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These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.

Posted on January 25, 2022 at 6:05 AM

 ISSN: 2641-3094


 Global Journal of Ecology
 

Open Access Peer-Reviewed


Soil abiotic and microbial legacies jointly contribute to growth of invasive Solidago canadensis



 

Summary
The invasion success of exotic plants strongly depends on soil properties of new ranges, however, little is known about the joint contribution of soil abiotic and biotic legacies to this success. To address the role of soil abiotic and microbial properties in plant invasions and associated mechanisms, we conducted two complementary experiments. In the first experiment, we grew invasive Solidago canadensis in regular soils from its different invasion stages and measured plant growth to address the joint contribution of soil abiotic and microbial properties. In a second experiment, we set up four sterilization × three sites treatments and measured plant growth to address the influence of different soil microbes on S. canadensis. The growth of S. canadensis was constrained by soil N and bacteria, and was positively correlated to its leaf area and root area, but not its leaf chlorophyll contents and root hydraulic conductivity. Bactericide had no effects on S. canadensis growth, and the decreased growth was greater in the presence of bactericide and fungicide together than in the presence of fungicide alone. The effects of microbial removal varied with microbial groups and sites. These results suggest that soil abiotic and biotic legacies may jointly contribute to plant invasions.

 
Introduction

The successful invasion of exotic plants can be ascribed to multiple possible mechanisms [1,2]. Of all the mechanisms, the properties of soils alone (e.g. nutrient availability and enemies) and plant-soil interactions (e.g. positive or negative feedback) have been increasingly recognized as key mechanisms determining invasion success [2-7]. In other words, the initial regimes of soil abiotic and biotic properties and their changes induced by invader-soil interactions play a crucial role in plant invasions (see below). Accordingly, increasing attention focusing on plant invasions has been paid to soil legacy effects [8-10].


The importance of soil abiotic properties (i.e. soil abiotic legacy) in plant invasions at least encompasses two mechanisms: resources and conditions. For example, soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) determine the growth of invasive plants because they usually grow rapidly and thus need large quantities of soil N and P [1,2,11], soil pH, as a condition, influences soil nutrient availability and soil microbial composition and structure [12,13]. The importance of soil microbes (i.e. soil microbial legacy) in plant invasions also at least covers two mechanisms: beneficial and detrimental effects. For example, the releases of soil-borne enemies or enhanced mutualisms benefit invasive plants whereas accumulated pathogens harm native plants [3,4,6,14,15]. However, it should be noted that invasive plants commonly interact with their surrounding soils [16,17]. This interaction can dramatically alter soil abiotic and biotic legacies, thereby influencing the performance of invasive plants (Gaggini et al. 2017)..........

Indexed for Global Journal of Ecology 

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