticas na pré-história da América do Sul, por meio de uma abordagem descolonizante para entender as razões da rejeição do Cerutti Mastodon e a falta de reconhecimento dos mais importantes da Serra da Capivara. local – Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF).

 

RESUMEN

El arte rupestre y la prehistoria sudamericanos con todas sus controversias son un sitio rico para explorar los procesos de territorialización a través de los cuales los humanos dan forma a su comprensión del mundo en sus primeros movimientos a través del medio ambiente, y también para examinar cómo se tejen las narraciones de la prehistoria. El artículo examina el debate sobre el Cerutti Mastodon y por qué Serra da Capivara, uno de los complejos de arte rupestre más grandes del mundo, permanece en el limbo analítico. Sugiere que repensar estos dos ejemplos puede ofrecer una posible salida a algunas de las dificultades analíticas en la prehistoria sudamericana a través de un enfoque descolonizador, para comprender las razones del rechazo del Cerutti Mastodon, y la falta de reconocimiento del sitio más importante de Serra da Capivara – Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF).

 

KEYWORDS: Serra da Capivararock artnarratives of prehistoryperformativitytheater of knowledge

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Serra da Capivaraarte do rocknarrativas da pré-históriaperformatividadeteatro do conhecimento

PALABRAS CLAVE: Serra da Capivaraarte en piedranarrativas de la prehistoriaperformatividadteatro del conocimiento

 


We … live in a multiverse world where there are many levels of simultaneous existence and these understandings predate time … Movement is part of us. Explanation is not necessary – only stories, which remind, acknowledge and honour the force of movement. People have moved from place to place and have joined and separated again throughout our past, and we have incorporated it into our songs, stories and myths because we must continuously remember that, without movement, there is no life. (Naranjo 1995, 250)

 

History must be rewritten if it’s rationalizing consistency throughout generations of colonial domination is to be challenged. (Wylie 1995, 261)

 

It matters what matters we use to think other matters with; it matters what stories we tell to tell other stories with; it matters what knots knot knots, what thoughts think thoughts, what ties tie ties. It matters what stories make worlds, what worlds make stories. (Haraway 2016, 12)

 

The landscape tells – or rather is – a story … we know as we go. (Ingold 2000, 189, 229)

 

1. Introduction

Science Technology and Society (STS), the interdisciplinary research area that explores scientific knowledge production in its broad social, historical, and philosophical contexts, was heavily Euro/US centric in its origins. Though it has come a long way in spreading its cultural and geographical ambit, its temporal/historical reach has been mostly limited to the modern period, showing very little concern with the earliest forms of technology and knowledge production.1 South American rock art and prehistory, with all its controversies, is a rich site for exploring the ways in which humans shape their understanding of the world, both now, and in their earliest movements through the environment.

 

Bocqueirã da Pedra Furada (PBF) is the most important rock art site amongst a vast complex of rock art sites in and around the Serra da Capivara National Park in Piaui, N.E. Brazil. Yet despite being claimed as one of the largest in the world (Buco 2013), and having some of the most lively and unusual images of human activity, it remains relatively little known outside Brazil, seemingly stuck in analytic “limbo” (Parenti 2014, 5853). This paper suggests a possible way to move beyond this point of conflict in South American prehistory through a performative approach to understanding the reasons for PBF’s lack of recognition and through seeing it as a very important example of an early “theater of knowledge” in South American prehistory. But to get to that requires, as Walter Mignolo suggests, “thinking with, against and beyond the legacy of Western epistemology” to establish a point of “colonial difference” that will allow an exploration of the arguments and difficulties that beset the wider field of Latin American prehistory and its Anglo/Francocentric forms of territorialization and domination. 

.......... https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/25729861.2019.1647759


Indexed for Guidon and Taylor and Frances by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


New evidence for the antiquity of humans in the Americas (which predate those of the Clovis culture) and open new directions of research. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 21, 2021 at 5:55 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

The initial colonization of the Americas remains a highly debated topic1, and the exact timing of the first arrivals is unknown. The earliest archaeological record of Mexico—which holds a key geographical position in the Americas—is poorly known and understudied. Historically, the region has remained on the periphery of research focused on the first American populations2. However, recent investigations provide reliable evidence of a human presence in the northwest region of Mexico3,4, the Chiapas Highlands5, Central Mexico6 and the Caribbean coast7,8,9 during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene epochs. Here we present results of recent excavations at Chiquihuite Cave—a high-altitude site in central-northern Mexico—that corroborate previous findings in the Americas10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17of cultural evidence that dates to the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500–19,000 years ago)18, and which push back dates for human dispersal to the region possibly as early as 33,000–31,000 years ago. The site yielded about 1,900 stone artefacts within a 3-m-deep stratified sequence, revealing a previously unknown lithic industry that underwent only minor changes over millennia. More than 50 radiocarbon and luminescence dates provide chronological control, and genetic, palaeoenvironmental and chemical data document the changing environments in which the occupants lived. Our results provide new evidence for the antiquity of humans in the Americas, illustrate the cultural diversity of the earliest dispersal groups (which predate those of the Clovis culture) and open new directions of research.


Indexed for Nature Journal by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2509-0

Aerobic exercise-stimulated Klotho upregulation extends life span by attenuating the excess production of reactive oxygen species in the brain and kidney. -- Dragonfly Kingdom Library

Posted on March 20, 2021 at 11:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Abstract

Aerobic exercise induces many adaptive changes in the whole body and improves metabolic characteristics. Klotho, an anti-aging gene, is mainly expressed in the brain and kidney. The roles of Klotho in the brain and kidney during aerobic exercise remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to determine whether aerobic exercise could influence the expression of Klotho, decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prolong life span. Sprague Dawley rats were exercised on a motor treadmill. Klotho mRNA and protein expression levels in rat brain and kidney tissues were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. ROS production was detected following intermittent aerobic exercise (IAE) or continuous aerobic exercise (CAE). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis demonstrated that aerobic exercise significantly improved rat survival (P<0.001). The ROS levels in rat brain and kidney tissues were decreased in the aerobic exercise groups compared with the control group (P<0.05). In addition, Klotho mRNA and protein expression levels were increased significantly following aerobic exercise compared with controls (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the IAE and CAE groups in any experiments (P>0.05). These results suggest that aerobic exercise-stimulated Klotho upregulation extends the life span by attenuating the excess production of ROS in the brain and kidney. As Klotho exhibits a potential anti-aging effect, promoting Klotho expression through aerobic exercise may be a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of aging and aging-related diseases.


Indexed for NIH by Dragonfly Kingdom Library


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143843/